Bentonite is an aqueous clay mineral based on montmorillonite. Bentonite can be applied to various industrial fields because of its adhesion, adsorption, catalysis, thixotropic, suspension. Bentonite ore is a multi-purpose mineral, whose quality and application fields are mainly depends on the content of montmorillonite and their crystal chemistry characteristics. Thus, bentonite development and utilization must be different according to different applications.
Chinese bentonite reserves rank first in the world, which is distributed over 26 provinces and cities and bentonite production and exports are among the best in the world. According to incomplete statistics, the annual output of Chinese bentonite has exceeded 3500000 tons at present, while the total reserves accounted for 60% among the world.Bentonite grinding products have been widely used in the industrial field. 1 Bentonite grinding products used inFoundry industry Compared with other binder, bentonite has an important characteristic, which is that it has certain heat capacity. As long as the heating temperature is not too high, just add some water, bentonite can still restore the adhesive ability. 2 Bentonite grinding products used in Drilling mud Bentonite for drilling mud is the second mainly applications about bentonite, the annual amount is about 700000 tons. Bentonite has strong water absorbability, which can absorb 8 times water larger than the volume, then the volume increase 10~30 times. Bentonite is an ideal material for manufacturing drilling mud. 3 Bentonite grinding products used in Sewage treatment Bentonite can be used as clarifier in muddy water. Printing and dyeing wastewater, coal gas washing wastewater and monosodium glutamate factory waste water can be handled with bentonite, the removal rate of waste can reach up to 99.5%.
At first the bulk of bentoniteis evenly sent to the jaw crusher for coarse crushing by vibrating feeder, after fine crushing the bentonite would be sent to the impact crusher by belt conveyor for further crushing.Then milling equipment is needed to make productions of bentonite powder .The following is a link for bentonite screening by vibrating screen. According to the different requirements of customers, different specifications of the bentonite can be screened. If the product is unqualified, they need to be sent back to cone crusher for the second crushing, which forming a closed-circuit crushing. The mainly equipment in the high fineness Bentonite powder production line is milling machine, which plays an important role in the production of bentonite powder.
According to customers requirements, SBM has succeeded in absorbing foreign experience and world-advanced technology and has a research and developmenton low energy bentonite grinding mill with self-owned intellectual property right.We guarantee to provide the most efficient grinding equipment, and make great contributions to your bentonite ore mining plant. According to the bentonite products demand in the market, we recommendLM Vertical Grinding Mill. LM series vertical grinding mills are widely used in grinding non-flammable and non-explosive materials Moh's hardness under 9.3, which becomes one kind of special equipment for bentonite grinding.
As a low energy bentonite grinding mill, SBM LM Vertical Grinding Mill has the incomparable advantages. It can realize the advanced bentonite process plant of set ting crushing, drying, grinding, grading conveying into a whole, simple, which covers an area of approximately 50% compared with ball mill, but also can realize open layout, thus this mill equipment can reduce a lot of equipment investment in your mining plant.
Its fully-enclosed layout features high integration. It integrates the functions of high-efficiency sand making, particle shape optimization, filler content control, gradation control, water content control, and environmental protection into a single syst
Zimbabwe has abundant natural resources, coal, chromium, gold, silver, iron, asbestos, lithium, and niobium, lead, zinc, tin, uranium, copper, nickel, etc. Coal, iron, chromium, and asbestos deposits are famous in the world for the large quantity. Zimbabwe has been a crazy plundering Africa wealth of western colonists, and it was referred as "the jewel in the crown" before it was independent. Coal reserves are about 27 billion tons. Iron reserves are about 250 million tons. Chromium and asbestos reserves are large. This country is lack of water resources. Main industrial categories are metal and metal processing, food processing, oil, chemical industry, drinks and tobacco, textile, paper making and printing, etc.
In 2008, the domestic political and economic situation continues to deteriorate and the international financial crisis, most mining companies are closed. Since the coalition government was establishment in February 2009, mining industry began to recover. Mining industry grew 26% year-on-year in 2011. According to the report, Zimbabwe platinum producer has regarded Engels's area underground mine as the company $258 million plan's first phase of expansion plans for the long term. Once realizing full production, the new platinum mining is expected to push up Zimbabwe mining company's ore annual output to 4.5 million tons, and the platinum output will be 5 tons.
