MMD crusher is mainly used for coarse crushing and second crushing operations. which can be used for crushing the open surface rock mining ore, coal, limestone, clay, iron ore, gold ore, copper ore, lead-zinc, nickel ore, talc, coke and other rock and mineral materials. In the world, there are over 600 MMD crushers at work. Now 16 large MMD crushers have been put into application in Chinese major coal mines of the mining industry.
The crusher had 500,625,750,1000,1300,1500 mm these 6 series. Each series is divided into short-box, the three types of standard containers and long box to accommodate the needs of the different production capacity. The largest processing capacity is up to 8000-14000t / h. MMD high efficient crusher can be made fixed, semi-mobile and mobile these three modes to adapt the different working environment need . The crusher is widely used in mining, metallurgy, building materials, road, railway, water conservancy and chemical industry and many other sectors. Common crushing machines are impact crusher, winnowing mill, roll crusher, compound crusher. Jaw crusher (jaw crusher), with the large crushing ratio, uniform particle size, simple structure, reliable operation, easy maintenance, operating costs and economic these characteristics. PF-I series impact crusher can process materials side length is100 to 500 mm, the compressive strength is up to 350 MPa, great crushing ratio, cubic particles advantages of material was broken; PF-II series impact crusher machine, which is suitable for crushing hard materials, such as cement limestone crusher, with advantages of large production capacity and small discharging size.
After years of unremitting efforts,MMD Series tooth crusher is the launched new generation of old MMD crusher . The MMD-IOOO type tooth crusher appearance, MMD tooth crusher structure. MMD crusher structural features are the following: (1) tooth toothed and feet are in line with the principle of the shear force design, special toothed teeth. (2) having a protruding low rack. The entire Crusher structure is very compact and simple. (3) the tooth, there are two types: sets of teeth-tooth and segmented arch plate tooth. Tooth using special wear-resistant steel, rough broken teeth or tooth sets 4-tooth, broken tooth or section 6 teeth nested bow plate teeth in the second paragraph. (4) the crusher, the material can be dumped in the entire upper part of the rack, the spout is not easy to produce blockage, discharge opening, almost the entire bottom of the machine in the discharge of the crushed product.
Zinc ore has several different kinds, such as sphalerite, smithsonite, zincite willemite, troostite, hemimorphite etc.so far; minerals containing zinc have been more than 30 that have been discovered in Nature. Sphalerite is the ore that has the most widely distributed, followed by smithsonite. In calcite, smithsonite is such ore with high hardness and high proportion. Sphalerite is the majority ore that contains zinc in nature, smithsonite is much less relatively. Sphalerite is the most widespread of zinc mineral, mainly for hydrothermal genesis, almost always symbiosis with galena. it is easy weathering into smithsonite in surface. All these kinds of zinc ore have large economic values.
Peru is rich in mining resources, which is one of the 12 big mining countries in the world. There are mainly copper, lead, zinc, tin, silver, iron, and oil, etc. bismuth, vanadium reserves are the highest in the world respectively; copper reserve accounts for a third in the world; silver and zinc are ranked fourth in the world. Proven oil reserves are 400 million barrels and natural gas has 7.1 trillion cubic feet. Forest coverage rate is 58%, an area of 77.1 million hectares, which is the second only to Brazil in South America. Water and Marine resources is extremely abundant and so is fishery resource, fish meal production is ranked among the top of the world.in 2009, Mithril production is the world's highest, copper production is the world's second and so is zinc output; tin production is the third in the world and the gold production is the world's sixth.
As for zinc ore can be applied into many fields, refined zinc is necessary for many relative fields. Due to the rich zinc mineral resources, zinc ore mining plant in Peru is very popular as well. In zinc ore mining plant, some mining equipment is necessary, such as jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher, grinding machines, beneficiation machines and so on. Allthis equipment is produced by shanghai SBM, a famous manufacturer and supplier of crushing and grinding machines in the world. All the products produced by shanghai SBM are high qualified and tested by relative authoritative department.
For all these machines have their own characteristics, such as jaw crusher is suitable for the more hard stones while cone crusher and impact crusher are more suitable for the less hard stones. When these machines are at work, there are some things needed to pay more attention.
For example, when Raymond mill is at work, there are several things needed to be noticed. For Raymond mill operating normally, clients should formulate "equipment maintenance security operating system" for the equipment in order to guarantee the Raymond mill long-term safe operation. At the same time the necessary maintenance tools and grease and the corresponding accessories are at demands. Raymond mill roller device using time is not more than 500 hours. After 500 hours, the roller should be replaced. The roller set inside of the rolling bearing must be cleaned and the damaged parts should be replaced in a timely manner. Refueling tools is available for manual pumps. In using process, Raymond mill should be responsible for the supervision by fixed worker. The operator must have a certain technical knowledge of this equipment. Operators must take the necessary technical training to understand the principle of Raymond mill performance, familiar with the operation procedures before installation of Raymond mill.
