cement plants buying in fly ash planning

natural pumice pozzolan: the ideal replacement for fly ash in concrete mix designs

natural pumice pozzolan: the ideal replacement for fly ash in concrete mix designs

The future of fly ash as a readily available and quality-effective concrete pozzolan is murky and troubled. As a concrete pozzolan, fly ash was never ideal. But it was cheap (the by-product of burning coal) and, within a restricted class type (Class F), effective. The knocks against fly ashever-growing environmental regulations that impact suitability, cleanliness, color, inconsistent performance, and especially availablitypushed the concrete industry to find and quantify better alternatives [01]. The writing-on-the-wall fly ash supply shortage has now become a reality as coal-fired power plants are being taken offline and scrapped. [02].

01 Sourcing Class F Fly Ash a Real Concern: In recent yearsthe future availability of fly ash in the US has become a source of concern because of impending environmental regulations from the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA). Two proposals, one known as a Subtitle C classification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), would regulate coal combustion residuals (including fly ash) as a hazardous waste. A second proposal, known as a Subtitle D classification of RCRA, would consider coal combustion residuals as non-hazardous, but would enforce a higher minimum standard for CCR disposal [with] the enforcement of rules under Subtitle D left up to the states. Regardless the IPA has maintained that fly ash can still be used in concrete due to the beneficial use exemption, which permits the use of fly ash when completely encapsulated. However, the rising cost of fly ash associated with these environmental rulings will most likely make the use of fly ash in concrete prohibitive.

Additionally, environmental regulations, like the Clean Air Interstate Rule and Cross State Air Pollution Rule, that aim to reduce air pollution have forced coal-burning power plants to adopt emission reduction techniques that have consequently led to a lower quality of fly ash.

As these changes in the coal power generation industry are causing considerable uncertainty for the future availability and quality of fly ash, it becomes imperative to identify and test other SCMs that can provide similar strength and durability benefits to concrete as Class F fly ash.

02 2020 to 2070 and Beyond: Transitioning from Production to Post-Production Coal Ash Use: Over the last 50+ years, production coal ash has successfully transitioned from a resisted use product to a required component in cement mixtures to be used in infrastructure material.

The market is now witnessing the beginning of the end of one era and the genesis of a new economic reality. The 21st century commercial paradigm of the construction and building products industry is already evident in regional production coal ash supply shortages around North America, the United Kingdom, and Europe. Additional demand is forecast over the next 20 years with the significant infrastructure upgrades required in most countries. Combined with new infrastructure requirements in fast-growing countries like China and India, this will create significant pressures on the collective coal ash markets future.

Gone are the days of readily available excess, compliant production coal ash. In all major markets, coal is being displaced in favor of lower-cost and less-carbon-emissions-intensive fuels. The UK and an increasing number of EU member states will eliminate coal by 2025, and Canada will follow by 2030. It is further evident that the U.S. will continue to see accelerated, ahead-of-schedule coal plant retirements.

As a result, what is old becomes new again. As with the formulas developed during the Roman Empire circa 312 BC to 500 ADwhich used volcanic ash as a natural pozzolan in the construction of some of its most durable structuresnew formulas will need to be considered in the search for a low-carbon reality for the 21st centurys infrastructure buildout and refresh.

Over a two-plus year period, at the behest of the Texas DOT, the University of Texas at Austin conducted an extensive suite of tests to determine alternative SCMs as alternatives to using fly ash as a pozzolan in the states concrete transportation infrastructure [03]. The data from that study, specific to pumice (sourced from Hess Pumice Products and available commercially as Hess Standard Pozz), is summarized and graphed below. The research team also ran the same tests with Class F fly ash, providing a performance baseline with which to compare to pumice-enhanced and fly ash-enhanced concrete. Those comparative tests are the basis of this pumice pozz vs. fly ash site.

03 The University of Texas-Austin/Texas DOT report titled Evaluating the Performance of Alternative Supplementary Cementing Material in Concrete (by Seraj, Cano, Liu et al) provides comparisons with and performance data on eight natural pozzolans.

REPORT ABSTRACT: Uncertainty in the supply of Class F fly ash due to impending environmental restrictions has made it imperative to find and test alternate sources of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) that can provide similar strength and durability benefits to concrete as Class F fly ash. This project summarizes the key findings of research that was conducted to characterize and evaluate the performance of eight natural pozzolans, commercially available in Texas, to assess their potential as Class F fly ash replacements in concrete. Of the eight pozzolans tested, six were found to be viable alternatives for Class F fly ash. Methods to further enhance the performance of these SCMs were explored and guidelines are provided on the optimum SCM replacement levels for different applications. Finally, recommendations are presented on how to improve current testing practices for SCMs.

Concrete is such a vital part of civilizations infrastructure, yet ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is not nearly good enough for the job. To last beyond a few decades and withstand attacks from chloride ions (deicing salts, seawater), sulfates, freeze-thaw, alkali-silica reaction (a slow-motion shattering of concrete from within), heat of hydration cracking (which amplifies the above) and other ills, modern concrete needs the benefit of a secondary chemical reaction [04] during the curing process, a reaction that supplements and amplifies the primary water-cement hydration reaction. A reaction that is triggered by the introduction of an additional materiala supplementary cementitious materialinto the concrete mix design. A pozzolan [05]. The right pozzolan.

04 The Pozzolanic Reaction: The understood science behind the pozzolanic reaction is this: the particle-binding glue of concreteCalcium Silica Hydrate (CSH)is the result of combining water and Portland cement. But that same hydration reaction also produces Calcium Hydroxide (CH) by-products (up to 25% of the hydrated Portland cement) that not only do nothing to contribute to concrete strength and density, but actively work against it. This CH-induced porosity introduces a host of ills...poor strength, weak resistance to chemical attacks, high permeability, and thus, shorter life.

Replacing a portion of the Portland cement with pumice ignites a pozzolanic reaction within the hydrated paste that, via a molecular-level reclamation process, reacts to and melds with the trouble-causing CH, ultimately converting it into additional CSH. This consumptive transformation of the CH mitigates or completely eliminates the problems it spawns. And that newly-created CSH does what youd expect: it further densifies and strengthens the concrete, welding the grout particles into a dense, durable, virtually impermeable matrix.

05 Pozzolan Defined by ASTM C 125: A pozzolan, as defined in ASTM C 125, is a siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material that in itself possesses little or no cementitious value but will, in finely divided form and in the presence of water, chemically react with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperatures to form compounds possessing cementitious properties. ASTM C 618 is the standard specification for natural pozzolans, and classifies them as Class N SCMs on the basis of several composition and performance indices, such as oxide composition, fineness, strength, and water requirement. ASTM C 618 gives some examples of natural pozzolans or Class N SCMs such as pumice, volcanic ash, clay, shale, and diatomaceous earth. Each of these materials is discussed in detail in the upcoming sections.

Pumice as a concrete pozzolan is nothing newthe Romans were using naturally calcined pumice [06] (they first sourced pumice from Pozzuoli in Italy, which subsequently became the origin of the term pozzolan) in their concrete infrastructure 2000 years ago.

The role of a pozzolanic SCM is to ignite a reaction within curing concrete that improves performanceby both consuming deleterious compounds (like calcium hydrate) and amplifying concrete characteristics like density and resistance.

Unlike fly ash, a by-product scrubbed from the stacks of coal-burning power plants, pumice is a consistent, naturally-occurring mineral that is simply mined, refined (crushed), and packaged for shipment [07].

Pumice is a textural rock formed from volcanic eruptions. Deep underground, molten rock incorporates water and other gases, and when the magma erupts from a vent, the gases and water flash off, leaving behind a frothy, vesicle-riven structure that quickly cools, solidifying the foamy structure. The magma has now transformed into an amorphous aluminum silicate, or pumice.

