ball milled copper powder

1. Cai, S.; Chen, B.; Qiu, X.; Li, J.; Tratnyek, P. G.; He, F*, Sulfidation of Zero-Valent Iron by Direct Reaction with Elemental Sulfur in Water: Efficiencies, Mechanism, and Dechlorination of Trichloroethylene. Environmental science & technology 2021, 55, (1), 645-654.

2.Wan, S.; Yu, C.; Li, Y.; Lu, Z.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; He, F.*, Highly selective and ultrafast removal of cadmium and copper from water by magnetic core-shell microsphere. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 405, 126576.

3.Gong, L.; Qi, J.; Lv, N.; Qiu, X.; Gu, Y.; Zhao, J.; He, F.* Mechanistic Role of Nitrate Anion in TCE Dechlorination by Ball Milled ZVI and Sulfidated ZVI: Experimental Investigation and Theoretical Analysis. J. Hazard. Mater. 2021, 403, 123844.

4. Zou, H.; Zhao, J.; He, F.*; Zhong, Z.; Huang, J.; Zheng, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yu, F.; Bashir, M. A.; Gao, B., Ball milling biochar iron oxide composites for the removal of chromium (Cr(VI)) from water: Performance and mechanisms. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 413, 125252.

5. Gong, L.; Qiu, X.; Tratnyek, P. G.; Liu, C.; He, F.*, FeNX(C)-Coated Microscale Zero-Valent Iron for Fast and Stable Trichloroethylene Dechlorination in both Acidic and Basic pH Conditions. Environmental Science & Technology 2021, 55, (8), 5393-5402.

6.Zheng, W.; Wang, Y.; Shuai, L.; Wang, X.; He, F.*; Lei, C.; Li, Z.; Yang, B.; Lei, L.; Yuan, C.; Qiu, M.*; Hou, Y.*; Feng, X., Highly Boosted Reaction Kinetics in Carbon Dioxide Electroreduction by Surface-Introduced Electronegative Dopants. Advanced Functional Materials 2021, 31, (15), 2008146.

1.Wan, S.; Qiu, L.; Li, Y.; Sun, J.; Gao, B.; He, F.*; Wan, W., Accelerated antimony and copper removal by manganese oxide embedded in biochar with enlarged pore structure. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 402, 126021.

2. Wang, B.B.; Luo, Q.; Li, H.; Yao, Q.; Zhang, L.; Zou, J.T.; He, F.*, Characterization of aerobic granules formed in an aspartic acid fed sequencing batch reactor under unfavorable hydrodynamic selection conditions. Chemosphere 2020, 260, 127600-127600.

3.Sun, J.; Zheng, W.; Lyu, S.; He, F.*; Yang, B.; Li, Z.; Lei, L.; Hou, Y., Bi/Bi2O3 nanoparticles supported on N-doped reduced graphene oxide for highly efficient CO2 electroreduction to formate. Chinese Chemical Letters 2020, 31, (6), 1415-1421.

4.Gong, L.; Lv, N.; Qi, J.; Qiu, X.; Gu, Y.; He, F.*, Effects of non-reducible dissolved solutes on reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene by ball milled zero valent irons. Journal of hazardous materials 2020, 396, 122620-122620.

5.Gong, L.; Shi, S.; Lv, N.; Xu, W.; Ye, Z.; Gao, B.; O'Carroll, D. M.; He, F.*, Sulfidation enhances stability and mobility of carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron in saturated porous media. Science of the total environment 2020, 718, 137427-137427.

6.He, F.*; Gong, L.; Fan, D.; Tratnyek, P. G.*; Lowry, G. V., Quantifying the efficiency and selectivity of organohalide dechlorination by zerovalent iron (invited review). Environmental science. Processes & impacts 2020.

7.Wan, S.; Qiu, L.; Tang, G.; Chen, W.; Li, Y.; Gao, B.; He, F.*, Ultrafast sequestration of cadmium and lead from water by manganese oxide supported on a macro-mesoporous biochar. Chem. Eng. J. 2020, 124095.