Also, there are some special things that should be paid more attention when these machines are at work. Clients can take advances from experts of these machines and make sure these machines can be used properly.
There are all kinds of crusher for pyrite crushing. Like jaw crusher, cone crusher and grinding mill. These crusher and classifier, magnetic separator, floatation separatorand some auxiliary equipment such as feeder, elevator and belt conveyor can be composed of a pyrite production line. In the primary crushing, you can use jaw crusher. Shanghai Shibangs production of PE series jaw crusher has many advantages. Like simple structure, easy maintenance, stable performance, and high crushing ratio. In the second crushing, you can use cone crusher.
CS cone crusher of Shanghai shibang also has many technology advantages. Like high yields, high grade final products, long-playingstable operation of machine, overload protective system and easy to control discharging size.Our jaw crusher and cone crusher also have widely application. Jaw crusher can be used in various materials processing of mining &construction industries, such as it is suit for crushing granite, marble, basalt, limestone, quartz, cobble, iron ore, copper ore, and some other mineral &rocks.CS series cone crusher is applied to cement mill, mining, building construction, road &bridge construction, railway construction and metallurgy and some other industries. Materials like iron ore, granite, limestone, quartzite, sandstone, cobblestone and some others are easily crushed by cone crusher. Ball mill for pyrite crushing
The ball mill also is key equipment in pyrite grinding.All aspectsCalculation shows thatthe discharging size of final production which use ball mill can get best effect. Shanghai Shibang production has many advantages which other ordain grinding mill doesnt have. It is suitable for grinding material with high hardness, the shape of the final products is circular,with no pollution for the powder and stable performance andeasy installation,also capacity and fineness can be adjusted by adjusting the diameter of the ball.
As a kind of mineral resource, pyrite plays an important role in many areas. There are two methods for pyrite mineral processing which are gravity separation and flotation separation. Gravity separation is often used for processing medium particle disseminated pyrite ore with good separation performances. The specific gravity of pyrite is higher, which can reach to 4.9-5.2. Floatation method is mainly for fine disseminated pyrite ore. The choice of pyrite ore crushing method is according to ores characteristic, beneficiation site etc.Most pyrite ores contain sulfur and iron combination with coarser disseminated particle size above 1mm. sorting out the sulfur and iron element, and selling them to sulfuric acid plant, you will get considerable profits.
Gravity separation that can process pyrite is the separation that is according to the proportion difference between the pyrite and gangue which is associated with pyrite. The specific gravity of pyrite is higher and the specific gravity of gangue is lower. Through crushing and grinding, intergrowth structure in pyrite will be destroyed.
The pyrite ores areput into jaw crusher for the primary crushing. Then, the ores will come into storage bin when they are crushed to a reasonable fineness. Through feeding machine transfer ores to ball mill equably. Then ball mill will crushing and grinding these ores. Mineral fines that ground by ball mill come into next procedure -grading. With the principle that solid particles with different gravity separation have different precipitation speeds in the liquid,the spiral classifier can be used for the cleaning and grading of mineral mixture. For susceptibilities of all kinds of minerals are different, when the cleaned and graded mineral mixture come through strong magnetic separator, magnetic materials in the mixture will be separated by magnetic force and mechanical force.
Iron ore mining sites, and the wastewater tailing generated from it, contain high level of dissolved iron and particulate suspended matter which alter the water chemistry and bioavailability of metals (Holopainen et al., 2003;
Iron ore is another important mineral from which metallic iron is extracted. The high demand for metal leads to continuous mining and processing, generating a large amount of solid and liquid waste. From the beginning of extraction to processing and at the final stages, it generates a hefty amount of tailing, which contains various toxic metals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cr, Ni, and Cd (Diami et al., 2016). It is estimated that almost 32% of iron ore extracted end up as tailing (Ghose and Sen, 1999). Iron ore mining sites, and the wastewater tailing generated from it, contain high level of dissolved iron and particulate suspended matter which alter the water chemistry and bioavailability of metals (Holopainen et al., 2003; Pereira et al., 2008)
Iron ore minerals, particularly hematite and goethite, are beneficiated by a combination of size fraction, preconcentration, and flotation in stages (Fig.13.45). Iron ore requires removal of silicate impurities of a finer size by flotation forhigher-grade products of+60% Fe. ROM ore at 400600mm is fed to a primary crusher with product set at40mm. The crushed product is screened in two stages. The overflow of the first screen (+40mm) is recrushed. The underflow of the first and overflow of the second screen, i.e., 40 and+10mm size, are directly sent for loading as blast furnace grade. The underflow (10mm) is passed through a classifier. Undersized particles of1mm are sent to a tailing pond. The overflow of10 and+1mm is grinded in a ball mill to produce 200m product size. The pulp is subjected to hydrocyclones for separation of slimes and removal of silica. Collectors such as amines, oleates, sulfonates, or sulfates are used for the flotation of silica. Magnetic or gravity separation is introduced at any suitable stage for preconcentration. The final iron ore fines are converted to pellets.