If the newly formed pumice falls on or erupts beneath a body of water, wave action will deposit the floating mass on or near the shore as it saturates and sinks. This centuries-long process results in a very pure pumicethe heavy minerals dropping to the sea or lake floor, while the purified pumice is washed to the shoreline. This is the case with the pumice deposit (see below) that is sourced by Hess Pumice Products in Southeast Idaho.

07 Mining Pumice: The various commercial pumice producers use their own variants on the process, but generally, a pumice deposit is surface-mined, meaning the overburden of soil covering the pumice is pushed aside and stockpiled for later reclamation. The pumice is then scraped up using bulldozers and pushed to the crusher for preliminary processing and stockpiling for loading and hauling to the plant for processing. When weather permits, the mining goes on year-round, otherwise, sufficient quantities are stockpiled for refining during winter months.

Pumice is then typically dried to the necessary moisture content ideal for refining before it is lifted to the top of the plant structure and via gravity, begins its journey down through the crushers, screens, and separators until it is finally bagged in sacks or bulk bags or loaded in bulk container cars or blown into pneumatic transport trailers or pneumatic rail cars.

When it comes to pouring hundreds of yards of concrete, consistency is a big deal. Consistency in fresh properties and long-term performance, load after load. Consistency in availability. Consistency in chemical make up. Consistency in supply-chain availability. Research data [08] in pumice-blended cement mix designs quantifies a performance consistency that fly ash rarely can.

08 The Body of Research on Hess Pozz as a Concrete-Improving Pozzolan: More than a century ago pumice was first identified as the key ingredient in that impressively durable Roman concrete. However, modern markets didnt demand investment in a high-quality grade of concrete, and many of the problems inherent in ordinary Portland cement were poorly understood. By the time the durability failures of Portland cement were evident and the need for a concrete-improving pozzolan was (re)understood, a cheap by-product pozzolan, in the form of coal combustion residuals (fly ash), was readily available.

When the first rumblings of trouble concerning a possible hazardous-waste classification for fly ash (adding to the sourcing problems resulting from increasingly restrictive regulations for burning coal) began to ripple through the marketplace, Hess Pumice initiated a research study at the University of Utah to quantify the performance of their pumice as a pozzolanic supplemental cementing material (SCM) for concrete. Backed by both research into Roman concrete as well as the selection of Hess' pumice by the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories as the ideal pozzolanic component in an ultrafine cementitious grout (developed to seal the waste containment chambers deep underground at the WIPP site in New Mexico), Hess Pumice knew the pumice in their deposit could meet the need for a clean, economical, highly effective pozzolan. The results of the two-year study at the University of Utah detailed the significant improvements Hess Pozz made to concrete.

Follow-up research by the University of Utah focused on and further quantified the impressive data showing how completely effective pumice is at mitigating the alkali-silica reaction (ASR), even in the presence of the most reactive aggregates.

About this same time, the Texas Department of Transportation commissioned a research study (by the University of Texas at Austin) to evaluate the effectiveness of commercially available natural pozzolans as replacement options for problematic fly ash. Pumice from the Hess deposit was chosen for this studyand performed impressively in every category, proving to be the ideal all-around pozzolan.

Nippon Electric Glass America, a major player in the Glass-Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) industry, also commissioned research on the use of Hess Pumice as a pozzolanand subsequently became the exclusive distributor of Hess UltraPozz to the GFRC industry.

Whitepapers, research summaries and copies of the original research can be downloaded from the Hess Pumice website or the Hess Pozz website. ASR-focused information can be found on the ASR MitiGator website.

Pumice pozzolan is used as a percentage of replacementas little as 15% will give an impressive performance boost across the entire spectrum of key categoriesand so the cost is off-set in part by cement savings. And, by virtue of its volcanic origin, pumice is naturally green. [09]

09 Naturally Calcined Means Green: The green tag is generally given to products and processes that are not energy intensive or do no harm to the environment. That is, of course, a very basic definition...the term green is now a widely applied marketing term for just about anything.

Pumice pozzolan is green by the simple fact that the most crucial step in the manufacturing processthe superheating that gives pumice its amazing pozzolanic propertieshas already been taken care of by Mother Nature. Pumice is naturally calcined, by virtue of the fact that it has already had its time in the furnace: a volcanic furnace. Unlike metalolin, pumice does not need to be heated or calcined to change its chemical makeup to make it useful as a pozzolan, nor is it the by-product of an industrial furnace process, like silica fume and fly ash.

Contrast, for example, Portland Cementthe key ingredient for concrete. Portland Cement is manufactured by mining limestone, crushing it, and then (critical!) heating it in a furnace to change its physical properties. The resulting clinkers are then ground down to about -325 mesh. The result is ever-so useful cement powder. So, in terms of a carbon footprintthe energy needed to produce the final useful productPortland Cement, is a major concern of industry and governments alike. Cement production constitutes a major portion of all major green house gases production.

All pumice is not created equal [10]. The pumice used in the referenced research and available commercially as Hess Standard Pozz is sourced from a unique pumice deposit in Southeast Idaho, USArecognized as the purest commercial deposit of white pumice in the worldthe result of volcanic ash landing on a prehistoric mountain lake, washing out the heavier impurities, leaving behind a deposit of 99% pure pumice. Its unique physical and chemical characteristics are what make this carefully refined pumice an excellent pozzolan.

10 The Hess Pumice Deposit: In the southeast corner of the State of Idaho, 23 miles northwest of Malad City, lies a vast reserve of white, pure pumice that is in demand all over the world. That demand is the result of two factors: the quality and brightness of the pumice, and the company that mines and refines it: Hess Pumice.

The pumice deposit is located on the shoreline of an ancient lake known as Lake Bonneville...a vast, freshwater lake that once covered much of North Americas Great Basin region (most of Utah and parts of Idaho and Nevada). The Great Salt Lake is all that currently remains of Lake Bonneville.

The volcano that produced the pumice is about a mile to the north of the Hess Pumice mine. The volcanic ash (pumice) was deposited in the lake, where it was washed and stratified. This process cleaned the pumice of the undesirable heavy minerals that are often found in other pumice deposits.

In 1958, a local farmer, frustrated by his inability to grow anything in the thin soil over what is now the Wrights Creek Area pumice mine, leased the ground to Marion Hess, who ripped up the white volcanic rock and sold the crushed pumice to a building block manufacturer in Salt Lake City. From those beginnings, the now carefully refined, pure and white pumice from the Hess mine is in demand by industry worldwide.

Concerning reliability: Hess Pumice Products was founded in 1958 and has been in continuous operation for over 6 decades. As a result of attention to detail and a philosophy of On-spec, On-Time, Hess Pumice has become a major player in the natural pozzolan and pumice industries. Through advanced grinding and blending technologies Hess currently has over 100 products that ship to 26 countries around the globe and has a reputation for superior quality, logistical expertise, and unmatched customer service.

With regards to capacity, Hess is currently producing and selling ~20,000 tons per year of quality natural pozzolan (Hess Standard Pozz) with the ability to expand in order to meet future market demands.

Twelve 4-in. x 8-in. cylinders were cast for compressive strength testing at 7, 28, 56, and 90 days. At the appropriate ages, three cylinders were removed from moist storage and tested in a Forney FX-700 compression machine according to ASTM C 39. End caps per ASTM C 1231. Average compressive strength was calculated from three cylinders.

RESULTS: The pumice pozzolan concrete mixture gained strength slowly at first, reaching 95% of the control strength at 90 days with a 15% replacement and 99% of the control strength with 25% replacement. This is similar to the trend seen during the mortar studies (below). It should be noted that although the pumice SCM specimens gained strength slower than the control and the Class F fly ash specimens, at 28 days scored strengths greater than 4500 psi.

Mortar Bar StudiesShows the compressive strength at a w/cm of 0.5 and 20% SCM replacement. Except for the (slightly higher) 3-day strength of pumice pozz, all ranges are within the limits prescribed by ASTM C109.