For mining platinum ore in Zimbabwe, SBM supplies and evaluate equipment to make unbiased selections of the best equipment for this mining processing. SBM can provide the full range of capabilities to convert run of mine platinum to saleable products, integrating engineering and process know-how in development and optimization of plant designs for platinum that meets global environmental standards.
Platinum mining plant usually includes three main processing stages: crushing, grinding and beneficiation stages. The first two stages are used to get large scale raw platinum materials into fine size. Beneficiation plant will help to get fine powder materials into high grade and pure materials.
The main machine used in platinum mining plant has jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher, mobile crusher and ball mill, vertical roller mill, ultrafine mill and mobile grinding plant. Of course, in the whole production line, it needs the auxiliary equipment to finish the whole processing, such as the vibrating feeder, vibrating screen, belt conveyor and so on. In beneficiation plant, all kinds of beneficiation machines will be used, like, separators, washing machine etc. These beneficiation machines will cooperate with main processing equipment to make the whole line for Zimbabwe platinum production line.
SBM is a professional mining machine manufacturer from China and our company has established good cooperation relationship with Africa countries, such as Zimbabwe, South Africa, and Uganda and so on. Our mining machines have helped local mining operators get much profit. Based on over 20 years' production experience, SBM has produced high quality and advanced mining machines for sale, crushing machine, grinding machine and beneficiation equipment.
Platinum mining jaw crusher is the major crushing equipment used as primary crushing machine in mining and quarrying industry. SBM jaw crusher machine belongs to the practical and economic equipment machine for mining operators. This primary crusher machine is designed to break all kinds of mineral ores with high crushing capability, low costs, high reduction ratio which makes it popular in over 100 countries.
SBM's cone crusher machine has the spring release system will allow the tramp platinum to pass without damage to the crushing chamber. The sealing system adopts the double dry oil and water sealing to separate the lubricating oil from stone dust to provide its reliable operating. Our platinum cone crusher has reliable construction, high productivity, easy adjustment and low operating costs.
Milling machine used in platinum processing line from SBM refers to the vertical roller mill. This grinding mill has easy access for replacement of runners, casing and segments of the rotating table without dismantling of the grinding chamber and separator. This grinding milling machine is used to get fine powder platinum materials in Zimbabwe.
Its fully-enclosed layout features high integration. It integrates the functions of high-efficiency sand making, particle shape optimization, filler content control, gradation control, water content control, and environmental protection into a single syst
In previous studies, it has been found that the Nigerian bentonite is deficient in terms of its fluid loss and rheological properties which includes yield point. Also, due to its high calcium content and low sodium content as opposed to foreign bentonite, it does not meet the API standard of drilling. This research was carried out to beneficiate the Nigerian bentonite as regards its fluid loss properties, rheological properties and wellbore stability. Snail shell is seen as waste substance in Nigeria, and Mucuna solannie on the other hand is a local major food supplement in Nigeria and is found in large quantities. The elemental and oxide compositions of the snail shell and Mucuna solannie were determined through scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction measurements, respectively. The additives were used to beneficiate the Nigerian bentonite, and the test result proved that at considerable concentrations of the additives, the Nigerian bentonite was able to compete with foreign bentonite and also met API specifications. Both additives contain high concentrations of nanoparticles and inhibitive calcium and potassium for wellbore stability. Beneficiated Nigerian bentonite also proved to be viable economically when compared with foreign bentonite.
Nigeria as of the year 2016 had about thirty-seven (37) proven oil reserves according to Worldometers. These reserves can only be exploited if they are explored and drilled. For drilling operations to be successful, the use of drilling fluids must be employed which is formulated from combination of clay (mostly bentonite) and other materials to aid drilling. Though Nigeria has a substantial amount of clay deposits, it is not fully used during drilling operations in the country due to its inability to meet API standards for drilling fluid.
Since the success of drilling operations depends on the proper selection of drilling fluid system (Bourgoyne et al. 1991), some of the bentonites used in mud formulation in Nigeria are imported to avoid catastrophe related to using substandard bentonite. According to previous research, beneficiation of Nigerian bentonite from its predominant calcium-based composition to sodium-based clay can go a long way in improving its properties. Bentonite is the main substance which provides fluid loss control in the drilling fluid as it aids filter cake formation. Other fluid loss control agents are additives that are added to drilling mud during formation to reduce the loss of fluid from the mud into the drilled formation. These additives help to minimize formation damage, maintain hole integrity, reduce log analysis problems, protect water sensitive shale, reduce fluid loss to protective formation and reduce hole washout to achieve better casing and cementing jobs (Chilingarian and Vorabutr 1983; Elward-Berry and Darby 1997).