Bog iron ores are found associated with peat deposits in swampy conditions. Typically they contain hydrated ferric-oxide and manganese-oxide cements but, below the water table, they may be cemented by siderite. It has been suggested that microbial activity in tropical climates particularly promotes the direct precipitation of siderite.
A possible present-day analogue of ancient ooidal ironstones appears to be the verdine facies. In this facies, iron-rich aluminous green clay minerals replace bioclasts and pellets. Ferruginous peloids, in many cases altered faecal pellets, are known to be forming today in sediments deposited in front of equatorial deltas, such as those on the continental shelves off Senegal, Guinea, Nigeria, Gabon, Sarawak, and east Kalimantan. Present-day examples of ferruginous ooid accumulation are rare. In the interior of Africa, along the southernmost parts of Lake Malawi, amorphous ferric-oxide ooids have been found associated with geothermal springs, and, in the brackish open water of southern Lake Chad, goethitic brown ooids are being formed. In the shallow seas of northern Venezuela, berthierine-rich green-brown muddy ooidal sediments with peloids have been discovered.
Iron ore has been smelted in crude furnaces in the Indian subcontinent for at least the last 3000 years, but the history of its modern iron and steel industry is short. The arrival of a fully integrated steel mill on modern lines dates back only to the end of the nineteenth century when the Bengal Iron and Steel Company was set up at Kulti in present-day West Bengal. In 1907 the Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) was formed at Jamshedpur in present-day Jharkhand. In 1918 the Indian Iron & Steel Company (IISCO) was established by merging with the Bengal Iron and Steel Company resulting in production of 450,000t of salable steel per annum. In the same year, the first public sector steel unit under the name of Mysore Iron and Steel Limited (MISL) was founded at Bhadravati in present-day Karnataka. The total production of hot metal in the country was only 1.5Mt per annum on the eve of independence (19461947).
Development of the steel industry was intensified just after independence (1947) by increasing the output of steel to 3.77Mt per annum brought about by modernization and expansion of the three units already mentioned. Three new public sector integrated steel plants (ISPs) at Durgapur, Rourkela, and Bhilai commenced construction in 1954 under the aegis of Hindustan Steel Limited (now the Steel Authority of India Limited, SAIL). A decade later, an ISP at Bokaro was set up. The Alloy Steel Plant was founded at Durgapur in 1965. The management of IISCO was taken over by the government in 1972, and the Salem Steel Plant was founded in the same year. The Visakhapatnam or Vizag Steel Plant was commissioned in 1983 by Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. (RINL). In 1997, Kalyani Steel (an ISP) was established at Hospet and opted to follow the mini blast furnace (MBF) route. There is a program for massive expansion of the steel industry by setting up new steel plants and increasing the capacity of existing plants. There are a large number of mini steel plants in the country with medium or small-sized furnaces that use scrap as raw material. MBFs are going to play an important role in bringing the production plan for steel to fruition. Table2.1 gives chronological milestones showing how the steel industry has expanded.
Geochemical compositions of iron ore are imperative parameters for grade analysis of iron ore (Panda et al., 2019). The spectral character of iron ore and iron-bearing minerals is spectrally active across the near-infrared (NIR) and visible (VIS) domain (6501000nm), but for the most part, absorption occur around 850nm or 870nm spectral region (Hunt et al., 1971; Panda et al., 2019; Clark and Roush, 1984; Gupta, 2003, 2013). The spectral absorption characteristic of iron bearing and iron ore minerals observed between regions of 850nm and 950nm spectral regions (Magendran and Sanjeevi, 2014). On the other hand, vegetations are highly reflecting in the NIR spectral region (Karmanov, 1970; Kumar and Yarrakula, 2017).