RESULTS: The pumice pozzolan and fly ash mortar mixtures gained strength slowly at first, but by 28 days had surpassed control (OPC). At 365 days, the pumice-enhanced specimens had significantly higher compressive strength, proving the long-term strength and durability benefits of using a pumice SCM.

Concrete slump was measured according to ASTM C 143. The air content of the fresh concrete mixtures was measured according to the pressure method described in ASTM C 231. The unit weight of the mixture was found using the procedures described in ASTM C 29. The setting time of concrete mixtures was found using the procedures of ASTM C 403. In addition to the penetration resistance tests, ultrasonic tests were investigated to continuously monitor the setting process on concrete samples and sieved mortar samples. (This study aims to develop a field applicable nondestructive testing method for in-situ monitoring of the setting and hardening process of concrete.)

RESULTS: The pumice SCM concrete mixture was able achieve the target slump with the help of a superplasticizer and achieved final set in 3.4 hours, compared to the final set of the control at 4.5 hours.

Resistance to ASR was measured according to the procedures of ASTM C 1293, except for the concrete mixture design used, which is detailed in the MIXTURE DESIGN table below. The average expansion for each mixture was calculated from three or more bars, and the range was checked to see whether it was within the limits stated in ASTM C 1293.

RESULTS: The pumice SCM concrete mixture performed very well, and kept expansions below the 0.04% limit of ASTM C 1293, validating the results found from the ASTM C 1567 Accelerated Mortar Bar Test for ASR. The table below lists the average expansion of the concrete prisms at 24 months, along with the range of the data.

The yellow dots in the graph represent the ACI 201: Guide to Durability limits of Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3 sulfate exposure. An SCM qualifies for a Class 1 mild sulfate exposure if it can keep expansions below 0.1% for 6 months, when tested for sulfate attack using ASTM C 1012. Similarly, an SCM qualifies for a Class 2 moderate sulfate exposure at expansions below 0.1% for 12 months. Finally, a Class 3 severe sulfate exposure requires the SCM to keep expansions below 0.1% for 18 months.

The chloride penetrability of concrete cylinders that were cured for 32 weeks was measured according to ASTM C 1202. Although the standard does not require repeat testing, three or more cylinders per concrete mixture were tested for rapid chloride penetrability. The range of the data was checked to see whether it was within the limits prescribed by ASTM C 1202.

RESULTS: There are no well-established paste and mortar tests for this measurement, but this durability property is crucial, as the ingress of chloride ions can depassivate the steel in concrete and cause corrosion, without needing a drop in the pH content. At 32 weeks, all the SCM-concrete samples had less than 1000 coulombs of total charge passing through them when tested, which indicates very low chloride ion penetrability, according to ASTM C 1202. The overall results indicate that increasing the SCM content also increased the resistance to chloride ion penetrability.

RESULTS: The pumice SCM concrete mixture had negligible differences in shrinkage compared to the control when used at a replacement dosage of 15%. However, the amount of shrinkage increased to more than 0.010% of the control as the replacement dosage was increased to 25%.

The CoTE value was measured according to the TxDOT procedures of Tex-428-A. CoTE measurement is another test that was not performed during the paste and mortar phase of the project. However, it is an important durability property to know, especially when considering the performance of concrete pavements, as concrete with a high CoTE can cause early age cracking and joint spalling. In continuously reinforced concrete pavements, a high CoTE value of the concrete may increase the crack spacing and width, affecting the crack load transfer efficiency. Although CoTE is primarily dominated by the aggregate type and source, the SCM type and content could also have smaller effects on the value. As such, these experiments were conducted to ensure that these pozzolans did not have any detrimental effects on the CoTE value of concrete.

RESULTS: The pumice SCM specimen tested for CoTE showed compliance with Tex-428-A. The difference in CoTE values between the control specimen and the pumice SCM-concrete specimen was small, indicating that the use of pumice as an SCM would not cause any detrimental effects to the CoTE value of concrete.

RESULTS: Graphing the test results shows that the calcium hydroxide contents of the SCM pastes are generally always lower than that of the control with no SCM, suggesting that the calcium hydroxide in the SCM pastes is being depleted through the pozzolanic reaction. In particular, the 7-day calcium of the pumice paste was similar to that of the control paste with no SCM, however, by 90 days, the pumice paste demonstrated a significant reduction in its calcium hydroxide content (20% or more), indicating that pozzolanic reactions are taking place in the mixture. The decrease of calcium hydroxide content in the TGA results also suggested that pozzolans contributed to long-term strength by converting the calcium hydroxide in the paste to C-S-H.

fly ash cement - lehigh hanson, inc

fly ash cement - lehigh hanson, inc

Industrial ecology is a way of looking at manufacturing processes as natural ecosystems. The waste of one industrial process becomes the input or raw material for another. Theres no better example of industrial ecology than the use of fly ash to supplement or replace some of the portland cement used in concrete. In addition to lowering energy consumption, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and saving natural resources, fly ash actually makes concrete stronger and more economical.

Our Lehigh Cement Company locations in the Canada Region, such asAlberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Washington State, sell and distribute fly ash as well as make a blended cement called InterCem with its use. In most of our other regions as we manufacture and sell Slag Cement as a supplementary cementing material (SCM).Lehigh Cement has fly ash storage, distribution networks and rail capacity to ensure customers have a sustainable and reliable supply.

Fly ash is a byproduct of coal combustion in electric power plants. Its the very fine ash recovered from exhaust gases by emission-control systems. Fly ash is a pozzolan, virtually identical to volcanic ash.

When used in concrete mixes, fly ash is known as a supplementary cementing material, or SCM. Fly ash is the most widely used SCM, and has been added to concrete since the 1930s. It can supplement cement on its own or used in conjunction with other SCM in blended cements.

Fly ash typically needs no processing and can be delivered from the power plants directly to the ready mixed concrete producer, where it is mixed with traditional ingredients of cement, aggregates and water. Concrete with fly ash is used for all types of construction projects.

More than half of all concrete is made with at least some fly ash as a substitute for part of the cement. Builders routinely use 40 percent fly ash concrete mixes, and the replacement amounts reach as high as 70 percent for some types of construction.

Fly ash is not just filler. Its benefits are both environmental and performance-related. Fly ash can make concrete stronger and more durable. It contributes to sustainable construction by conserving natural resources and lowering energy consumption and emissions. Each ton of fly ash used to replace portland cement saves approximately one ton of carbon dioxide emissions and approximately 0.882 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions are avoided. Fly ash use in North American is equivalent to removing more than 2.5 million cars from the road every year.

fly ash - cement industry news from global cement

fly ash - cement industry news from global cement

North America: Australia-based Boral has signed an agreement with a subsidiary of Westlake Chemical Corporation for the sale of its North American Building Products business. The value of the sale is US$2.15bn and the proceeds will increase Borals surplus capital, enabling it to reduce its net debt target to US$0.98m from US$1.13m. Borals North American Building Products manufactures and supplies cladding, roof tiles, windows and other light building products for residential and commercial markets

Under its on-going review of its North American Fly Ash business, Boral is now considering a divestment, a joint venture or a strategic alliance formation for the subsidiary. It said that it expects to decide by August 2021.

UK: Czech Republic-based EP Power Europe has agreed to acquire ash company Power Minerals from Germany-based Steag. The company supplies UK cement production with fly ash via its three sites centred around its Sutton Coldfield, West Midlands, headquarters.

India: The cement sectors consumption of fly ash has reportedly collapsed since March 2020. The Financial Express newspaper has reported that the sector previously used over 25% of the ash from coal-fired power plants. The Association of Power Producers says that the suspension of cement production during coronavirus lockdown prevented the more of the countrys coal plants than usual from reaching the required 100% utilisation (for plants over three years old) in the 2021 financial year. In the 2020 financial year, 47 of 101 plants utilised 100% of their fly ash. Other uses beside cement production include brick and tile production, roadbuilding and land reclamation.

