briquetting plant 52

briquetting: need of the hour

briquetting: need of the hour

As the world population rises there is an increase in consumption and standard of living, eventually energy demand also increases to fulfill it. The net energy demand cannot be satisfied by the conventional energy technology which utilizes only a few local resources.

Every sector of Indian economy like agriculture, industry and transport needs input of energy for the progress and prosperity of nation and societies. Energy is the cornerstone of economic and social development. As a result, consumption of energy in all forms has been steadily rising all over the world.

The use of conventional energy like coal, oil and electricity has increased enormously in the last 25 years in ASEAN economies. India is the world's sixth largest energy consumer, consuming about 3 per cent of world's total energy per year. However, the biomass-based energy meets a major fraction of energy demand in rural areas of the most developing countries, including India. India produces nearly 350 million tonnes of agricultural waste per year (Naidu, 1999). The major residues are cow dung cake, rice husk, coffee husk, coir pith, sugarcane bagasse, sugarcane trash, jute sticks, silk cotton pods, groundnut shells, mustard stalks and cotton stalks.

Biomass as a source of energy is gaining importance as a renewable source that is additionally strengthening as the countrys agriculture is one of the prime sources in the Indian economy. Use of biomass for thermal energy, is age-old but the use of modern biomass (implying clean combustion process) is more recent. In the last three decades, several biomass based projects funded by MNRE in the country were developed for high grade heat or power. In this context, it is necessary that the assessment of biomass availability is made taking account of the present usages in the existing traditional practices and socially essential needs such as fodder, domestic fuel, thatching and manure.

Biomass has been one of the major energy sources for the mankind ever since the dawn of civilization, although its importance dwindled after the expansion in use of oil and coal in the late 19th century. About 120-150 million metric tonnes per annum of biomass produced by agricultural and forestry residues corresponding to a potential of about 16000 MW.

The briquetting plants have been installed in India since the mid 90s, most of them being self-financing briquettors are doing excellent business, especially, in the western and southern regions. A rough estimate says that around 50,000 tonnes of briquettes are consumed annually by the tea industry alone in the state of Tamil Nadu, and 20 000 tonnes by the Indian Tobacco Company in the state of Karnataka. On an average, a typical briquetting plant of die and punch (standard capacity of 750 kg/hr for saw dust) type produces between 250 and 300 tonnes per month which fetches a market price between Rs.1800 per tonne to Rs.2500 (inclusive of transport cost) per tonne. The profit margin is so good that the payback period is well within 12 months. Briquettes when replaced for firewood and coal provide a direct cost savings on the fuel to the tune of 25 per cent to 30 per cent as the combustion efficiency improves remarkably. In addition to such direct savings are the benefits of easy transportation, handling and storing during rainy seasons besides saving labour for cutting the firewood. These die and punch plants have established their viability and quick return (Babu, 2001).

Charcoal is traditional fuel widely used in many developing countries to meet basic household needs which needs to be stopped to conserve forest and wildlife. It is considered as best fuel for most of the traditional cook stoves in many areas and is preferred in the urban areas because of its smoke free burning. India has 247 billion tonnes of fossils coal reserves, out of which only 52.24 billion tonnes are extractable reserves. During the 10th plan, coal demand was of 332 million tonnes, while 301 million tonnes were available and 31 million tonnes was the shortage. This shortage is going to be 87 million tonnes during the 12th plan Maharashtra. Energy Development Agency has sanctioned 36 biomass based energy projects with 336 MW capacity so far and the power generated from these projects is expected to be made available in phases in a period of three years.

It has been estimated that 110-150 million tonnes crop residues is surplus to its present utilization as a cattle feed, constructional and industrial raw material and as industrial fuel. Due to their heterogeneous nature, biomass material possesses inherently low bulk densities and thus it is difficult to efficiently and economically handle large quantities of biomass. Therefore, large expenses are incurred during material handling, transportation, storage etc. Transportation had the 2nd highest cost by considering all factors, when the biomass power plant was run at full capacity (Kumar et al.2003). It is noted that transportation cost will increase with increasing power plant size. In order to combat the negative handling aspects of bulk biomass, densification is essentially required. If such crop residues are converted into briquettes they can provide huge and reliable source of feedstock for thermo chemical conversion (Anonymous, 2002).

