Of noble birth, Altieri was in the service of the papal embassy in Poland from 1623 to 1627, when he returned to Italy to become bishop of Camerino. Until his appointment as cardinal by Pope Clement IX in 1669, he held numerous church offices, including papal ambassador to Naples. After a long conclave, the 79-year-old cardinal was elected pope on April 29.
Despite his advanced age, Clement held firm against French arrogance. Like his predecessor, he failedlargely because of King Louis XIV of Franceto rouse Europe against the Turks, who were menacing the Mediterranean. He resisted Louiss demand that the collection of revenues from vacant sees were Louiss right. Clement organized papal finances and gave Poland considerable aid against Turkish invasion. He erected at Rome the Palazzo Altieri and the fountains in St. Peters piazza. Well loved, he canonized the celebrated SS. Cajetan of Thiene, Francis Borgia, and Rose of Lima, South Americas first saint.
Use this free concrete calculator to determine how much concrete you need. Knowing how much concrete is needed for a job is incredibly important. Learn how to correctly calculate how much concrete mix you will need for your job.
Larger jobs such as driveways are easier to complete when ordering concrete by the yard, rather than trying to mix bag after bag by hand. For smaller jobs, like a walkway, modest patio or footings, you should calculate the number of concrete bags instead.
If youre purchasing bagged concrete you may be able to have it delivered, but if it is only a few bags youll be responsible for transporting it yourself. Youll also need additional equipment for mixing the concrete. A rented mixer can be very helpful, but a wheelbarrow works for just a few bags.
If youre planning to order concrete from a ready mix supplier, theyll need to know how many yards of concrete to deliver. Many ready mix companies will have a minimum order of 1 yard, and will charge shortage fees when ordering partial batches. The average truck holds between 9 and 11 yards total. If your project requires more concrete, multiple trucks will be necessary.
The excavator may have dug too deep, or it may have rained and footings needed to be dug out deeper to reach firm soil. So it is important to check a variety of spots on your footing and get an average size. Then use the calculator to figure the amount of concrete needed.
A perfectly placed order of concrete will finish the job with a small amount left over. A 20 cubic yard order with 1 cubic yard left over is a good order. A 20 cubic yard order that comes up cubic yard short is not a good order.
It can be upsetting to end up with any extra concrete. You are having to pay for this concrete after all. However, realize you are doing your job a service by ordering enough concrete - which means you are going to have a little concrete left.
After you have chosen a Ready Mix Supplier, have a representative come to your site to give his/her opinion on the quantity required. Compare the figure with what you came up with. Discuss any variances with the supplier.
Your ready mix supplier is invaluable for checking your view of job conditions, checking your margin of safety, identifying issues you may not have thought of, and informing you of any local conditions you need to be aware of.
CEMEX Day 2021 will be a live video webcast presentation on Thursday, June 24, 2021, starting at 10:00 AM ET in which members of our senior management will provide an update on our business, financial, and climate action strategy.
When it comes to finding out whats inside a concrete slab, non-destructive options are generally the first choice. The two main options are the use of x-rays or ground penetrating radar (GPR) to see into the concrete slab or structure. Both provide a closer look at whats inside, including rebar, conduit, post-tension cables, and more.
GPR usage is often the first choice when scanning concrete, and for good reason. Its an extremely effective method of determining what lies inside of concrete structures. Ground penetrating radar is non-destructive and emits no harmful radiation. It can be used to quickly scan large areas with no prior set-up necessary. Access is only needed for one side of a slab or structure, and the radar can generally penetrate depths of 18-24. GPR use is comparatively lower in cost than other methods such as x-ray imaging.
While concrete x-ray is an older form of technology, its extremely effective at providing clear imaging. X-ray is generally considered more precise than GPR scanning since there is less room for interpretation of the results. The x-ray is able to show more detail about the condition of embedded objects such as rebar- its even possible to show areas of corrosion or other defects.
GPR scanning is the #1 choice for concrete scanning and imaging due to its speed, efficiency, accuracy and cost effectiveness. X-ray imaging requires access to both sides of the concrete making it difficult to use in many instances. The use of x-ray imaging also emits harmful radiation to technicians and those in the area- special precautions must be taken to ensure site safety. For this reason x-ray work is generally performed after hours, adding to the overall cost. The x-ray process is slower than GPR scanning, and images must be developed off-site as opposed to the immediate results which can be provided when using GPR. X-ray images may be inadvertently flipped by the technician interpreting the results, leading to an incorrect analysis.
Ground penetrating radar is considered the go-to technology for concrete scanning, though accurate interpretation of results is dependent upon properly trained technicians. Ground penetrating radar has fewer limitations that x-ray imaging and the quality of the results is generally more than sufficient for most applications. Use of x-ray may be advisable when GPR scanning is unable to pick up necessary detail, or in an instance where tight tolerances call for absolute precision.
Note: GPRS does not provide geophysical, geological, land surveying or engineering services. If you need such services, please contact an appropriate professional. What does an underground utility locator do?