India: Power company OPGC has dispatched its first shipment of fly ash to ACCs Jhinkpani cement plant in West Singhbhum district, Jharkhand. The Pioneer newspaper has reported that the shipment consists of 3450t of fly ash from its Ib power plant. The power plant has fly ash storage facilities with a capacity of 6900t. It previously supplied ash to a Star Cement cement plant in Assam.

India: Gallantt Industry has ordered a Ready2Grind compact grinding plant from Germany-based Gebr. Pfeiffer for its Gorakhpur cement plant in Uttar Pradesh. The supplier says that the 65t/hr-capacity plant will grind cement to a Blaine fineness of 3750cm/g. The planned MVR 2500 C-4 represents the medium size of the portfolio of the suppliers modular mill range. Due to the planned installation in the vicinity of a steelworks, blast furnace slag, steelworks slag from an induction furnace and fly ash from an in-house power plant will also be considered as supplementary cementitious materials addition to clinker and gypsum. The mill will be equipped with a 1270kW main drive and an integrated SLS 2650 VC high-performance classifier.

US: Energy company Luminant has awarded Charah Solutions a fly ash management contract extension for its Miami Fort and Zimmer coal-fired power plants in North Bend and Moscow, Ohio. Charah Solutions says that it will pass on the ash for use in concrete production. It will continue to manage the onsite landfill and impoundment operations under its existing contract with Luminant, including material loading, hauling and disposal of approximately 180,000t/yr. In addition, Charah Solutions will be responsible for the beneficiation and utilisation of approximately 400,000t/yr of fly ash. The contract ends in 2027, when both power plants are expected to close.

President and chief executive officer Scott Sewell said We have been proud to partner with Luminant on its sustainability efforts for many years and are delighted to extend our relationship at these Ohio sites through 2027. We have dramatically reduced the need to landfill fly ash at Miami Fort and Zimmer through our on-going partnership, saving Luminant both expense and valuable landfill space while lowering their risk. He added As a result of this expanded agreement, Charah Solutions will continue to provide a reliable supply of high-quality fly ash to ready mix concrete producers in the Midwest, Northeast and deep South through our MultiSource network.

US: Australia-based Boral Limited says that as part of the review of its North American Fly Ash business, it is considering options such as a potential joint venture, a strategic alliance, divestment to a third-party or continued ownership. Boral has appointed advisors to support an assessment and intends to release an update by August 2021 or earlier if appropriate.

We have conducted a detailed study of the US fly ash industry and remain confident in the long term demand dynamics for the industry, including significant incremental demand growth potential from the US Governments proposed new infrastructure program, said Borals chief executive officer and managing director Zlatko Todorcevski. New opportunities for supply exist from harvesting landfills, imports and natural pozzolans, which we expect will more than offset the decline in fresh fly ash supply as the US transitions away from coal fired power generation.

US: Salt River Materials subsidiary Phoenix Cement Plant is working with ST Equipment & Technology (STET) on a fly ash separation system at a power plant in Utah. The cement producer previously secured a contract with a power plant in the state for the supply of fly ash to its Clarkdale cement plant in Yavapai county, Arizona. STET is supplying the separation equipment, engineering and commissioning services, and an exclusive technology operating license for Salt River Materials. Operations are schedule to start in mid-2021.

Pozzolan business senior vice president Dale Diulus said "Salt River Materials and STET have been working closely to develop a commercially effective beneficiation process improving the quality of the fly ash." He added "We look forward to many years of fly ash sales into the southwestern US markets."

Indonesia: Semen Baturaja has signed a memorandum of understanding with Huadian Buket Asam Power. Under the agreement, the producer will supply the power company with limestone for its flue gas desulfurisation (FGD) process in exchange for fly ash, bottom ash and gypsum. The agreement will last two years until March 2023.

The cement producers managing director Sumsal Saifudin said, This collaboration is a form of synergy between the two companies to improve competitiveness, which is much-needed in facing an increasingly competitive industrial environment, by taking advantage of opportunities for the creation of new revenue streams and cost transformation.

US: Charah Solutions will sell and market production fly ash from NV Energys North Valmy coal-fired power plant in Valmy, Nevada under a contract with the power producer. The contract runs until 2025. The company will distribute the ash through its 40-location nationwide MultiSource materials network as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) for cement and concrete production.

President and chief executive officer Scott Sewell said, We are delighted to partner with NV Energy to manage their fly ash marketing needs at Valmy, while supplying our concrete producers with the high-quality material they need.

fly ash concrete - what are the reasons for adding fly ash to concrete?

fly ash concrete - what are the reasons for adding fly ash to concrete?

Fly ash concrete is basically the same as regular concrete except some of the cement has been replaced with a material called fly ash.WHAT IS FLY ASH CONCRETE AND HOW IS IT MADE?Before coal is consumed in a power plant, it is first ground into a fine powder. This coal powder is blown into the power plant's boiler, the carbon is consumed leaving molten particles rich in silica, alumina, and calcium.These non-combustible particles solidify as microscopic, ball bearing like, glassy spheres that are collected from the power plant's exhaust before they can fly away. This leftover ash from burning the coal is called fly ash.Chemically, fly ash is a pozzolan. When mixed with lime (calcium hydroxide), pozzolans combine to form cementitious compounds. Fly ash in concrete contributes to a stronger, more durable, and more chemical resistant concrete mix.The main benefit of fly ash for concrete is that it not only reduces the amount of non-durable calcium hydroxide (lime), but in the process converts it into calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), which is the strongest and most durable portion of the paste in concrete.WHY SHOULD YOU CONSIDER FLY ASH CONCRETE?The paste is the key to strong and durable concrete, assuming average quality aggregates are used. At full hydration, concrete made with regular cements produce approximately 1/4 pound of non-durable lime per pound of cement in the mix.A typical concrete mix having 470 pounds of cement per cubic yard has the potential of producing 118 pounds of lime. Fly ash chemically reacts with this lime to create more CSH, the same "glue" produced by the hydration of cement and water.By producing more CSH the paste becomes stronger over time and also closes off more of the capillaries that allow the movement of moisture through the concrete. The result is a stronger, more durable concrete that is less permeable, which aids in the reduction of efflorescence.Efflorescence (white, chalky substance on the surface) is caused by the face of the concrete being wetted and dried repeatedly, or by the movement of water vapor from the damp side of the concrete to the dry side through the capillaries (voids), drawing out the water soluble lime from the concrete.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE ENHANCES WORKABILITYThe "ball bearing" effect of fly ash creates a lubricating effect when concrete is in its plastic state.The benefits of fly ash in concrete:Workability, concrete is easier to place with less effort.Ease of pumping, pumping requires less energy and longer pumping distances are possible.Improved finishing, concrete is creamier with clear sharp architectural patterns easier to achieve.Reduced bleeding, fewer bleed channels decrease permeability and chemical attack.Reduced segregation, improved cohesiveness of fly ash concrete reduces rock pockets, air voids, and bug holes.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE INCREASES PERFORMANCEThe benefits are:Higher strength, fly ash continues to combine with free lime increasing compressive strength over time.Increased durability, dense fly ash concrete helps keep aggressive compounds on the surface.Reduced shrinkage, the lubricating action of flyash concrete reduces water content and drying shrinkage.Reduced heat of hydration, the pozzolanic reaction between fly ash and lime generates less heat, resulting in less thermal cracking when fly ash is used to replace portland cement.Reduced alkali silica reactivity, fly ash combines with alkalis in cement that might otherwise combine with silica from aggregates, causing destructive expansion.FLY ASH CONCRETE IS BETTER FOR THE ENVIRONMENTMore than 12 million tons of coal fly ash are used in concrete products each year. The use of fly ash, a recovered resource, reduces the depletion of natural resources. It also reduces the energy intensive manufacturing of portland cement.This reduction in energy leads to less emissions of greenhouse gases. The use of a ton of fly ash to replace a ton of cement saves enough electricity to power an average american home for 24 days. It also reduces carbon dioxide emissions equal to two months use of an automobile.Fly ash use in concrete qualifies for credit under the U.S. Green Building Council's popular LEED rating system for sustainable construction.The environmental benefits of fly ash concrete might be a good enough reason to consider it for your next concrete project.For other interesting facts about concrete read below:PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

Before coal is consumed in a power plant, it is first ground into a fine powder. This coal powder is blown into the power plant's boiler, the carbon is consumed leaving molten particles rich in silica, alumina, and calcium.