Many developing countries produce huge quantities of agro residues, but they are used inefficiently causing extensive pollution to the environment. The major residues are rice husk, coffee husk, coir pith, jute sticks, bagasse, groundnut shells, mustard stalks and cotton stalks. Sawdust, a milling residue is also available in huge quantity. Apart from the problems of transportation, storage and handling, the direct burning of loose biomass in conventional grates is associated with very low thermal efficiency and widespread air pollution (Grover and Mishra, 1996).

According to a survey, conducted by the Central government, the potential of power generation from agricultural waste is 16,000 MW in the country and 781 MW in Maharashtra. A high quality densified product is essential to ensure that the positive effects of densification are not mitigated; therefore artificial binding agents are often added to the pre-densified biomass to improve briquette quality. Studies have demonstrated that different biomass grinds bind well without the use of the artificial binding agent. Such feedstock possess natural binding agent that allow them to exhibit preferential qualities after densification. Hence the efficient design and cost effective densification system improving the feasibility of biomass densification for feed, chemical and energy production is required. Intensive information is available on wood fuels, but comprehensive data on other kind of biomass or biomass briquettes fuel have not been developed. As such available biomass conversion into densification is a difficult task and extensive research is needed to develop cost effective and simple technology which is easily accessible to farmers to convert the waste biomass into valuable energy for earning additional returns to make agriculture an energy producing enterprise.

The screw press extruder type briquetting machine consists of driving motor, screw, die, and hopper and power transmission system. Pulley and belt are used to transmit power from motor to the screw. The raw material is fed to the hoppers, which convey it to screw by gravity. The material is pushed forward due to geometry of screw. As the material is pushed, it is compressed and compressed material comes out of die in the form of briquettes.

The principle of operation is basically the same as the mechanical piston press. The difference is that the energy to the piston is transmitted from an electric motor via a high pressure hydraulic oil system. In this way, the machine can be made very compact and light, since the forces are balanced-out in the press-cylinder and not through the frame. The material is fed in front of the press cylinder by a feeding cylinder which often pre-compacts the material with several strokes before the main cylinder is pressurized. The whole operation is controlled by a programme which can be altered depending on the input material and desired product quality. The speed of the press cylinder is much slower with hydraulic press action than with mechanical which results in markedly lower outputs.

A reciprocating piston pushes the material into a tapered die where it is compacted and adheres against the material remaining in the die from the previous stroke. A controlled expansion and cooling of the continuous briquette is allowed in a section following the actual die. The briquette leaving this section is still relatively warm and fragile and needs a further length of cooling track before it can be broken into pieces of the desired length.

Compacting biomass waste into briquettes reduces the volume by 10 times, making it much easier to store and transport than loose biomass waste The size and shape of briquettes make them easily be stored.

Such units of briquetting could be established in cluster of villages on mission basis for reducing transport cost of bulky biomass viz. crop residues, sugarcane trash, cotton stalks, saw dust, rice husk, pruned branches and leaves of fruit trees etc. This will enable to give additional income to farmers and at the same time convert the otherwise wasted/carbonized biomass into valuable energy briquettes to mitigate to same extent the energy crisis.

projects hebei minghong new energy co., ltd

projects hebei minghong new energy co., ltd

Model #: 9JK-4500 Dimensions: 3500x2600x2100mm Weight: 8.0 Tons Power: 132KW Voltage: 380V Transimission: Belt Briquette Outlet: 88 Holes Briquette Size: 32*32MM Annual Output: 15,000-50,000 Metric Tons

Model #: 9JK-2600 Dimensions: 2650x3350x2515mm Weight: 5.0 Tons Power: 75KW Voltage: 380V Briquette Outlet: 52 Holes Briquette Size: 32*32MM Briquette Density: 0.8-1.2G/CM Annual Output: About 5,000-23,000 Metric Tons Application: Animal Feed Production

Model #: 9JK-2600 Dimensions: 2650x3350x2515mm Weight: 5.0 Tons Power: 75KW Voltage: 380V Transmission: Belt Briquette Outlet: 52 Holes Briquette Size: 32*32MM Briquette Density: 0.8-1.2G/CM Annual Output: About 5,000-23,000 Metric Tons Application: Animal Feed Production