8.Xu, W.; Li, Z.; Shi, S.; Qi, J.; Cai, S.; Yu, Y.; OCarroll, D. M.; He, F.*, Carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized and sulfidated nanoscale zero-valent iron: Characterization and trichloroethene dechlorination. Appl. Catal. B-Environ. 2020, 262, 118303.

9.Zheng, W.; Chen, F.; Zeng, Q.; Li, Z.; Yang, B.; Lei, L.; Zhang, Q.; He, F.; Wu, X.*; Hou, Y.*, A Universal Principle to Accurately Synthesize Atomically Dispersed Metal-N-4 Sites for CO2 Electroreduction. Nano-Micro Letters 2020, 12, (1).

10.Xiang, W.; Zhang, X.*; Chen, K.; Fang, J.; He, F.; Hu, X.; Tsang, D. C. W.; Ok, Y. S.; Gao, B.*, Enhanced adsorption performance and governing mechanisms of ball-milled biochar for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 385.

11. Zhang, X.; Xiang, W.; Wang, B.; Fang, J.; Zou, W.; He, F.; Li, Y.; Tsang, D. C. W.; Ok, Y. S.; Gao, B.*, Adsorption of acetone and cyclohexane onto CO2 activated hydrochars. Chemosphere 2020, 245, 125664-125664.

13.Li, F.; Chen, J. J.; Hu, X.; He, F.; Bean, E.; Tsang, D. C. W.; Ok, Y. S.; Gao, B.*, Applications of carbonaceous adsorbents in the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production 2020, 255, 13.

15.Li, Y.; Zimmerman, A. R.; He, F.; Chen, J.; Han, L.*; Chen, H.; Hu, X.; Gao, B.*, Solvent-free synthesis of magnetic biochar and activated carbon through ball-mill extrusion with Fe3O4 nanoparticles for enhancing adsorption of methylene blue. Science of the total environment 2020, 722, 137972-137972.

16.Zheng, W.; Yang, J.; Chen, H.; Hou, Y.*; Wang, Q.; Gu, M.; He, F.; Xia, Y.; Xia, Z.; Li, Z.; Yang, B.; Lei, L.; Yuan, C.; He, Q.*; Qiu, M.*; Feng, X., Atomically Defined Undercoordinated Active Sites for Highly Efficient CO2 Electroreduction. Advanced Functional Materials 2020, 30, (4).

2. Gu, Y.; Gong, L.; Qi, J.; Cai, S.; Tu, W.; He, F.*, Sulfidation mitigates the passivation of zero valent iron at alkaline pHs: Experimental evidences and mechanism.Water research2019, 159, 233-241.

3. Wang, B.B.; Shi, X.; Liu, X.T.; Zou, J.T.; Li, H.J.; Peng, D.C.; He, F.*, Insight into the fenton-induced degradation process of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from activated sludge.Chemosphere2019, 234, 318-327.

4.Zheng, W.; Guo, C.; Yang, J.; He, F.*; Yang, B.; Li, Z.; Lei, L.; Xiao, J.*; Wu, G.*; Hou, Y.*, Highly active metallic nickel sites confined in N-doped carbon nanotubes toward significantly enhanced activity of CO2 electroreduction. Carbon 2019, 150, 52-59.

6.Wan, S.; Lin, J.; Tao, W.; Yang, Y.; Li, Y.; He, F.*, Enhanced Fluoride Removal from Water by Nanoporous Biochar-Supported Magnesium Oxide. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2019, 58, (23), 9988-9996.

7. Hu, E.; Zhao, X.; Pan, S.; Ye, Z.; He, F.*, Sorption of nonionic aromatic organics to mineral micropores: Interactive effect of cation hydration and mineral charge density.Environmental science & technology2019.

8. Zheng, Y. L.; Wang, B.; Wester, A. E.; Chen, J. J.; He, F.; Chen, H.; Gao, B.*, Reclaiming phosphorus from secondary treated municipal wastewater with engineered biochar.Chemical Engineering Journal2019, 362, 460-468.

9. Zou, H.; Hu, E.; Yang, S.; Gong, L.; He, F.*, Chromium(VI) removal by mechanochemically sulfidated zero valent iron and its effect on dechlorination of trichloroethene as a co-contaminant.Science of the total environment,2019, 650, 419-426.