These non-combustible particles solidify as microscopic, ball bearing like, glassy spheres that are collected from the power plant's exhaust before they can fly away. This leftover ash from burning the coal is called fly ash.Chemically, fly ash is a pozzolan. When mixed with lime (calcium hydroxide), pozzolans combine to form cementitious compounds. Fly ash in concrete contributes to a stronger, more durable, and more chemical resistant concrete mix.The main benefit of fly ash for concrete is that it not only reduces the amount of non-durable calcium hydroxide (lime), but in the process converts it into calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), which is the strongest and most durable portion of the paste in concrete.WHY SHOULD YOU CONSIDER FLY ASH CONCRETE?The paste is the key to strong and durable concrete, assuming average quality aggregates are used. At full hydration, concrete made with regular cements produce approximately 1/4 pound of non-durable lime per pound of cement in the mix.A typical concrete mix having 470 pounds of cement per cubic yard has the potential of producing 118 pounds of lime. Fly ash chemically reacts with this lime to create more CSH, the same "glue" produced by the hydration of cement and water.By producing more CSH the paste becomes stronger over time and also closes off more of the capillaries that allow the movement of moisture through the concrete. The result is a stronger, more durable concrete that is less permeable, which aids in the reduction of efflorescence.Efflorescence (white, chalky substance on the surface) is caused by the face of the concrete being wetted and dried repeatedly, or by the movement of water vapor from the damp side of the concrete to the dry side through the capillaries (voids), drawing out the water soluble lime from the concrete.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE ENHANCES WORKABILITYThe "ball bearing" effect of fly ash creates a lubricating effect when concrete is in its plastic state.The benefits of fly ash in concrete:Workability, concrete is easier to place with less effort.Ease of pumping, pumping requires less energy and longer pumping distances are possible.Improved finishing, concrete is creamier with clear sharp architectural patterns easier to achieve.Reduced bleeding, fewer bleed channels decrease permeability and chemical attack.Reduced segregation, improved cohesiveness of fly ash concrete reduces rock pockets, air voids, and bug holes.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE INCREASES PERFORMANCEThe benefits are:Higher strength, fly ash continues to combine with free lime increasing compressive strength over time.Increased durability, dense fly ash concrete helps keep aggressive compounds on the surface.Reduced shrinkage, the lubricating action of flyash concrete reduces water content and drying shrinkage.Reduced heat of hydration, the pozzolanic reaction between fly ash and lime generates less heat, resulting in less thermal cracking when fly ash is used to replace portland cement.Reduced alkali silica reactivity, fly ash combines with alkalis in cement that might otherwise combine with silica from aggregates, causing destructive expansion.FLY ASH CONCRETE IS BETTER FOR THE ENVIRONMENTMore than 12 million tons of coal fly ash are used in concrete products each year. The use of fly ash, a recovered resource, reduces the depletion of natural resources. It also reduces the energy intensive manufacturing of portland cement.This reduction in energy leads to less emissions of greenhouse gases. The use of a ton of fly ash to replace a ton of cement saves enough electricity to power an average american home for 24 days. It also reduces carbon dioxide emissions equal to two months use of an automobile.Fly ash use in concrete qualifies for credit under the U.S. Green Building Council's popular LEED rating system for sustainable construction.The environmental benefits of fly ash concrete might be a good enough reason to consider it for your next concrete project.For other interesting facts about concrete read below:PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

Chemically, fly ash is a pozzolan. When mixed with lime (calcium hydroxide), pozzolans combine to form cementitious compounds. Fly ash in concrete contributes to a stronger, more durable, and more chemical resistant concrete mix.The main benefit of fly ash for concrete is that it not only reduces the amount of non-durable calcium hydroxide (lime), but in the process converts it into calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), which is the strongest and most durable portion of the paste in concrete.WHY SHOULD YOU CONSIDER FLY ASH CONCRETE?The paste is the key to strong and durable concrete, assuming average quality aggregates are used. At full hydration, concrete made with regular cements produce approximately 1/4 pound of non-durable lime per pound of cement in the mix.A typical concrete mix having 470 pounds of cement per cubic yard has the potential of producing 118 pounds of lime. Fly ash chemically reacts with this lime to create more CSH, the same "glue" produced by the hydration of cement and water.By producing more CSH the paste becomes stronger over time and also closes off more of the capillaries that allow the movement of moisture through the concrete. The result is a stronger, more durable concrete that is less permeable, which aids in the reduction of efflorescence.Efflorescence (white, chalky substance on the surface) is caused by the face of the concrete being wetted and dried repeatedly, or by the movement of water vapor from the damp side of the concrete to the dry side through the capillaries (voids), drawing out the water soluble lime from the concrete.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE ENHANCES WORKABILITYThe "ball bearing" effect of fly ash creates a lubricating effect when concrete is in its plastic state.The benefits of fly ash in concrete:Workability, concrete is easier to place with less effort.Ease of pumping, pumping requires less energy and longer pumping distances are possible.Improved finishing, concrete is creamier with clear sharp architectural patterns easier to achieve.Reduced bleeding, fewer bleed channels decrease permeability and chemical attack.Reduced segregation, improved cohesiveness of fly ash concrete reduces rock pockets, air voids, and bug holes.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE INCREASES PERFORMANCEThe benefits are:Higher strength, fly ash continues to combine with free lime increasing compressive strength over time.Increased durability, dense fly ash concrete helps keep aggressive compounds on the surface.Reduced shrinkage, the lubricating action of flyash concrete reduces water content and drying shrinkage.Reduced heat of hydration, the pozzolanic reaction between fly ash and lime generates less heat, resulting in less thermal cracking when fly ash is used to replace portland cement.Reduced alkali silica reactivity, fly ash combines with alkalis in cement that might otherwise combine with silica from aggregates, causing destructive expansion.FLY ASH CONCRETE IS BETTER FOR THE ENVIRONMENTMore than 12 million tons of coal fly ash are used in concrete products each year. The use of fly ash, a recovered resource, reduces the depletion of natural resources. It also reduces the energy intensive manufacturing of portland cement.This reduction in energy leads to less emissions of greenhouse gases. The use of a ton of fly ash to replace a ton of cement saves enough electricity to power an average american home for 24 days. It also reduces carbon dioxide emissions equal to two months use of an automobile.Fly ash use in concrete qualifies for credit under the U.S. Green Building Council's popular LEED rating system for sustainable construction.The environmental benefits of fly ash concrete might be a good enough reason to consider it for your next concrete project.For other interesting facts about concrete read below:PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