When I was a young teenager, I saved up for my first good bicyclea Motobecane Grand Record. The Motobecane was my first exposure to Reynolds tubing, Campagnolo derailleurs, andClement tires. While the Grand Records tires didnt have the pedigree of Clements Paris Roubaix or Criterium Seta models, the Elvezias were a huge step up from the clinchers I was used to. More than 35 years later, Clement is still producing bicycle tires, but with an emphasis on dirt-friendly tubulars and clinchers.
One of Clements newer offerings is the XPlor MSO. As the name implies, this 700x40C tire is designed for on- and off-pavement exploring. To help reduce rolling resistance, the XPlor feaures a compact, low-profile tread pattern thats very quiet on the road, but still hooks up when the pavement ends. Folding beads keep the weight to a respectable 485 grams. Inflated to the max 90psi, my 60tpi MSO samples measured 39.5mm knob-to-knob, and 37.5mm at the casing (on Sun/Ringle Equalizer 23 rims).
One of the first things that I noticed about the XPlor tires was how smooth and quiet they were on pavement. For such a large tire, they felt lively and quick, even when inflated to only 50psi (front) and 60psi (rear). Cornering on the MSOs was predictable, and I didnt notice any knob squirm. As an aside, both tires easily mounted without any wobbles or hops. While this may seem trivial, it always puts my mind at ease when Im testing a new or unfamiliar tire.
In the dirt, the Clements are fast, but still very predictable. Theres enough tread to keep you out of trouble, but not so much that they prevent you from hammering when you want to really motor. The XPlor excels on hardpack and in small, fine gravel. Flotation was good for a 40mm tire, but I found that I had to drop down to around 40psi in front and 50psi in back to cope with rougher conditions. The MSOs profile has a slight peak which reduces the tires overall footprint, and this can make things a little tricky in very deep gravel or extremely soft/powdery dirt.
If youre looking for a tire with more cushion than a typical cross model, but dont want the heft of a monstercross tire, the XPlor should be on your short list. The MSO might not be my first choice for exclusive use on pavement, but for a gravel grinder, they would certainly be one of the first that Id consider.
Nice review, thanks! It might be helpful to know what other similar tires you have tried/tested. As a reader, it would help me to put your comments in context, especially if some of the comparison tires are ones that I have personally ridden.
How do you feel these compare with Kendas Happy Medium tires? My Ritchey ZEDs are finally just about shot, and I need to find a similar 40mm shallow lugged tire. I think I have it narrowed down to those two models, and am wondering which would be better for dry SoCal fire roads and decomposed granite singletrack. And best guesses?
For SoCal conditions, Id go with the Clements. The Kendas are fantastic tires, but they work better in softer, more loamy soil. If youre riding heavily rutted terrain, or very deep gravel, the MSOs peaked cross-section can make things a little tricky. But that same profile makes the Clements very fast rollers (especially on pavement).
Thanks for the feedback! Ive been looking long and hard for the perfect 40mm tire to replace what I have, so glad to have happened across your reviews! Its definitely all hardpack out here, but usually with a light layer of ball-bearing like sand across it! Good times!
Im doing the same comparison of MSOs to Happy Mediums. It sounds like the MSOs will roll faster with high pressure, but need to be aired-down for dirt/gravel due to the center crown. The Happy Mediums might not roll as fast at high pressure, but wouldnt need to be aired down for gravel sections. Hmmm. Thanks for the reviews of both.
Has anyone had any experience trying to mount up the Clements tubeless? Any recommendations for tubeless tires for gravel grinding? There are enough thorny areas around here that make riding with tubes a pain. Thanks!
I had a painful experience with mounting the mso 40mm tubeless on my iron cross rims. The rear tire blew off violently when sprinting away from the traffic lights. Even though they hold air and sealed perfectly. Since then Ive stuck to tubeless specific tires (stiffer and tighter more square bead) on my bikes. Ive had similar experience with the very supple challenge strada biancha 30mm road tires in a descent in the Ardennes. Luckly got away unscathed. The Tubeless specific tires (wtb nano 40mm or bontrager cx0 38mm might be great picks) available in these sizes so Id pick them over the MSOs (which are otherwise great, as I still run them [only with tubes] on my iron cross rims). The schwalbe one tubeless (28mm) is my tubeless replacement for the challenges on the road. Hope this helps!
One thing to keep in mind is the max pressure you are running the MSOs at on a stans rim. They have pretty low max PSI for what would be a regular cross tire size, so that goes down when you up your volume.
I ran the MSOs 120TPI 40mm in two consecutive editions of the Hilly Billy Roubaix here in West Virginia. Set them up tubeless on Alpha 340 rims. First time around I did blow one off the rim when trying to get it set up. Made a mess and ruined the tire. A friend gave me another and, more carefully this time, I set it up. Ran around 48-42 psi for the races and they performed flawlessly. I might be more confident with tubeless specific but the real world where I rode past guys on MTB on muddy climbs they preformed quite well.