Magnetic separator is widely used in mining, kiln industry, chemistry and other fields. It is suitable for wet magnetic separation of magnetite, pyrrhotite, roasted ore, ilmenite with particle size less than 3mm, and also used to remove iron from coal, non-metallic ore, building materials and other materials. The magnetic separator plays an irreplaceable role in the mineral processing industry. In the process of its use, what factors will affect the magnetic separation effect and in what ways can people improve the production efficiency of magnetic separators? This article will find out.
As we all know, the magnetic separator mainly uses magnetic force to separate the different magnetic substances in the materials. Therefore, when the magnetic materials enters the magnetic field again, the magnitude of its force depends on the strength of the magnetic field, and the strength of the magnetic field is closely related to the height of the magnetic field and the gradient of the magnetic field. Therefore, in the design of the magnetic source, not only the strength of the magnetic field, but also the construction of the magnetic field gradient should be considered to ensure that the magnetic force provided by the magnetic source is appropriate.
If the feed particle size is small, it means that the separation degree of the material is high and the satisfactory separation index can be obtained. If the feed particle size is coarse, it means that the material is not fully separated and the separation degree is not high so that magnetic particles and gangue will be combined together to reduce the grade of ore concentrate. Therefore, the size of feed particle size is not only related to the output of magnetic separation, but also affects the quality of magnetic separation. When screening materials, it is suggested that the materials should be fully separated. For coarse-grained materials, as long as the mineral and gangue achieve monomer separation, the output and magnetic separation effect can be improved.
In the operation of the high-speed magnetic separator, because of its relatively fast speed, there is less chance for the coenobium and gangue with smaller magnetism to come up. Only some mineral grain with higher magnetism can be separated, so the quality is higher. On the contrary, when the speed is relatively slow, the ore particles with weaker magnetism also have the opportunity to be sorted due to the magnetic induction, so the quality of ore concentrate is affected. Therefore, in the process of magnetic separation, the small diameter of magnetic separator adopts high speed, and the large diameter adopts low speed.
If the magnetic material is slowly placed on the magnet, the material may be attracted. But if you throw the material away from the magnet very quickly, it's probably the opposite. Therefore, the movement state of materials will also affect the magnetic separation effect, so you should try to control the movement state of materials in the magnetic separator not to be too violent.
The pulp concentration mainly refers to the overflow concentration of the spiral classifier. If the pulp concentration is too large, the ore concentrate particles are easy to be covered by the finer gangue particles and cannot be separated so that the separation concentration is too high, which seriously affects the quality of the ore concentrate. If the pulp concentration is too small, the separation concentration is too low, and it will cause the flow rate to increase so that some fine magnetic particles fall into the tailings to increase the tailings grade, causing loss. Therefore, pulp concentration should be adjusted as require. In addition, the classification overflow concentration must be determined according to the requirements of magnetic separation. The pulp concentration can not exceed 35%, generally controlled at about 30%, it needs to be determined according to the actual situation.