10.Wu, P.; Huang, J.; Zheng, Y.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; He, F.; Chen, H.; Quan, G.; Yan, J.; Li, T.; Gao, B.*, Environmental occurrences, fate, and impacts of microplastics. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2019, 184.

11.Zheng, W.; Yang, J.; Chen, H.; Hou, Y.*; Wang, Q.; Gu, M.; He, F.; Xia, Y.; Xia, Z.; Li, Z.; Yang, B.; Lei, L.; Yuan, C.; He, Q.*; Qiu, M.*; Feng, X.*, Atomically Defined Undercoordinated Active Sites for Highly Efficient CO2 Electroreduction. Advanced Functional Materials 2019.

13.Yang, X.; Wan, Y.; Zheng, Y.; He, F.; Yu, Z.; Huang, J.; Wang, H.; Ok, Y. S.; Jiang, Y.; Gao, B.*, Surface functional groups of carbon-based adsorbents and their roles in the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions: A critical review. Chem. Eng. J. 2019, 366, 608-621.

14.Zhang, H.; Luo, X.; Shi, K.; Wu, T.; He, F.; Yang, H.; Zhang, S.; Peng, C.*, Nanocarbon-based catalysts for esterification: Effect of carbon dimensionality and synergistic effect of the surface functional groups. Carbon 2019, 147, 134-145.

1.Wan, S.; Ding, W.; Wang, Y.; Wu, J.; Gu, Y.; He, F.*, Manganese oxide nanoparticles impregnated graphene oxide aggregates for cadmium and copper remediation.Chemical Engineering Journal, 2018, 350, 1135-1143.

2.Pan, B.*; Chen, D.; Zhang, H.; Wu, J.; He, F.; Wang, J.; Chen, J., Stability of hydrous ferric oxide nanoparticles encapsulated inside porous matrices: Effect of solution and matrix phase.Chemical Engineering Journal, 2018, 347, 870-876.

3.He, F.*; Li, Z.; Shi, S.; Xu, W.; Sheng, H.; Gu, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Xi, B., Dechlorination of Excess Trichloroethene by Bimetallic and Sulfidated Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron.Environmental science & technology, 2018, 52, (15), 8627-8637.

4.Lyu, H.; Gao, B.*; He, F.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Ding, C.; Tang, J.*; Crittenden, J. C., Experimental and modeling investigations of ball-milled biochar for the removal of aqueous methylene blue.Chemical Engineering Journal, 2018, 335, 110-119.

5.Wan, S.; Wu, J.; Zhou, S.; Wang, R.; Gao, B.; He, F.*, Enhanced lead and cadmium removal using biochar-supported hydrated manganese oxide (HMO) nanoparticles: Behavior and mechanism.Science of the Total Environment, 2018, 616, 1298-1306.

6.Liu,X., Cao, Z., Yuan, Z.,Zhang, J.,Guo, X., Yang,Y., He,F.*, Zhao,Y., Xu, J.*. Insight into the kinetics and mechanism of removal of aqueous chlorinatednitroaromatic antibiotic chloramphenicol by nanoscale zero-valent iron.Chem. Eng. J, 2018508-518.

7.Lyu, H.; Gao, B.*; He, F.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Ding, C.; Huang, H.; Tang, J.*, Effects of ball milling on the physicochemical and sorptive properties of biochar: Experimental observations and governing mechanisms.Environmental pollution, 2018, 233, 54-63.

8.Wang, B., Liu X., Chen,J., Peng ,D., He,F.*.Composition and functional group characterization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge: The impacts of polymerization degree of proteinaceous substrates.Water Res, 2018,129,133-142.

1.Gu,Y., Wang,B.,He,F*., Miranda,J.B., Paul,G.T.Mechanochemically Sulfidated Microscale Zero Valent Iron: Pathways, Kinetics, Mechanism, and Efficiency of Trichloroethylene Dechlorination.Environ. Sci. Technol, 2017,51(21).