Several spectral analysis methods have been developed based on the spectral character of absorption and reflection. Some important techniques and methods are continuum removal, position of peak and trough, distance and strength of absorption, full width half maximum (FWHM), distance from the reference line, slope, radius of curvature, area under curve, area above curve etc. (San and Suzen, 2010; Magendran and Sanjeevi, 2014). Present study attempts the iron grades distribution and mapping using the standardized hyperspectral analysis techniques and data with reference to USGS spectral library
The hyperion image is a push-broom system and huge volume of spectral data (242 contiguous bands) affected by atmospheric attenuations like aerosols and water vapor. Atmospheric artifacts critically distress the signal-to-noise ratio of the image (San and Suzen, 2007). Therefore, pre-processing of hyperion image is essential to remove the geometric and radiometric errors (Hueni and Tuohy, 2006). After visually examined, only 155 hyperion spectral bands (Path-140, Row-45 and acquisition date April 16th, 2011) out of 242 were selected after bad bands removal for this study.
The atmospheric correction has been done by using the FLAASH atmospheric correction module and metadata information collected from image metadata information like image acquisition time and date, scan center etc. Details about the used FLAASH parameters are listed in Table 14.7.
The outcome of the atmospheric correction and calibration are revealed by spectral signature curves. The spectral signatures of certain reference points plot of iron ore deposits, green vegetations and barren land, extracted from atmospherically corrected and uncalibrated data (Fig. 14.29).
The average smoothing technique is applied on image extracted spectra to get good quality of the spectra. The corrected and selected iron ore image spectral characters (absorption and peak) area compared to USGS library spectra of goethite, hematite, limonite and siderite. The absorption and peak character of these spectra are enhanced with the help of continuum removed technique. The maximum absorption takes palace in between 850nm and 880nm (Panda et al., 2018). The spectral behaviors are characterized by curves gently peak upward from 500nm and maximum peak takes palace around 700nm to 750nm (Fig. 14.30).
The result of the corrected iron ore image spectral of reference pixels location of Noamundi mine area are used for continuum removed analysis. The average peak and absorption are 752.43nm and 894.88nm, respectively enhanced by continuum removal technique thats nearly similar to the USGS spectral character (Fig. 14.31).
The absorption and peak characters of a feature depend on the chemical combination of those elements. If the percentage of the secondary components of an element is different, then the position absorbed and the peak reflectance of that element is always changed. As the percentage of iron content decreases, the positions of the NIR adsorption troughs are shifted to longer wavelengths (Fig. 14.32).
Surface scattering and viewing geometry are influence on band depths (Hapke et al., 1993). The major three properties of a spectrum can be defined as (a) right continuum shoulder, (b) left continuum shoulder and (c) position of absorption (Sykioti et al., 2011). Absorption band depths have a mathematical relation with continuum (Clark and Roush, 1984) which is as follows:
The slope between two successive points is an important parameter of the spectral curve (Panda et al., 2019). The slope between peak and absorption trough is used to analysis of iron ore spectral curves. The slope angles are measured in between the peak and absorption trough. The changes of angular slope are more sensible to the changes in the iron grade. The higher spectral slope indicates high grade of iron (Table 14.8). The concentrations of the iron content are increased with decrease of absorption values. Low absorption values are indicative of high iron concentration. The stronger relation has been observed between the spectral slope and corresponding Fe percentages (R2: 0.73) (Fig. 14.35). The empirical slope model (70.32x2+168.6x34.06) is used to mapped (Fig. 14.33) the distribution of iron Fe contents. The dark red, yellow and green indicates the high, medium low grades grade iron ore, respectively. As a result, the changes in the angular slope values are more sensible with the change of geochemical properties.
Nyquist theorem described that the maximum information is obtained by sampling at one-half of the Full width half maximum (FWHM) (Clark, 1999). From the Fig. 14.34 the maximum peak can be seen at Ya2 with a half maximum of Ya1. The spectral width of wavelength can be evident by Xa2Xa1. FWHM of all the spectral curves are calculated at absorption. The relationship between FWHM and Fe % is significant (R2: 0.853) and slight changes in spectra refer to the fine variation in the mineral chemistry (Fig. 14.35). These spectral characters are very useful to select the peak and absorption bands of iron content.
Due to the averaging position of the bands corresponding to the chemical components of the iron ore, the absorption bands and the peak bands are individually selected and averaged. Finally the Luceys model is used to extract the grade wise distribution of iron. These endmember values are the key to Iron ore mapping model (Lucey et al., 2000). As a ratio, this endmember provides for calculation of the Fe sensitive parameter, the angle Fe. The model algorithm of FeO angle formula, Fe (Eq. 14.10):
By using the equation (Eq. 14.11), the final Fe distribution map of the study area were extracted from the Fe image (Fig. 14.37). The actual Fe contents and predicted Fe contents in iron ore are matched well (Fig. 14.38).