The main benefit of fly ash for concrete is that it not only reduces the amount of non-durable calcium hydroxide (lime), but in the process converts it into calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), which is the strongest and most durable portion of the paste in concrete.WHY SHOULD YOU CONSIDER FLY ASH CONCRETE?The paste is the key to strong and durable concrete, assuming average quality aggregates are used. At full hydration, concrete made with regular cements produce approximately 1/4 pound of non-durable lime per pound of cement in the mix.A typical concrete mix having 470 pounds of cement per cubic yard has the potential of producing 118 pounds of lime. Fly ash chemically reacts with this lime to create more CSH, the same "glue" produced by the hydration of cement and water.By producing more CSH the paste becomes stronger over time and also closes off more of the capillaries that allow the movement of moisture through the concrete. The result is a stronger, more durable concrete that is less permeable, which aids in the reduction of efflorescence.Efflorescence (white, chalky substance on the surface) is caused by the face of the concrete being wetted and dried repeatedly, or by the movement of water vapor from the damp side of the concrete to the dry side through the capillaries (voids), drawing out the water soluble lime from the concrete.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE ENHANCES WORKABILITYThe "ball bearing" effect of fly ash creates a lubricating effect when concrete is in its plastic state.The benefits of fly ash in concrete:Workability, concrete is easier to place with less effort.Ease of pumping, pumping requires less energy and longer pumping distances are possible.Improved finishing, concrete is creamier with clear sharp architectural patterns easier to achieve.Reduced bleeding, fewer bleed channels decrease permeability and chemical attack.Reduced segregation, improved cohesiveness of fly ash concrete reduces rock pockets, air voids, and bug holes.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE INCREASES PERFORMANCEThe benefits are:Higher strength, fly ash continues to combine with free lime increasing compressive strength over time.Increased durability, dense fly ash concrete helps keep aggressive compounds on the surface.Reduced shrinkage, the lubricating action of flyash concrete reduces water content and drying shrinkage.Reduced heat of hydration, the pozzolanic reaction between fly ash and lime generates less heat, resulting in less thermal cracking when fly ash is used to replace portland cement.Reduced alkali silica reactivity, fly ash combines with alkalis in cement that might otherwise combine with silica from aggregates, causing destructive expansion.FLY ASH CONCRETE IS BETTER FOR THE ENVIRONMENTMore than 12 million tons of coal fly ash are used in concrete products each year. The use of fly ash, a recovered resource, reduces the depletion of natural resources. It also reduces the energy intensive manufacturing of portland cement.This reduction in energy leads to less emissions of greenhouse gases. The use of a ton of fly ash to replace a ton of cement saves enough electricity to power an average american home for 24 days. It also reduces carbon dioxide emissions equal to two months use of an automobile.Fly ash use in concrete qualifies for credit under the U.S. Green Building Council's popular LEED rating system for sustainable construction.The environmental benefits of fly ash concrete might be a good enough reason to consider it for your next concrete project.For other interesting facts about concrete read below:PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

The paste is the key to strong and durable concrete, assuming average quality aggregates are used. At full hydration, concrete made with regular cements produce approximately 1/4 pound of non-durable lime per pound of cement in the mix.A typical concrete mix having 470 pounds of cement per cubic yard has the potential of producing 118 pounds of lime. Fly ash chemically reacts with this lime to create more CSH, the same "glue" produced by the hydration of cement and water.By producing more CSH the paste becomes stronger over time and also closes off more of the capillaries that allow the movement of moisture through the concrete. The result is a stronger, more durable concrete that is less permeable, which aids in the reduction of efflorescence.Efflorescence (white, chalky substance on the surface) is caused by the face of the concrete being wetted and dried repeatedly, or by the movement of water vapor from the damp side of the concrete to the dry side through the capillaries (voids), drawing out the water soluble lime from the concrete.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE ENHANCES WORKABILITYThe "ball bearing" effect of fly ash creates a lubricating effect when concrete is in its plastic state.The benefits of fly ash in concrete:Workability, concrete is easier to place with less effort.Ease of pumping, pumping requires less energy and longer pumping distances are possible.Improved finishing, concrete is creamier with clear sharp architectural patterns easier to achieve.Reduced bleeding, fewer bleed channels decrease permeability and chemical attack.Reduced segregation, improved cohesiveness of fly ash concrete reduces rock pockets, air voids, and bug holes.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE INCREASES PERFORMANCEThe benefits are:Higher strength, fly ash continues to combine with free lime increasing compressive strength over time.Increased durability, dense fly ash concrete helps keep aggressive compounds on the surface.Reduced shrinkage, the lubricating action of flyash concrete reduces water content and drying shrinkage.Reduced heat of hydration, the pozzolanic reaction between fly ash and lime generates less heat, resulting in less thermal cracking when fly ash is used to replace portland cement.Reduced alkali silica reactivity, fly ash combines with alkalis in cement that might otherwise combine with silica from aggregates, causing destructive expansion.FLY ASH CONCRETE IS BETTER FOR THE ENVIRONMENTMore than 12 million tons of coal fly ash are used in concrete products each year. The use of fly ash, a recovered resource, reduces the depletion of natural resources. It also reduces the energy intensive manufacturing of portland cement.This reduction in energy leads to less emissions of greenhouse gases. The use of a ton of fly ash to replace a ton of cement saves enough electricity to power an average american home for 24 days. It also reduces carbon dioxide emissions equal to two months use of an automobile.Fly ash use in concrete qualifies for credit under the U.S. Green Building Council's popular LEED rating system for sustainable construction.The environmental benefits of fly ash concrete might be a good enough reason to consider it for your next concrete project.For other interesting facts about concrete read below:PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

A typical concrete mix having 470 pounds of cement per cubic yard has the potential of producing 118 pounds of lime. Fly ash chemically reacts with this lime to create more CSH, the same "glue" produced by the hydration of cement and water.By producing more CSH the paste becomes stronger over time and also closes off more of the capillaries that allow the movement of moisture through the concrete. The result is a stronger, more durable concrete that is less permeable, which aids in the reduction of efflorescence.Efflorescence (white, chalky substance on the surface) is caused by the face of the concrete being wetted and dried repeatedly, or by the movement of water vapor from the damp side of the concrete to the dry side through the capillaries (voids), drawing out the water soluble lime from the concrete.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE ENHANCES WORKABILITYThe "ball bearing" effect of fly ash creates a lubricating effect when concrete is in its plastic state.The benefits of fly ash in concrete:Workability, concrete is easier to place with less effort.Ease of pumping, pumping requires less energy and longer pumping distances are possible.Improved finishing, concrete is creamier with clear sharp architectural patterns easier to achieve.Reduced bleeding, fewer bleed channels decrease permeability and chemical attack.Reduced segregation, improved cohesiveness of fly ash concrete reduces rock pockets, air voids, and bug holes.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE INCREASES PERFORMANCEThe benefits are:Higher strength, fly ash continues to combine with free lime increasing compressive strength over time.Increased durability, dense fly ash concrete helps keep aggressive compounds on the surface.Reduced shrinkage, the lubricating action of flyash concrete reduces water content and drying shrinkage.Reduced heat of hydration, the pozzolanic reaction between fly ash and lime generates less heat, resulting in less thermal cracking when fly ash is used to replace portland cement.Reduced alkali silica reactivity, fly ash combines with alkalis in cement that might otherwise combine with silica from aggregates, causing destructive expansion.FLY ASH CONCRETE IS BETTER FOR THE ENVIRONMENTMore than 12 million tons of coal fly ash are used in concrete products each year. The use of fly ash, a recovered resource, reduces the depletion of natural resources. It also reduces the energy intensive manufacturing of portland cement.This reduction in energy leads to less emissions of greenhouse gases. The use of a ton of fly ash to replace a ton of cement saves enough electricity to power an average american home for 24 days. It also reduces carbon dioxide emissions equal to two months use of an automobile.Fly ash use in concrete qualifies for credit under the U.S. Green Building Council's popular LEED rating system for sustainable construction.The environmental benefits of fly ash concrete might be a good enough reason to consider it for your next concrete project.For other interesting facts about concrete read below:PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