Types of bentonites include calcium bentonite, sodium bentonite and potassium bentonite. Sodium bentonite expands when wet, absorbing as much as several times its dry mass in water. Because of its excellent colloidal properties, it is often used in drilling mud for oil and gas wells and boreholes for geotechnical and environmental investigations. Calcium bentonite is a useful adsorbent of ions in solution, as well as fats and oils. It is the main active ingredient of fullers earth, probably one of the earliest industrial cleaning agents. Calcium bentonite may be converted to sodium bentonite (termed sodium beneficiation or sodium activation) to exhibit many of sodium bentonites properties by an ion exchange process. It is also known as potash bentonite or K-bentonite; potassium bentonite is potassium-rich illitic clay formed from alteration of volcanic ash.
In the local scene, Odumugbo (2005) asserts that the present consumption of bentonite in Nigeria is about 50,000tons per year and all of it is imported from USA. As reported by Terra mines in Edo State, the bentonite reserves in Nigeria have been estimated to be about 4 billion tons (Emofurieta 2001). Also, according to estimates from the Nigerian Mining Corporation and the Raw Materials Research Development Council (RMRDC), deposits of local bentonite clays in Nigeria have been modestly projected to be above 700 million metric tons (Aigbedion and Iyayi 2007; Raw Materials Research and Development Council 2007; Omole et al. 2013). Nweke et al. (2015) also carried out mineralogical characterization of clay samples from the Abakaliki formation in the Niger Delta part of Nigeria. The minerals found were majorly montmorillonite and illite with traces of kaolinite. Furthermore, elemental analysis carried out showed high calcium and potassium oxides content. Olugbenga et al. 2013 and Osadebe et al. 2011 experimented on the clay found in Niger Delta and Okada, respectively, and found that it was predominantly composed of SiO2. But Nwosu et al. (2013) found that the bentonite clay in Udi, Enugu state composed mainly of sodium-based montmorillonite. Nevertheless, that reserve is not enough to meet the demands of the Nigerian oil industry.
Substances that are rich with sodium have been found to serve as beneficiation materials for fluid loss control and hence the experimentation of snail shell and Mucuna solannie. Also, some of these additives contain some percentage of inhibitive ions and nanoparticles that are very effective for wellbore stability. This is supported by Tawfik and Mukaila (2019), which states that nanomaterials with range of nanosizes have been detected to greatly hinder shale swelling due to their ability to plug micro-openings in shale by forming compact filter cake to minimize fluid loss and prevent downhole pressure transmission. Onize (2003) discovered improved clay that meet API specifications.
Research by Uwaezuoke et al. (2017b) has found out that Mucuna solannie has the capability of beneficiating the rheological properties of drilling muds. Mucuna solannie is a readily available vegetable plant in Nigeria and can also be exploited in the oil industry if maximized. Several people have tried beneficiating local Nigerian bentonite via conducting tests and introducing additives for upgrade. They include but not limited to James et al. (2008) who conducted X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and rheological analysis on local bentonite from Adamawa state using Na2CO3 for upgrade. Also, Dewu et al. (2011) conducted XRF and XRD on local bentonite from Gombe State using soda ash and viscosifier for upgrade. Nmegbu (2014) conducted rheological analysis on local bentonite from Rivers State using Na2CO3, NaOH, quick troll and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) for upgrade. Research studies carried out by (Udoh and Okon 2012; Falode et al. 2007) on bentonite clay from Uyo and Pindinga, respectively, showed that the fluid loss property of Nigerian bentonite clay is fair and in line with API requirements though other rheological properties like plastic viscosity and yield point were below API specifications.
The need to compare viscometric readings taken at surface temperatures to downhole circulation temperatures has been identified over six decades ago. A study on the effect of temperature on the flow properties of some water-based muds has been conducted. However, the effects of temperature on mud prepared with some local materials have already been published. Understandable trends were observed. Fluid loss increased with temperature, and yield point showed scattering (Uwaezuoke et al. 2017a; Igwilo et al. 2017).