Model #: 9JK-2600 Dimensions: 2650x3350x2515mm Weight: 5.0 Tons Power: 75KW Voltage: 380V Briquette Outlet: 52 Holes Briquette Size: 32*32MM Briquette Density: 0.8-1.2G/CM Annual Output: About 50,000 Metric Tons Application: Animal Feed and Biomass Fuel Briquettes Production

Model #: 9JK-3500 Dimensions: 3232*2600*2000mm Weight: 6.0 Tons Power: 110KW Voltage: 380V Briquette Outlet: 72 Holes Briquette Size: 32*32MM Briquette Density: 0.8-1.2G/CM Annual Output: About 15,000-30,000 Metric Tons Application: Biomass Fuel Briquettes Production

Model #: 9JK-4500 Dimensions: 3500*2600*2100mm Weight: 8.0 Tons Power: 132KW Voltage: 380V Transmission: Belt Briquette Outlet: 88 Holes Briquette Size: 32*32MM Briquette Density: 0.8-1.2G/CM Annual Output: About 11,000-50,000 Metric Tons per unit machine Application: Biomass Fuel Briquettes Production

lignin content and briquette quality of different fibre hemp plant types and energy sunflower - sciencedirect

lignin content and briquette quality of different fibre hemp plant types and energy sunflower - sciencedirect

Fibre hemp and energy sunflower are potential energy crops for production of solid biomass as renewable energy. The current study estimated (i) the lignin content of fibre hemp and energy sunflower plants grown on different nitrogen treatments and (ii) the quality of the briquettes made from different plant types of fibre hemp (i.e. monoecious and dioecious), energy sunflower and the combination of fibre hemp and energy sunflower. The monoecious and dioecious fibre hemp cultivars (Chameleon, Finola and Santhica-27, USO-31, respectively) and the energy sunflower cultivar Wielkopolski were grown in the experimental field in 20082010 on Stagnic Luvisol soil. The plants were grown on N treatments of N0, mineral nitrogen (100kgNha1), cattle slurry (100kgNha1), sewage sludge (100kgNha1) and vetch (100kgNha1). Calorific values (16.617.4MJkg1) of briquettes pressed from different materials did not differ significantly and had relatively low sulphur (<0.05%) and chlorine content (0.030.37%). Briquettes with higher compactness were made from the sunflower and the dioecious hemp. Dioecious hemp had significantly higher lignin content. The dioecious hemp needs lower GDD values for maturating, its stems lignin content was higher than of monoecious hemp by harvest time and therefore this plant type is more suitable for briquetting in Nordic climatic conditions. Comparison of the different N treatments indicated that application of sewage sludge decreased the emergence and density of the fibre hemp plants and the lignin content per kg of DM.

The lignin content of hemp was significantly influenced by nitrogen treatment and plant type. Dioecious hemp matured at lower Growing Degree Days value, had higher lignin content and is more suitable briquetting material in Nordic conditions than monoecious hemp. The application of waste-water sludge decreased the emergence and density of the fibre hemp plants. Briquettes without major fractures and with high compactness were made from the sunflower and the dioecious hemp.

study of briquetted biomass co-firing mode in power plants - sciencedirect

study of briquetted biomass co-firing mode in power plants - sciencedirect

The biomass co-firing mode is suitable for biomass dispersedly distributed areas.High economy and efficiency of biomass pretreatment can be realized.The biomass can be used through existing equipments efficiently and cleanly.Economic analysis shows that this mode is of good economic sustainability.

A briquetted biomass co-firing mode that is feasible in China and other areas with dispersedly distributed biomass resources was proposed, and the details and characteristics of this mode are discussed. Raw biomass from sources such as corn stalks, twigs, and straws was crushed in farmlands and then transported to briquetting stations. The crushed biomass was dried and compressed into briquettes until the moisture content was less than 25%. Finally, the biomass briquettes was stored and delivered to plants like coals for combustion. One of the six layers of the pulverizing system in a 300MW power plant could be used, and 100% biomass briquettes could be ground by an existing MPS medium speed pulverizer. The biomass briquettes could then be delivered directly into the furnace by primary air. No additional equipment investments were needed for the plant because almost all equipments were already available. Advantages such as cost-effective on biomass collection and transportation, high efficiency and low cost on biomass preprocessing, biomass briquette economic grinding and feeding, and efficient and clean combustion could be realized by this method. The economic sustainability of this mode was also analyzed.

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