By producing more CSH the paste becomes stronger over time and also closes off more of the capillaries that allow the movement of moisture through the concrete. The result is a stronger, more durable concrete that is less permeable, which aids in the reduction of efflorescence.Efflorescence (white, chalky substance on the surface) is caused by the face of the concrete being wetted and dried repeatedly, or by the movement of water vapor from the damp side of the concrete to the dry side through the capillaries (voids), drawing out the water soluble lime from the concrete.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE ENHANCES WORKABILITYThe "ball bearing" effect of fly ash creates a lubricating effect when concrete is in its plastic state.The benefits of fly ash in concrete:Workability, concrete is easier to place with less effort.Ease of pumping, pumping requires less energy and longer pumping distances are possible.Improved finishing, concrete is creamier with clear sharp architectural patterns easier to achieve.Reduced bleeding, fewer bleed channels decrease permeability and chemical attack.Reduced segregation, improved cohesiveness of fly ash concrete reduces rock pockets, air voids, and bug holes.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE INCREASES PERFORMANCEThe benefits are:Higher strength, fly ash continues to combine with free lime increasing compressive strength over time.Increased durability, dense fly ash concrete helps keep aggressive compounds on the surface.Reduced shrinkage, the lubricating action of flyash concrete reduces water content and drying shrinkage.Reduced heat of hydration, the pozzolanic reaction between fly ash and lime generates less heat, resulting in less thermal cracking when fly ash is used to replace portland cement.Reduced alkali silica reactivity, fly ash combines with alkalis in cement that might otherwise combine with silica from aggregates, causing destructive expansion.FLY ASH CONCRETE IS BETTER FOR THE ENVIRONMENTMore than 12 million tons of coal fly ash are used in concrete products each year. The use of fly ash, a recovered resource, reduces the depletion of natural resources. It also reduces the energy intensive manufacturing of portland cement.This reduction in energy leads to less emissions of greenhouse gases. The use of a ton of fly ash to replace a ton of cement saves enough electricity to power an average american home for 24 days. It also reduces carbon dioxide emissions equal to two months use of an automobile.Fly ash use in concrete qualifies for credit under the U.S. Green Building Council's popular LEED rating system for sustainable construction.The environmental benefits of fly ash concrete might be a good enough reason to consider it for your next concrete project.For other interesting facts about concrete read below:PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

Efflorescence (white, chalky substance on the surface) is caused by the face of the concrete being wetted and dried repeatedly, or by the movement of water vapor from the damp side of the concrete to the dry side through the capillaries (voids), drawing out the water soluble lime from the concrete.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE ENHANCES WORKABILITYThe "ball bearing" effect of fly ash creates a lubricating effect when concrete is in its plastic state.The benefits of fly ash in concrete:Workability, concrete is easier to place with less effort.Ease of pumping, pumping requires less energy and longer pumping distances are possible.Improved finishing, concrete is creamier with clear sharp architectural patterns easier to achieve.Reduced bleeding, fewer bleed channels decrease permeability and chemical attack.Reduced segregation, improved cohesiveness of fly ash concrete reduces rock pockets, air voids, and bug holes.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE INCREASES PERFORMANCEThe benefits are:Higher strength, fly ash continues to combine with free lime increasing compressive strength over time.Increased durability, dense fly ash concrete helps keep aggressive compounds on the surface.Reduced shrinkage, the lubricating action of flyash concrete reduces water content and drying shrinkage.Reduced heat of hydration, the pozzolanic reaction between fly ash and lime generates less heat, resulting in less thermal cracking when fly ash is used to replace portland cement.Reduced alkali silica reactivity, fly ash combines with alkalis in cement that might otherwise combine with silica from aggregates, causing destructive expansion.FLY ASH CONCRETE IS BETTER FOR THE ENVIRONMENTMore than 12 million tons of coal fly ash are used in concrete products each year. The use of fly ash, a recovered resource, reduces the depletion of natural resources. It also reduces the energy intensive manufacturing of portland cement.This reduction in energy leads to less emissions of greenhouse gases. The use of a ton of fly ash to replace a ton of cement saves enough electricity to power an average american home for 24 days. It also reduces carbon dioxide emissions equal to two months use of an automobile.Fly ash use in concrete qualifies for credit under the U.S. Green Building Council's popular LEED rating system for sustainable construction.The environmental benefits of fly ash concrete might be a good enough reason to consider it for your next concrete project.For other interesting facts about concrete read below:PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

The "ball bearing" effect of fly ash creates a lubricating effect when concrete is in its plastic state.The benefits of fly ash in concrete:Workability, concrete is easier to place with less effort.Ease of pumping, pumping requires less energy and longer pumping distances are possible.Improved finishing, concrete is creamier with clear sharp architectural patterns easier to achieve.Reduced bleeding, fewer bleed channels decrease permeability and chemical attack.Reduced segregation, improved cohesiveness of fly ash concrete reduces rock pockets, air voids, and bug holes.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE INCREASES PERFORMANCEThe benefits are:Higher strength, fly ash continues to combine with free lime increasing compressive strength over time.Increased durability, dense fly ash concrete helps keep aggressive compounds on the surface.Reduced shrinkage, the lubricating action of flyash concrete reduces water content and drying shrinkage.Reduced heat of hydration, the pozzolanic reaction between fly ash and lime generates less heat, resulting in less thermal cracking when fly ash is used to replace portland cement.Reduced alkali silica reactivity, fly ash combines with alkalis in cement that might otherwise combine with silica from aggregates, causing destructive expansion.FLY ASH CONCRETE IS BETTER FOR THE ENVIRONMENTMore than 12 million tons of coal fly ash are used in concrete products each year. The use of fly ash, a recovered resource, reduces the depletion of natural resources. It also reduces the energy intensive manufacturing of portland cement.This reduction in energy leads to less emissions of greenhouse gases. The use of a ton of fly ash to replace a ton of cement saves enough electricity to power an average american home for 24 days. It also reduces carbon dioxide emissions equal to two months use of an automobile.Fly ash use in concrete qualifies for credit under the U.S. Green Building Council's popular LEED rating system for sustainable construction.The environmental benefits of fly ash concrete might be a good enough reason to consider it for your next concrete project.For other interesting facts about concrete read below:PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

The benefits of fly ash in concrete:Workability, concrete is easier to place with less effort.Ease of pumping, pumping requires less energy and longer pumping distances are possible.Improved finishing, concrete is creamier with clear sharp architectural patterns easier to achieve.Reduced bleeding, fewer bleed channels decrease permeability and chemical attack.Reduced segregation, improved cohesiveness of fly ash concrete reduces rock pockets, air voids, and bug holes.FLY ASH IN CONCRETE INCREASES PERFORMANCEThe benefits are:Higher strength, fly ash continues to combine with free lime increasing compressive strength over time.Increased durability, dense fly ash concrete helps keep aggressive compounds on the surface.Reduced shrinkage, the lubricating action of flyash concrete reduces water content and drying shrinkage.Reduced heat of hydration, the pozzolanic reaction between fly ash and lime generates less heat, resulting in less thermal cracking when fly ash is used to replace portland cement.Reduced alkali silica reactivity, fly ash combines with alkalis in cement that might otherwise combine with silica from aggregates, causing destructive expansion.FLY ASH CONCRETE IS BETTER FOR THE ENVIRONMENTMore than 12 million tons of coal fly ash are used in concrete products each year. The use of fly ash, a recovered resource, reduces the depletion of natural resources. It also reduces the energy intensive manufacturing of portland cement.This reduction in energy leads to less emissions of greenhouse gases. The use of a ton of fly ash to replace a ton of cement saves enough electricity to power an average american home for 24 days. It also reduces carbon dioxide emissions equal to two months use of an automobile.Fly ash use in concrete qualifies for credit under the U.S. Green Building Council's popular LEED rating system for sustainable construction.The environmental benefits of fly ash concrete might be a good enough reason to consider it for your next concrete project.For other interesting facts about concrete read below:PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

