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Ganzhou Gelin Mining Machinery Company Limited is an expert manufacturing mining machines in China. Our company is located in the Industrial Zone of Shicheng County, Jiangxi Province. Our distinctive products include Shaking table, Jig, Spiral separator, Gold concentrator, Ball mill, Jaw crusher, flotation, magnetic separator, Feeder, Classifier, ore washing machine and lab equipment etc. Our machines are popular in separating gold, copper, manganese, chrome, tungsten, tin, nickel, iron, titanium, lead, ...
Kaolin is an important industrial mineral having numerous uses and requiring various market specifications. High brightness kaolin clays represent a continuing challenge to the producer. An advancement in this field of Kaolinite Clay Beneficiation has been a patented process developed by Minerals and Chemicals Philipp Corporation and termed Ultra Flotation. Contaminants that are 1 micron and finer are separated from a feed which is virtually 100% finer than 3 microns and 48% finer than 0.5 microns. Removal of the contaminations by conventional froth flotation has never been commercially successful previously.
Ultra Flotation is a new concept of mineral separation that extends the flotation principle to the submicron range well beyond its present limits. The keyto Ultraflotation is the increased surface available for floating fine particles by the addition of a suitable carrier mineral usually in the 325 mesh range. In conventional flotation air bubbles alone do the job. In Ultra Flotation the reagentloadedslime particles to be floated attach themselves to the carrier mineral and are readily floated as a froth product.
The first step in processing kaolin clay is to slurry it in a blunger with water and a dispersing agent. Degritting using screens, cyclones and hydro-classifiers is the next step. The minus 325 mesh degritted clay is fractionated using centrifugal sizers to produce the fine fractions demanded by the various markets. Bleaching, filtering, and drying complete the general processing steps.
The flowsheet in this study follows the general steps outlined above but Ultraflotation is included to produce a high brightness product from the fine fraction. Bleaching alone will not produce the desired brightness.
The Ultraflotation feed (90-94% finer than 2 microns) is stored in a holding agitator and then pumped through a density and flow control apparatus to three Conditioners arranged in series. The mineral carrier (ground limestone, 200-400 lbs. per ton) and ammonium sulphate (4-8 lbs. per ton) are added to the first conditioner. The discharge from the final conditioner containing 20% solids is fed directly to a six cell High Energy Conditioner. An emulsion of tall oil (3-5 lbs. per ton), neutral calcium petronate (3-5 lbs. per ton), aqua ammonia (2-4 lbs. per ton), and water are added to the first cell of the high energy conditioner. The conditioned pulp has a pH of 9.0. Fuel oil (6-10 lbs. per ton) is added to the fourth conditioning cell.
A total of 24 Sub-A Flotation Machines (cell-to-cell design) are used for the flotation separation. The conditioned pulp is first floated in a six-cell machine and then this froth, which contains the mineral carrier and color contaminants, is successively refloated in stages using a six-cell machine for the first stage and four-cell machines for the second and third cleaning stages. Dilution water is added to each stage of flotation to maintain dilute pulp conditions. The rougher tailings and reflotation tailings are combinedand scavenged of any additional contaminant in a 4-cell Sub-A Flotation Machine. The tailings from this final flotation step represents the beneficiated kaolin and is pumped to a thickener. Sulphurous acid is added to the pump to produce a pH of 2.8 to 3.0 for flocculation.
The froth products from the reflotation and scavenging steps are combined and impounded. The principal contaminant removed in the Ultraflotation process is a titaniferous mineral which does not bleach and imparts a yellowish-brown cast to the finished kaolin if present. Typical results of the Ultra-flotation separation are shown in the table.
The Fe2O3 content, which affects the brightness of the clays is controlled by careful mining and by the reducing bleach using zinc hydrosulphite. The ferric iron is reduced to the ferrous state and the slip washed to remove soluble salts.
In general, Ultraflotation enhances the brightness of the kaolin by more than 5%. By incorporating bleaching for additional color improvement, the beneficiated product (Ultra White 90) has a brightness of 90-92. Brightness is a measurement of light reflectance by a standard method of the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry.
Brightness (G.E. brightness range)..90-92% Particle size percent finer than 2 microns90-94% Maximum screen residue wet, 325 mesh..0.005% Refractive index.1.56% Specific gravity2.58 pH range6.3-7.0
Ultra White 90 is a pre-dispersed premium clay that has applications in the filling of high quality papers to reduce TiO2 requirement for brightness and in coatings for high brightness, easier finishing, gloss improvements and ink holdout. It is available in bulk, slurry, or bags and is produced by the Ultra-flotation process developed by Minerals & Chemicals Philipp Corporation.
-in and on most paper products (from modern newsprint to National Geographic and packaging board) sometimes as much as 25% (by weight) of the product,40% of the tile (ceramic, rubber, and linoleum) you walk on, and15% of the tires you ride on.
The most common origins of kaolin were from the alteration of such source minerals as feldspar, granite, and gneiss during the warm, wet environments between the early Tertiary (50 million years) and Cretaceous (135 million years) Eras. Kaolin is found in primary (or insitu) and secondary (sedimentary) sites on all continents.
The viable air-float producer has a customer list consisting 200-300 locations, each purchasing one or more of its 6-20 products. Product differentiation is by the type of crude as it is found in the ground, blending of these different crudes, and degrees of cleanliness.
The air-floaters primary tools are slicers, dryers, and mills of the either the roller-type or the impact-type, and a lean, aggressive management style. Most office-holders cover two-or three jobs, R&D is a part-time function at best, and routine high-capital activity (such as stripping and hauling) is contracted.