In petroleum economic analyses, the Net Present Value is used to evaluate one alternative or two and more alternatives. For single alternative cases, once the Net Present Value at the Minimum Acceptable Rate of Return in an investment is greater than or equal to zero, the Minimum Acceptable Rate of Return is met or exceeded and the alternative is viable. If two or more alternatives are considered, the Net Present Value at the Minimum Acceptable Rate of Return is calculated and compared. The alternative with the numerically largest Net Present Value is selected. For all negative NPVs, the least negative is selected, while for all positive NPVs, the most positive is selected. For both negative and positive NPVs, the more positive alternative is selected. The Net Present Value tool can also apply in incremental analyses cases (Leland and Anthony 2002).
The equipment used in carrying out this work includes graduated measuring cylinder (25mL, 250mL), beakers, adventurer pro-weighing balance, Hamilton beach mixer, sieve, low-pressure low-temperature filter press, stop watch, spatula, and pH tester. The raw materials used in the formulation of drilling fluid required for the experiment are foreign bentonite, local bentonite, snail shell and Mucuna solannie.
The local and foreign bentonites were bought from a licensed dealer, in a local store in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The snail shell and Mucuna solannie powder were sourced from a market in Nigeria and needed to be processed in order to be used. The snail shell was obtained when the organism was removed. This made processing easier as it just needed to be washed to remove extraneous particles. It was washed with fresh water at ambient temperature of 281.5C for about 45min. It was then sun-dried at 311C for 5days to remove moisture. Crushing was done in a mill to powder form with hammer mill (Model RLA 201 800014, UK). The powder was grinded further with a Hamilton Beach dry grinder (Model 80385) and sieved with 200 mesh sieve for quality assurance and quality check (QA/QC). Similarly, a sample of Mucuna solannie powder was obtained in the same manner associated with the method used by Uwaezuoke et al. (2017a, b) from a Nigerian market. The processed samples were packed in high-density polyethylene (HDPE, 0.77mm thickness) bags and heat-sealed with a sealing machine. A relative humidity of 77% was reported. 2 kg each was stored in a refrigerator ready for use when required, in their preserved unrefined forms.
The giant African snail shell samples were collected from Nigerian local dish restaurants and local market at Ihiagwa, Imo state. The samples were washed and dried thoroughly. The samples were ground into fine particles, sieved and re-ground as explained.
The elemental and oxide composition of the additives (snail shell and Mucuna solannie) required to beneficiate the Nigerian bentonite was evaluated using SEM and XRD, respectively. This is very imperative to ascertain and know precisely the elemental and oxide composition of the additives.
Fifteengrams of foreign bentonite only was measured using the weighing balance. 250mL of water was stirred for 5s and the bentonite was gradually transferred into the cup, and the stirring process was allowed for a period of 30 min. The sheared mud was then transferred into the viscometer cup to the line of meniscus. The viscometer was put on, and the knob was set at 600rpm and the dial reading was taken when the pointer was steady. The knob was then reduced to 300rpm, 200rpm, 100rpm, 6rpm and 3rpm, and the dial readings were taken appropriately and accordingly when the pointer was steady at a particular point. This same process was repeated for 30g of foreign bentonite only, 15g of local bentonite only, 15g of local bentonite plus 1g of snail shell plus 1g of Mucuna solannie, 15g of local bentonite plus 2g of snail shell plus 2g of Mucuna solannie, 15g of local bentonite plus 3g of snail shell plus 3g of Mucuna solannie, 15g of local bentonite plus 4g of snail shell plus 4g of Mucuna solannie, 15g of local bentonite plus 5g of snail shell plus 5g of Mucuna solannie, 30g of local bentonite only, respectively.
The same quantity and mixing procedures carried out in the case of rheological properties determination were done for API fluid loss. After the mud has been prepared, it was poured into the cell of the API filter press. The filter press was pressurized to a pressure of 100psi, and the 25mL measuring cylinder was positioned to receive the filtrate. The filtrate was received and reported for 30 min.
A hypothetical example was used for the economic analysis for the materials. Assume 12 vertical hole drilled to a depth of 8000ft with 3000bbls of mud [the amount of mud will take care of both the hole content (including excess factor) and the total losses].
To make a comparison between the foreign bentonite and local beneficiated bentonite, an incremental analysis was performed using the Net Present Value as a decision tool for cash flow duration of 10years. The choice of NPV over DCF-ROR is because they are service-based only (negative cash flow) series.