Mineral deposits like iron ore, bauxite, chromite, copper, limestone, and magnesite are exposed to the surface and are easy to explore/mine. Significant deposits of Rampura-Agucha zinc-lead-silver, India, Red Dog zinc-lead, Alaska, OK Tedi copper-gold, Papua New Guinea, and Olympic Dam copper-gold-uranium-silver, Australia, have been discovered and exploited based on surface exposure. There are ample possibilities of finding new deposits under glacial or forest cover. Prospecting efforts should look for fresh rock exposure and newly derived boulders. Examples are Adi Nefas ZnCuAuAg deposit, Madagascar, El Abra Cu deposit, Chile, and chromite deposits in Orissa, Tamil Nadu, India (Fig.2.1).
Figure2.1. Massive chromite orebody exposed to surface near Karungalpatti village at Sitampundi belt, Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India, (Finn Barrett, Goldstream Mining NL, Australia, during reconnaissance.)
The direct reduction of iron-ore fines without an intermediate agglomeration stage has been an interesting challenge for process developers in the past. The constraining factor has been the so-called sticking tendency of reduced or metallized fines, which is particularly prevalent and difficult to control in the case of gas-based direct reduction. With most of the available iron ores, this phenomenon tends to appear already at a fairly low temperature threshold of650C. For Outotec's gas-based Circored DR process, which has been industrially proven at a 500,000t/y HBI (hot briquetted iron) plant in Trinidad, hydrogen was selected as a single reducing agent. The main reasons for this choice were its superior low-temperature (600C) reduction reaction characteristics, the low conduciveness of the reduced material to sticking and avoid the low-temperature, high-pressure methanation tendency if CO were present. The principle of the Circored preheater is applied for preheating and partial reduction of the iron ore fines for the HIsmelt smelt-reduction plant at Kwinana, Western Australia, for a capacity of 800,000t/y of hot metal.
The Circofer process uses fundamentally the same two-stage CFB/FB configuration for the core plant for obtaining highly metallized product as in the case of Circored. The precursor of the coal-based Circofer process of Outotec was the prereduction CFB reactor for the EIred smelting reduction pilot plant in Sweden, which operated for 3years in the late 1970s. A heater for coal charring and circulatory material heating has been integrated into the CFB circuit, for which oxygen is injected into the heater. The process operates at 4atm at a temperature of approximately 900C.
Current practice of washing iron ore before it is processed for extractive metallurgical operation results in three products, coarse ore lumps with sizes in the range 10-80 mm, which are directly charged to a blast furnace, the classifier fines of size 150 m to 10 mm, which, with or without beneficiation are fed to sinter plants, and the tailings, below 150 m in size, which are discarded as waste. In India, where iron ore processing is one of the major industries, the generation of tailings is estimated to be 10-25 % of the total iron ore mined, amounting to 18 million tons per year (Das et al., 2000). The tailings contain silica in high percentage (40-60 %, from various locations). This makes it a suitable raw material for the development of ceramic tile compositions.
In the process developed by Das and coworkers (2000), the tailings are mixed with clay and a fluxing material (40-50 % tailing, 30-50 5 clay and 10-15 % fluxing material). The raw materials are wet milled for 10 h to obtain the desired fineness. The slurry obtained is screened, dried at 110 C, powdered to break the agglomerate and granulated to small nodules for better compaction. The shaped particles are fired at 1060-1200 C in air with a rate of heating 10 C/min. Glazed tiles are produced from the material of this composition. The inventors claim that the tiles based on tailings are superior with respect to scratch hardness and strength while maintaining most of the other properties to meet standard specifications.
The use of iron ore tailings substitutes some of the expensive minerals used in commercial tile, thus lowering the cost. Further, as the tailinp are already in powdered form and require no further grinding, which leads to energy cost saving.
The feedstock is primarily iron ore, but could include pellets, sinter, mill scale, and cast iron or steel scrap. The material is charged into the top of the blast furnace together with limestone and coke. The passage of the hot blast air through the charge leads to the production of carbon monoxide, which reduces the ore to produce carbon dioxide and metallic iron. The heat generated by the coke supplies the heat necessary for the reaction to proceed and also the heat necessary to melt the iron as it is formed. Most of the impurities concentrate in the molten slag. The molten iron is tapped into large refractory lined iron ladles, which convey it to the basic oxygen furnaces to produce steel. Some iron is cast as pig-iron and used as feedstock for foundries.