The typical water-washed operation has a capacity of + 1.0 million mTpA and employs +600 persons. It has a heavy commitment to R&D and customer service, especially on applications development. Its customer list would extend to 1000 locations for its +50 basic products.
Anxious to exploit a tightening supply and rising prices, usually all four majors will increase capacity. As a general rule all expansions are completed within the same 6-8 months putting the industry, once again, back in over supply.
In the air-float segment, the chronic oversupply situation results from the relative ease of entry, with new players having added about 400,000 mTpA of new capacity in recent years, putting the air-floaters at almost 100% over-supply. Market and managerial skills have pushed most of the over-supply onto the new entrants, so they operate at less than 30% of their capacity. They in turn create tremendous pricing pressure which has the effect of shutting down the less provident air-floaters. In the last ten years, four producers have left the field, mostly those affiliated with water-washed producers.
By tacking on a calcination step at the end of the ultrafine product line, the price can be increased by ca. $200/mT for a cost of $70/mT plus $50/mT in depreciation. Calcination consists of finely deagglomerating the ultrafine product and roasting it at temperatures of between 1000C and 1100C. This is followed by another deagglomerating step to counter the formation of abrasive mullite or cristobolite generated locally in the process. In calcination of kaolin the water of hydration between the gibbsite and silica sheets is driven off, in effect generating two more air interfaces and thereby enhancing brightness a couple points and opacity.
Another current challenge to the kaolin industry has been the quality movement. Typically kaolin producers strived to attain threshold specifications i.e., specifications which required the brightest product or the lowest viscosity. This tended to produce consistency, mainly around a performance-ceiling. But today quality means reliability in meeting not only these requirements but also additional arbitrary specifications. They are arbitrary in the sense that they occur along the spectrum, not at the edges of the range. And the primary concern of the customer is a narrow consistency.
Prominer maintains a team of senior gold processing engineers with expertise and global experience. These gold professionals are specifically in gold processing through various beneficiation technologies, for gold ore of different characteristics, such as flotation, cyanide leaching, gravity separation, etc., to achieve the processing plant of optimal and cost-efficient process designs.
Based on abundant experiences on gold mining project, Prominer helps clients to get higher yield & recovery rate with lower running cost and pays more attention on environmental protection. Prominer supplies customized solution for different types of gold ore. General processing technologies for gold ore are summarized as below:
For alluvial gold, also called sand gold, gravel gold, placer gold or river gold, gravity separation is suitable. This type of gold contains mainly free gold blended with the sand. Under this circumstance, the technology is to wash away the mud and sieve out the big size stone first with the trommel screen, and then using centrifugal concentrator, shaking table as well as gold carpet to separate the free gold from the stone sands.
CIL is mainly for processing the oxide type gold ore if the recovery rate is not high or much gold is still left by using otation and/ or gravity circuits. Slurry, containing uncovered gold from primary circuits, is pumped directly to the thickener to adjust the slurry density. Then it is pumped to leaching plant and dissolved in aerated sodium cyanide solution. The solubilized gold is simultaneously adsorbed directly into coarse granules of activated carbon, and it is called Carbon-In-Leaching process (CIL).
Heap leaching is always the first choice to process low grade ore easy to leaching. Based on the leaching test, the gold ore will be crushed to the determined particle size and then sent to the dump area. If the content of clay and solid is high, to improve the leaching efficiency, the agglomeration shall be considered. By using the cement, lime and cyanide solution, the small particles would be stuck to big lumps. It makes the cyanide solution much easier penetrating and heap more stable. After sufficient leaching, the pregnant solution will be pumped to the carbon adsorption column for catching the free gold. The barren liquid will be pumped to the cyanide solution pond for recycle usage.
The loaded carbon is treated at high temperature to elute the adsorbed gold into the solution once again. The gold-rich eluate is fed into an electrowinning circuit where gold and other metals are plated onto cathodes of steel wool. The loaded steel wool is pretreated by calcination before mixing with uxes and melting. Finally, the melt is poured into a cascade of molds where gold is separated from the slag to gold bullion.
Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.
Hengcheng offers complete project solutions for Alluvial Gold Processing Plant. We are one of the leading project suppliers for Alluvial Gold Wash Plant Equipment and we work closely with our customers to fulfill their specific needs for customized package solution. Specialized in the fabrication of these machines for 15+ years and this enables us to be in a leading position in the field of Alluvial Gold Processing.
Alluvialis a term that refers to soil sediments and the various sand, silt, gravel, clay or other deposited matter left behind by flowing water. Alluvial gold refers to the type of gold dust found in that kind of soil. When the beds of rivers or streams are scooped and panned for gold dust, the product is referred to asalluvial gold. Best way to extract such alluvial/soil gold is using gravity separation method, which is most cost-effective choice for miners now.
At Hengcheng, we provide more than just gold washing equipment, but constantly strive to assist you in achieving overall business excellence. This is why when you partner with Hengcheng, you dont just get a diversified product offering, but form a relationship based on product refinement, a true understanding of gold process flow sheets and field service and maintenanceensuring that together we will create a solution that is suited specifically to your individual needs and that will optimize your process and lower your overall operating costs.
At Hengcheng, we provide more than just processing equipment, but constantly strive to assist you in achieving overall business excellence. This is why when you partner with Hengcheng, you dont just get a diversified product offering, but form a relationship based on product refinement.etc