3.Zhang, H.*, Luo, X., Shi, K., Wu, T.,He,F.*, Zhou, S., Chen, G.Z., Peng, C. Highly efficient sulfonic/carboxylic dual-acid synergistic catalysis for esterification enabled by sulfur-rich graphene oxide.ChemSusChem, 2017, 10, 1-7. (IF: 7.22)

7. Zhang, M.,He,F.*, Zhao, D.*, Hao, X.Transport of stabilized iron nanoparticles in porous media: Effects of surface and solution chemistry and role of adsorption.J. Hazard. Mater., 2017, 322, 284-291.

8.Lyu, H.; Gao, B.*; He, F.; Andrew R.Z.; Ding, C.; Tang, J.*; Crittenden, J. C. Experimental and modeling investigations of ball-milled biochar for the removal of aqueous methylene blue. Chem. Eng. J. 2017, 335, 110.

9.Lyu, H.; Gao, B.*; He, F.; Andrew R.Z.; Ding, C.; Huang, H.; Tang, J.* Effects of ball milling on the physicochemical and sorptive properties of biochar: Experimental observations and governing mechanisms. Environ. Pollut.2017,233, 54-63.

10. Wang, S., Gao, B.*, Li, Y., Creamer, A. E.,He,F. Adsorptive removal of arsenate from aqueous solutions by biochar supported zero-valent iron nanocomposite: Batch and continuous flow tests.J. Hazard. Mater., 2017, 322, 172-181.

11.Wang, B., Gu, Y., Chen, J., Yao, Q., Li, H., Peng, D.,He,F.*. Is polymeric substrate in influent an indirect impetus for the nitrification process in an activated sludge system?Chemosphere, 2017, 177, 128.

1. Bai, J., Sun, H., Yin, X., Yin, X., Wang, S., Creamer, A. E., Xu, L., Qin, Z.,He, F., Gao, B. Oxygen-content-controllable graphene oxide from electron-beam-irradiated graphite: Synthesis, characterization, and removal of aqueous lead [Pb(II)].ACS Appl. Mater. Interf., 2016, 8(38), 25289-25296.

2. Wan, S.,He, F.*, Wu, J., Wan, W, Gu, Y., Gao, B. Rapid and highly selective removal of lead from water using graphene oxide-hydrated manganese oxide nanocomposites.J. Hazard. Mater., 2016, 314, 32-40.

4. Zhang, H., Gao, J., Zhao, Z., Chen, G. Z., Wu, T.,He, F.* . Esterification of fatty acids from waste cooking oil to biodiesel over a sulfonated resin/PVA composite.Catal. Sci. Technol., 2016, 6, 5590.

1. Miller, C. L., Watson, D. B., Leaster, B. P., Howe, J. Y., Phillips, D. H.,He, F., Liang, L., Pierce, E. M.Formation of Soluble Mercury Oxide Coatings: Transformation of Elemental Mercury in Soils.Environ. Sci. Technol., 2015, 49(20), 12105-12111.

4. Zhang, M.,He, F.*, Zhao, D.*.Catalytic activity of noble metal nanoparticles toward hydrodechlorination: influence of catalyst electronic structure and nature of adsorption.Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2015, 9(5), 888-896.

5. Wan, S., Qu, N.,He, F.*, Wang, M., Liu, G., He, H. Tea waste-supported hydrated manganese dioxide (HMO) for enhanced removal of typical toxic metal ions from water.Rsc Adv., 2015, 5(108), 88900-88907.

2. Zhan, H., Sun, Y.,He, F., Yu, X., Zhao, Z. Preparation and characterization of activated aluminum powder by magnetic grinding method for hydrogen generation.Int. J. Energ. Res., 2014, 38, 1016-1023.

2.He, F.*, Wang, W., Moon, J.W., Howe, J.Y., Pierce, E.M., Liang, L. Rapid removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions using thiol functionalized Zn-doped biomagnetite particles.ACS Appl. Mater. Interf., 2012, 4, 4373-4379.

4. Zhang, M.,He, F., Zhao, D., Hao, X. Degradation of soil-sorbed trichloroethylene by stabilized zero valent iron nanoparticles: Effects of sorption, surfactants, and natural organic matter.Water Res., 2011, 45(7), 2401-2414.

5.He, F., Zhao, D., Paul, C. Field assessment of carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized iron nanoparticles for in situ destruction of chlorinated solvents in source zones.Water Res., 2010, 44(7), 2360-2370.