The benefits are:Higher strength, fly ash continues to combine with free lime increasing compressive strength over time.Increased durability, dense fly ash concrete helps keep aggressive compounds on the surface.Reduced shrinkage, the lubricating action of flyash concrete reduces water content and drying shrinkage.Reduced heat of hydration, the pozzolanic reaction between fly ash and lime generates less heat, resulting in less thermal cracking when fly ash is used to replace portland cement.Reduced alkali silica reactivity, fly ash combines with alkalis in cement that might otherwise combine with silica from aggregates, causing destructive expansion.FLY ASH CONCRETE IS BETTER FOR THE ENVIRONMENTMore than 12 million tons of coal fly ash are used in concrete products each year. The use of fly ash, a recovered resource, reduces the depletion of natural resources. It also reduces the energy intensive manufacturing of portland cement.This reduction in energy leads to less emissions of greenhouse gases. The use of a ton of fly ash to replace a ton of cement saves enough electricity to power an average american home for 24 days. It also reduces carbon dioxide emissions equal to two months use of an automobile.Fly ash use in concrete qualifies for credit under the U.S. Green Building Council's popular LEED rating system for sustainable construction.The environmental benefits of fly ash concrete might be a good enough reason to consider it for your next concrete project.For other interesting facts about concrete read below:PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

More than 12 million tons of coal fly ash are used in concrete products each year. The use of fly ash, a recovered resource, reduces the depletion of natural resources. It also reduces the energy intensive manufacturing of portland cement.This reduction in energy leads to less emissions of greenhouse gases. The use of a ton of fly ash to replace a ton of cement saves enough electricity to power an average american home for 24 days. It also reduces carbon dioxide emissions equal to two months use of an automobile.Fly ash use in concrete qualifies for credit under the U.S. Green Building Council's popular LEED rating system for sustainable construction.The environmental benefits of fly ash concrete might be a good enough reason to consider it for your next concrete project.For other interesting facts about concrete read below:PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

This reduction in energy leads to less emissions of greenhouse gases. The use of a ton of fly ash to replace a ton of cement saves enough electricity to power an average american home for 24 days. It also reduces carbon dioxide emissions equal to two months use of an automobile.Fly ash use in concrete qualifies for credit under the U.S. Green Building Council's popular LEED rating system for sustainable construction.The environmental benefits of fly ash concrete might be a good enough reason to consider it for your next concrete project.For other interesting facts about concrete read below:PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

Fly ash use in concrete qualifies for credit under the U.S. Green Building Council's popular LEED rating system for sustainable construction.The environmental benefits of fly ash concrete might be a good enough reason to consider it for your next concrete project.For other interesting facts about concrete read below:PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

The environmental benefits of fly ash concrete might be a good enough reason to consider it for your next concrete project.For other interesting facts about concrete read below:PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

For other interesting facts about concrete read below:PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

PROPERTIES OF CONCRETEDENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

DENSITY OF CONCRETECONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

CONCRETE ADMIXTURESSCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

SCC CONCRETE ALSO KNOW AS SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETELIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETEREDI MIX CONCRETEWHAT IS SHOTCRETE?Return from Fly ash concrete to History of concreteReturn from Fly ash concrete to Everything-About-Concrete Home Page

Hi, I am Mike Day, owner of Days Concrete Floors, Inc. in Maine, where I've been working with concrete for 40 years now, and this website is where I can share with you all the knowledge and wisdom I've gained from installing all kinds of decorative concrete, concrete floors, concrete overlays, stained concrete and also fixing cracked or spalled concrete.Theres a lot to cover, so if you have any questions, contact me!JOIN MY PRIVATETRAINING ACADEMY HERESEE ME ON YOUTUBE!USE THE SAME TOOLS I DO!LEARN HOW TO EPOXY A GARAGE FLOORFREE CONCRETE FINISHING TRAINING TUTORIAL VIDEORecent ArticlesConcrete Yardage Calculators - How Much Do I Need For Any Type of JobFind the perfect concrete calculator to figure cubic yardage (and cubic meters) for any type of concrete project. Floors, slabs, walls and much more.Read MoreThe Formula To Calculate Concrete Yardage - How Much Do I Need?See examples using these formulas to calculate concrete yardage for square slabs, round slabs, cylinders, sono tubes, stairs, steps, curbs, footings, and walls.Read MoreConcrete Overlays - For Countertops, Patios, Driveways, Where To BuyLearn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read MoreAdvertise hereLANGUAGE TRANSLATOR

Theres a lot to cover, so if you have any questions, contact me!JOIN MY PRIVATETRAINING ACADEMY HERESEE ME ON YOUTUBE!USE THE SAME TOOLS I DO!LEARN HOW TO EPOXY A GARAGE FLOORFREE CONCRETE FINISHING TRAINING TUTORIAL VIDEORecent ArticlesConcrete Yardage Calculators - How Much Do I Need For Any Type of JobFind the perfect concrete calculator to figure cubic yardage (and cubic meters) for any type of concrete project. Floors, slabs, walls and much more.Read MoreThe Formula To Calculate Concrete Yardage - How Much Do I Need?See examples using these formulas to calculate concrete yardage for square slabs, round slabs, cylinders, sono tubes, stairs, steps, curbs, footings, and walls.Read MoreConcrete Overlays - For Countertops, Patios, Driveways, Where To BuyLearn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read MoreAdvertise hereLANGUAGE TRANSLATOR

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TRAINING ACADEMY HERESEE ME ON YOUTUBE!USE THE SAME TOOLS I DO!LEARN HOW TO EPOXY A GARAGE FLOORFREE CONCRETE FINISHING TRAINING TUTORIAL VIDEORecent ArticlesConcrete Yardage Calculators - How Much Do I Need For Any Type of JobFind the perfect concrete calculator to figure cubic yardage (and cubic meters) for any type of concrete project. Floors, slabs, walls and much more.Read MoreThe Formula To Calculate Concrete Yardage - How Much Do I Need?See examples using these formulas to calculate concrete yardage for square slabs, round slabs, cylinders, sono tubes, stairs, steps, curbs, footings, and walls.Read MoreConcrete Overlays - For Countertops, Patios, Driveways, Where To BuyLearn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read MoreAdvertise hereLANGUAGE TRANSLATOR

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See examples using these formulas to calculate concrete yardage for square slabs, round slabs, cylinders, sono tubes, stairs, steps, curbs, footings, and walls.Read MoreConcrete Overlays - For Countertops, Patios, Driveways, Where To BuyLearn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read More

Read MoreConcrete Overlays - For Countertops, Patios, Driveways, Where To BuyLearn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read More

Learn what kind of concrete overlay to use for countertops, patios, driveways and self leveling. Find how much overlays cost and where to get them.Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read More

Read MoreStamped Concrete Patterns - Examples, Designs, Pics, Where To Buy!See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read More

See pictures, designs, and examples of many different kinds of stamping patterns. Also, where is the best place to buy concrete stamps.Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read More

Read MoreHow To Stamp A Concrete Patio - Learn From Mike Day's Training CourseLearn how to stamp concrete from Expert stamped concrete contractor Mike Day. Watch and learn from multiple training videos. Valuable Tips and insights.Read More

indian government to build cement plants near power plants to use fly ash - cement industry news from global cement

indian government to build cement plants near power plants to use fly ash - cement industry news from global cement

India: The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has decided to form a multi-disciplinary committee to examine the possibility of building cement plants near to power plants to use fly ash. The decision was taken at the ministry's Expert Appraisal Committee (EAC) for thermal power projects in mid-February 2017 following a directive by the National Green Tribunal (NGT) in January 2017, according to the Mint newspaper.

"Only 20 - 30% of fly ash is being currently used in making Pozzolana Portland Cement (PPC). Though there are technologies available worldwide for using 80% of fly ash in cement manufacturing, it is not practised in India for various reasons," said an expert committee convened by the ministry.

A sub-committee may be formed with the representative Ministry of Mines, Ministry of Power, CEA (Central Electricity Authority), Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) and Ministry of Coal to examine the issue. In 2015, about 180Mt of fly ash was produced across India and by 2025 it is estimated to reach 300Mt/yr. Unused fly ash is typically dumped into ash ponds.

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