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The CT dry magnetic separator is a new highly efficient magnetic separation equipment that our company successfully developed . Magnetic system used all high-performance rare earth NdFeB material and quality ferrite materials ,after using the clever open magnetic circuit design, the cylinder sub constituency the maximum magnetic flux density above 0.8T magnetic field strength of conventional magnetic drive -5 times the sub-constituency magnetic forces can reach the level of electromagnetic strong magnetic separator.Sorting cylinder wear-resistant stainless steel refining; mineral sorting through vibrating feeder evenly to the top of the barrel to the sorting, rotating cylinder outstripped the cylinder, non-magnetic materials magnetic materials by strong magnetic force attracted to the cylinder, with the sub-ore board is very convenient, precise magnetic and non-magnetic material separation. The strong magnetic force of dry magnetic separation make the dream of weakly magnetic minerals into reality. The amount of equipment processing is large, sorting mineral grain size range is wide,the separation accuracy is high , no blockage; simple structure, easy maintenance, power consumption is only 20% of the electromagnetic strong magnetic separator. Dry magnetic separator is the magnetic separation machinery for dry magnetic mineral separation, comparing to the wet magnetic separator liquid to use as a diluent to improve the efficiency of separation in terms of sorting minerals, dry magnetic separation machine requires dry mineral separation between particles can move freely into the independent free state, otherwise it will affect the magnetic effect, and may even cause the consequences of non-separation. Dry Magnetic Separator is applicable to a particle size less than 3mm magnetite, pyrrhotite, roasted ore, ilmenite and other materials wet magnetic separation, but also for coal, non-metallic minerals, building materials and other materials in addition to iron job. Dry magnetic separator magnetic system, using high-quality ferrite material or composite with rare earth magnets, the barrel table the average magnetic induction 100 ~~ 600mT. According to user requirements , we provide downstream, a variety of different table in the semi-countercurrent, counterflow strong magnetic separation. The magnetic separator has the advantages of simple structure, large capacity, easy to operate, easy to maintain. Our company have a strong service team. Clients' interests are always first considered, the company slogan is "careful, detailed, harmony, from pre-sales consulting, enthusiastic service to promote products in the sale, the company requiring careful to treat every customer to be careful, and customer relationship is harmony. Strong design and development capacity , manufacturing, installation, technical maintenance, unscheduled return visits, strict quality assurance and quick after-sales services, each stage will have done a meticulous arrangements, and solve a series of customer worries.
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Smart or intelligent materials are described as materials that can achieve a controlled, predictable, variation in one or more of their properties as a direct response to an external stimuli and/or a change in their environment. The external changes can be fluctuations in temperature, light, pressure, magnetic or electrical fields, surrounding moisture, or chemicals. Not all smart materials are the same. Some can change their properties due to more than one of the external stimuli at the same time, and some materials offer greater adaptability due to certain external changes than others. However, a common theme is that the changes are reversible, which make these kinds of materials particularly useful.
Given their ability to adapt their properties, smart materials have a wide range of applications not only in technology, manufacturing, science, and medicine, but more specifically, in civil engineering. Whether they are incorporated as part of concrete, plastic, glass or alloys, these materials can be used to create efficiencies in the construction process, increase the lifetime of buildings or structures and enhance their performance over time.
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From the perspective of combating climate change, there is a focus on how buildings and structures (and construction more broadly) impacts sustainability and our environment. This isnt just about how much carbon dioxide is emitted during the construction process, but how energy efficient a building or structure really is during its lifetime. Materials play a large role in how a building or structure is built, how it performs and how energy efficient it is; and the smarter the material the bigger the positive impact on those metrics.
Natural and man-made materials used during the traditional construction process (concrete, wood, glass etc) can be enhanced, made smarter and more responsive to external changes, so that they can contribute to a more sustainable structure. There are huge benefits in refining efficiencies, improving performances, saving resources and long-term maintenance when smart materials are used.
There are several technologies behind new smart construction materials. Innovation, research, and development in materials engineering are bringing to market new products that are changing the different components within buildings and other engineering infrastructure projects. Here we look at three materials impacting the industry:
After water, concrete is the most widely used product in construction. Whilst its use has brought about great benefits to structures and buildings world-wide, its production accounts for almost 8% of CO2 emissions. Therefore, anything that can help slow down its usage and increase its time in-situ can only be good for the environment.
Cracks and changes in stress within set concrete can and do occur, and over the long term can allow water, chemicals, or other external substances to get inside or bring about other impairments. Undetected or unrectified, this can damage the concrete and the structure itself, making it weaker and increasing the need for maintenance or replacement increasing the cost and reducing the life-span as a consequence. Smart concrete is an overarching term covering concrete products that have a specific ability; among the most common are self-sensing and self-healing. They can be used to monitor the health of a structure, make changes to the concretes composition and take action to rectify the issue.
Self-sensing concrete, as the name suggests, has the ability to monitor its own condition and the stress levels within the structure of which it is part. It is made by adding microscopic carbon fibers and silica fume admixtures to a standard concrete mix to produce concrete that can conduct electricity, changing resistance values (of the electric charge) when damaged. It can be used to monitor vibrations on a structure, replacing vibration sensors which are often used in high-rise buildings, bridges, runways, dams, and other structures. The concrete itself becomes the sensor and is able to detect cracks and other damage caused by high winds, humidity, temperature changes and other environmental conditions.