8.He, F., Liu, J., Zhao, D., Roberts, C. B. One-step "green" synthesis of Pd nanoparticles of controlled size and their catalytic activity for trichloroethene hydrodechlorination.Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2009, 48(14), 6550-6557.

9. Liu, J.,He, F., Gunn, T. M., Zhao, D., Roberts, C. B. Precise seed-mediated growth and size-controlled synthesis of palladium nanoparticles using a green chemistry approach.Langmuir, 2009, 25(12), 7116-7128.

10.He, F., Zhang, M., Qian, T., Zhao, D. Transport of carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized iron nanoparticles in porous media: Column experiments and modeling.J. Colloid Interf. Sci., 2009, 334 (1), 96-102.

11.He, F., Zhao, D. Hydrodechlorination of trichloroethene using stabilized Fe-Pd nanoparticles: Reaction mechanism and effects of stabilizers, catalyst and reaction conditions.Appl. Catal. B: Environ., 2008, 84 (3-4), 533-540.

12. Liu, J.,He, F., Durham E., Zhao, D., Roberts, C. B. Polysugar-stabilized Pd nanoparticles exhibiting high catalytic activities for hydrodechlorination of environmental deleterious trichloroethylene.Langmuir, 2008, 24 (1), 328-336.

13.He, F., Zhao, D. Response to comment on Manipulating the size and dispersibility of zerovalent iron nanoparticles by use of carboxymethyl cellulose stabilizers.Environ. Sci. Technol., 2008, 42(9), 3480.

15.He, F., Zhao, D., Liu, J., Roberts, C. B. Stabilization of Fe-Pd nanoparticles with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose for enhanced transport and dechlorination of trichloroethylene in soil and groundwater.Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2007, 46(1), 29-34.

16.He, F., Zhao, D. Preparation and characterization of a new class of starch-stabilized bimetallic nanoparticles for degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water.Environ. Sci. Technol., 2005, 39(9), 3314-3320.

deformation structures in ball milled copper - sciencedirect

deformation structures in ball milled copper - sciencedirect

The deformation structures of copper powder induced by ball milling were studied in detail by using high resolution electron microscopy. It was found that copper powder after 20 h of milling shows the formation of shear bands and a number of mechanical twins. The observed twins belong to two types, i.e. multiple twins and high-order ones. It is suggested that Venables' model on mechanical twins in face-center-cubic metals is reasonable in this case. The generation of mechanical twins could be explained as follows: the shear stress (Pmax) induced by ball milling exceeds the critical shear stress for twinning (); the grain size decreases to a critical value below which twinning rather than slip is the preferred mode of deformation as well as the high strain rates induced by ball milling. The formation of subgrains was found to occur via two routes: they were formed both in the shear bands and at the tip of them or at the tip of the twin boundaries, or at the edge of the larger grains. The subgrains formed via the two ways are in nanometer scale (10100 nm), and their orientations are completely random. The as-received nanograins contained high density of dislocations. The grain boundaries (GBs) of nanocrystalline (NC) Cu are usually ordered, curved and strained, and disordering, lattice distortion and nanovoids in local regions were observed too.

microstructure and morphological study of ball-milled metal matrix nanocomposites | springerlink

microstructure and morphological study of ball-milled metal matrix nanocomposites | springerlink

Due to the difficulty of preparation and beneficial properties achievable, copper and iron matrix nanocomposites are materials for which fabrication via the powder metallurgy route is attracting increasing research interest. The presence of ceramic nanoparticles in their matrix can lead to considerable changes in the microstructure and morphology. The effects of the type of metallic matrix and ceramic nanoparticle on the distribution of nano reinforcements and the morphology of ball-milled composite powders were evaluated in this study. For this purpose, 25 wt % of Al2O3 and SiC nanoparticles were separately ball-milled in the presence of iron and copper metals. The SEM, FESEM, and XRD results indicated that as-received nanoparticles, which were agglomerated before milling, were partially separated and embedded in the matrix of both the metals after the initial stages of ball milling, while prolonged milling was not found to further affect the distribution of nanoparticles. It was also observed that the Al2O3 phase was not thermodynamically stable during ball milling with copper powders. Finally, it was found that the presence of nanoparticles considerably reduce the average size of metallic powder particles.