Figures1 and 2 show the snail shell and Mucuna solannie SEM image representations, while Figs.3 and 4 show the additives elemental counts that gave rise to Tables1 and 2 of the elemental compositions of the two additives obtained using SEM. In the SEM image of snail shell sample, phase separations with massive plates are observed as a heterogeneous surface morphology. Table3 shows the oxide composition obtained using XRD method. Snail shell contains 90.30% calcium, 65.52% calcium oxide, 8.01% aluminum oxide and 10.21% silicon dioxide in both its elemental and oxide composition. Mucuna solannie contains 39.18% potassium, 4.82% silicon dioxide and 1.83% aluminum oxide. The high content of calcium and potassium portrays a high degree of shale inhibition during drilling operations. Also, the presence of aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide is the example of nanoparticles well known for their wellbore stability effectiveness.
In this section, the analysis was made with regard to API specifications for a good bentonite. The parameters analyzed as specified by API include the fluid loss, dial reading at 600rpm and yield point-to-plastic viscosity ratio.
It can be seen that snail shell constituted primarily of calcium (about 91%), but it also contained a very little amount of Sodium (about 0.23%) which is the basic constituent of foreign bentonite. Hence, it can be seen that the basic elemental supplement of snail shell is calcium. Also it can be seen that Mucuna solannie constituted primarily of Carbon (about 14.71%) and potassium (about 39.18%). It also contains sodium (about 1%) as its least constituent element. Hence, it can be seen that the major elemental supplements of Mucuna solannie to the beneficiation process were carbon and potassium. Also, the major oxide composition of Mucuna solannie is silicon dioxide while that of snail shell is calcium oxide.
It can be noticed in Fig.5 obtained from Table4 (Appendix) that introduction of snail shell and Mucuna solannie as fluid loss control additive reduced the volume of filtrate loss during the experiment. It can also be noticed that an increase in the concentration of the additive in turn results in a decrease in volume of filtrate obtained which is actually the function of a fluid loss control additive. But according to (API 13A 1993) for a drilling mud to be accepted, the fluid loss additive used should give filtrate loss volume less than 15mL over a period of 30min. From Table4, the filtrate volume was found to be 16mL, a little above API standard and therefore can be concluded that snail shell and Mucuna solannie as fluid loss control additive for drilling fluids is not a viable prospect at low concentrations of 5g and below.
Also, according to API specification, the viscometer dial reading at 600rpm should be greater than thirty (>30), but from Fig.6, it can be found that the dial reading was 27 (for NB5 at 5g conc.) which is lower than the standard API specification. Therefore, it can be concluded that snail shell and Mucuna solannie as drilling fluid additives to improve its rheological properties are not viable prospects at low concentrations of 5g and below. It can be seen that local Nigerian bentonite does not satisfy API requirements of a 600-rpm dial reading greater than 30. Hence, that rheological factor needs improvement, as we can see that the effect of the beneficiating agents was an increase in the dial reading which if more were added, probably at 78g each, the API requirement would definitely be reached.
The ratio of yield point to plastic viscosity (YP/PV) according to API specification for bentonite clay for drilling mud is a value below 3 (<3), and from the result in Fig.7, this specification is met as opposed to foreign bentonite which has a value of 3.5, although this is not a decisive claim to conclude that it is a suitable substitute for foreign bentonite.
Tables5 and 6 show the cost of materials and cashflow series, respectively. 7g concentrations of additives for local beneficiated bentonite were considered. Figure8 shows the incremental analyses and shows that local beneficiated bentonite is a good investment, with positive Net Present Value seen in the cashflow of incremental Case B over Case A.
In oil and gas exploration and production, drilling fluids are designed not only for chemical and thermal stability, but also to be biologically degradable. Hence, polymers and natural products are becoming relevant. Mucuna solannie is a biomaterial and hence biodegradable. When a biocide is used in a mud formulated with it, it is expected that microbial actions would be reduced, just like it is applied in other mud types.
During the course of this research, it was observed that snail shell, which is considered as waste in Nigeria, plays a good role in supplementing the properties of the Nigerian bentonite to meet API standards. From the filtration and rheological measurements carried out on the drilling fluid samples that were beneficiated and the one which was not, it can be said that snail shell and Mucuna solannie at substantial concentrations can be used to beneficiate the Nigerian bentonite and, therefore, can be a good substitute for foreign bentonite. Also, snail shell and Mucuna solannie are good candidate additives for wellbore inhibition and stability. Beneficiation of Nigerian bentonite was shown to be economically viable.
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Igwilo, K.C., Uwaezuoke, N., Okoli, N. et al. Beneficiation of Nigerian bentonite using local materials. J Petrol Explor Prod Technol 10, 33993407 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-020-00956-8