Self-healing concrete simply has the ability to repair cracks on the concrete face autonomously. It is made by adding a healing agent (like a bacteria and calcium lactate) to a standard concrete mix. The agents are dormant for the most part and only become activated when water is introduced through the cracks themselves. This then enables the mixing of the bacteria and the calcium lactate to produce limestone which seals the crack. Another method is to use micro-capsules containing a sodium silicate healing agent within the concrete mix. When cracks appear, the capsules break up, releasing the chemicals which, when reacted with the calcium hydroxide in the concrete, forms a gel which repairs the cracks.
Both the self-sensing and self-healing concretes have proven themselves in the labs and are being developed for mass, real-life construction usage. These smart materials will play an important role in ensuring structures have increased life-span and durability, which in turn will reduce costs and improve maintainability.
Glass is another material that has undergone some major improvements recently which will highly impact its usage and reliability in the long run. For centuries, glass has been used to make windows which allow light and heat into buildings, reduce sound entering or exiting, and provide an overall aesthetically pleasing look. Whilst the shape and architecture of the window itself may have changed over the centuries, the glass component has largely been unchanged until recent technological advances.
One such technology is electrochromics which enables windows to change how much light passes (automatically or manually) through glass by changing the voltage running over it. This switch from transparent to opaque also means that energy usage can be optimised during the day and controlled during the seasons. These smart windows are made up of several layers including an electrochromic layer, ion conductor and ion storage layers, and two thin electrical contacts (electrodes) with a separator in the middle. When a small voltage is applied to the electrodes, the ions move from one electrode, through the separator to the other electrode. This makes the glass opaque until the voltage is reversed (so the ion goes back to the original electrode) and the glass turns transparent again. This ability clearly has a lot of applications where the need to change daylight (and heat) entering the building is important schools, hospitals, and offices for example. The control it brings with it could potentially reduce lighting, heating and cooling costs of running these buildings.
Structural glass is another component of a home or office which has changed how the building is occupied, what energy usage it has and how aesthetically pleasing it is. While traditionally, glass panes were incorporated within (load-bearing) steel or timber window frames, their use in modern construction could involve a large piece of glass that is frameless and forms part of the load-bearing element of the structure; a wall, floor, column or roof.
The structural glass itself is much thicker and stronger compared to normal framed window glass, and is made using toughened or laminated glass. With no need for framing, the flexibility that structural glass provides engineers designing residential and commercial offices offers an opportunity to innovate with the structure itself, and its use. Combining structural glass with thermal heating glass and energy saving low-e glass coating also mean that, although sunlight can pour into the building from all angles, it doesnt become a greenhouse. Modern innovations in glass technology mean that it has become more than an element of a framed window. It can provide changes to the structural make-up of a building and the energy levels used within making glass a much more versatile smart material.
As we have seen, there is now a range of new materials being used in construction which were not viable even 10 years ago. Looking 10 years hence, engineers will have to respond to the growing need to have materials which can be used to reduce energy waste, be produced economically and have high global applications in buildings and other structures. Greater innovations in nanotechnology, graphene and bioplastics, to name but a few, will bring about new products which will enable civil engineering projects to be built more efficiently, maintained cost-effectively and become more sustainable in the long run.
So we are aware of the challenge. The next step for humanity is to develop long-term solutions to ease, stop and even reverse these catastrophic effects. This is where engineering and engineers can play an important role. Why? Because many of the solutions for combating climate change will only be found in engineering innovations and use of new technology. It is true that some changes are societal and require behaviour changes (eating less meat, unplugging electronic equipment in the home etc) and some changes must be led by governmental policy.
Vertical farming So, because the planet has a finite amount of land, we need to get the most yield out of what we have. One way of doing this is building upwards building vertical farms. A vertical farm means that more food can be grown in the same amount of land because crops are being grown in layered structures. Obviously vertical farming is much different than conventional farming.