N. Valibeygloo, R. A. Khosroshahi, and R. T. Mousavian, Microstructural and mechanical properties of Al4.5 wt % Cu reinforced with alumina nanoparticles by stir casting method, Int. J. Miner., Metall., Mater., 20, 978985 (2013).

A. F. Boostani, S. Tahamtan, Z. Y. Jiang, D. Wei, S. Yazdani, R. A. Khosroshahi, R. T. Mousavian, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gong, Enhanced tensile properties of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with graphene encapsulated SiC nanoparticles, Composites Part A: Appl. Sci. Manufact., 68, 155163 (2015).

A. F. Boostani, S. Yazdani, R. T. Mousavian, S. Tahamtan, R. A. Khosroshahi, and D. Wei, Strengthening mechanisms of graphene sheets in aluminum matrix nanocomposites, Mater. Design 88, 983989 (2015).

R. T. Mousavian, R. A. Khosroshahi, S. Yazdani, D. Brabazon, and A. F. Boostani, Fabrication of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with nano- to micrometer-sized SiC particles, Mater. Design 89, 5870 (2016).

F. Toptan, A. Kilicarslan, A. Karaaslan, M. Cigdem, and I. Kerti, Processing and microstructural characterisation of AA 1070 and AA 6063 matrix B4Cp reinforced composites, Mater. Design 31, S87S91 (2010).

K. A. Nekouee, R. Khosroshahi, R. T. Mousavian, and N. Ehsani, Sintering behavior and microwave dielectric properties of SiO2MgOAl2O3TiO2 ceramics, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron., 27, 35703575 (2016).

A. Mosleh, M. Ehteshamzadeh, and R. T. Mousavian, Fabrication of an r-Al2Ti intermetallic matrix composite reinforced with a-Al2O3 ceramic by discontinuous mechanical milling for thermite reaction, Int. J. Miner., Metall., Mater. 21, 10371043 (2014).

R. T. Mousavian, S. Sharafi, and M. Shariat, Preparation of nano-structural Al2O3TiB2 in-situ composite using mechanically activated combustion synthesis followed byintensive milling, Iran. J. Mater. Sci. Eng. 8, 19 (2011).

R. T. Mousavian, S. Sharafi, M. Roshan, and M. Shariat, Effect of mechanical activation of reagents mixture on the high-temperature synthesis of Al2O3TiB2 composite powder, J. Therm. Anal. Calor. 104, 10631070 (2011).

S. Romankov, S. Komarov, E. Vdovichenko, Y. Hayasaka, N. Hayashi, S. Kaloshkin, and E. Kasai, Fabrication of TiN coatings using mechanical milling techniques, Int. J. Refract. Metals Hard Mater. 27, 492497 (2009).

M. Zawrah, H. A. Zayed, R. A. Essawy, A. H. Nassar, and M. A. Taha, Preparation by mechanical alloying, characterization and sintering of Cu20 wt % Al2O3 nanocomposites, Mater. Design 46, 485490 (2013).

A. F. Boostani, Z. Y. Jiang, R. T. Mousavian, S. Tahamtan, S. Yazdani, R. A. Khosroshahi, J. Z. Xu, D. Gong, X. M. Zhang, and D. Wei, Graphene sheets encapsulating SiC nanoparticles: A roadmap towards enhancing tensile ductility of metal matrix composites, Mater. Sci. Eng., A 648, 92103 (2015).

A. F. Boostani, R. T. Mousavian, S. Tahamtan, S. Yazdani, R. A. Khosroshahi, D. Wei, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and Z.Y. Jiang, Solvothermal-assisted graphene encapsulation of SiC nanoparticles: A new horizon toward toughening aluminum matrix nanocomposites, Mater. Sci. Eng., A 653, 99107 (2016).

F. Zhou, X. Liao, Y. Zhu, S. Dallek, and E. Lavernia, Microstructural evolution during recovery and recrystallization of a nanocrystalline AlMg alloy prepared by cryogenic ball milling, Acta Mater. 51, 27772791 (2003).

Afkham, Y., Khosroshahi, R.A., Kheirifard, R. et al. Microstructure and morphological study of ball-milled metal matrix nanocomposites. Phys. Metals Metallogr. 118, 749758 (2017).

pin-on-disc study of brake friction materials with ball-milled nanostructured components - sciencedirect

pin-on-disc study of brake friction materials with ball-milled nanostructured components - sciencedirect

The role of the copper has been studied with the aim of reducing its concentration in brake friction materials.The design of the friction material was changed introducing two ingredients, nanostructured after ball-milling.Ball milling induced the formation of Cu-ZrO2 clusters that influence the tribological behavior of the new materials.Even in the absence of copper particles, a good friction layer is formed thanks to the wearing of copper fibers.

Copper is an ingredient of the automotive disc brake pads with important functional role. On the other hand, copper is regarded as one of the most hazardous component of the particulate matter released by the brake linings. Legislation in several countries is progressively reducing the tolerated amount of copper in friction materials. In this work, a possible approach to the reduction of copper in brake friction materials is presented. Starting from a commercial, state-of-the art, non-asbestos organic friction material, different formulations have been prepared, changing the microstructure of some of the ingredients, namely copper and zirconia using high energy ball-milling. The wear behavior of the newly developed materials has been tested and validated using pin-on-disc wear tests. One interesting aspect observed is that the wearing out of copper fibres produces fine copper particles entering the friction layer, thus contributing to its compaction. This observation implies that copper powder is not strictly required as a component in the starting friction material to achieve anyway a satisfactory tribological behavior associated with a stable friction layer. Furthermore, the addition of milled components provided interesting indications to be explored further in view of the replacement of copper in brake friction materials.

microstructure development and high tensile properties of he/h2 milled oxide dispersion strengthened copper - sciencedirect

microstructure development and high tensile properties of he/h2 milled oxide dispersion strengthened copper - sciencedirect

Large centimeter sized spherical morphology was obtained in He/H2 milled ODS copper.A (110) texture in micron sized grains was developed on the surface of spheres.Complex microstructural features induced a very high UTS-ductility.

This study describes the effect of microstructural development on high tensile properties of a newly developed He/H2 milled oxide dispersion strengthened copper in a large centimeter sized spherical morphology. Electron back scattered diffraction showed development of a strong texture of (110) plane in micron sized (1.2m) grains on the surface of milled spheres. A combination of microstructural features of inhomogeneous grain size, nanoscale lenticular/rectangular deformation twins, high dislocation density and fine oxide particles distribution induced a very high ultimate tensile strength (688MPa)-ductility (8.6% elongation).

enhanced electrocatalytic and photocatalytic activity of ball milled copper tin sulphide by incorporating go and rgo - sciencedirect

enhanced electrocatalytic and photocatalytic activity of ball milled copper tin sulphide by incorporating go and rgo - sciencedirect

CTS, CTS-GO and CTS-rGO are prepared via ball milling method.The prepared catalyst has been studied for its electrocatalytic and photocatalystic performance.CTS-GO and CTS-rGO catalyst showed excellent electrocatalytic and photocatalytic performance.The possible electrocatalytic and photocatalytic mechanism has been proposed.

In the present work photocatalytic and electrocatalytic activity of CTS-GO and CTS-rGO composites synthesized by ball milling method has been studied. The as synthesized composites were characterized for their structural, morphological and optical properties. Compared to as prepared (Cu3SnS4) CTS; (Cu3SnS4-Graphene Oxide) CTS-GO and (Cu3SnS4-reduced Graphene Oxide) CTS-rGO composites showed enhanced electrocatalytic and photocatalytic activity. Electrocatalytic activity experiments demonstrated that the CTS-GO and CTS-rGO composites exhibited large cathode current density, small Tafel slope and high stability in acidic medium. The photocatalytic activity of CTS-GO and CTS-rGO composites under the irradiation of visible light was evaluated by determining the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The CTS-GO and CTS-rGO composites exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to bare CTS. The enhanced photocatalysis is due to the reduction in the recombination of the generated charge carriers, the increased absorption of light and improved dye absorptive with the incorporation of GO and rGO in CTS. The simple and efficient mechano-chemical strategy (ball milling) for preparation of the catalyst is more applicable to industrial production.

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