copper ore dryer

how to process copper ore: beneficiation methods and equipment | fote machinery

how to process copper ore: beneficiation methods and equipment | fote machinery

All available copper-bearing natural mineral aggregates are called copper mines. The high-grade copper concentrate can be obtained by the coarse grinding, roughing, scavenging of copper ore, then grinding and concentrating of coarse concentrate.

Due to the different types of ore, the nature of the ore is also different, so the beneficiation process needs to be customized. The specific process for selecting copper ore depends mainly on the material composition, structure and copper occurrence state of the original copper ore.

Before the beneficiation of copper ores, crushing and grinding are required. The bulk ores are crushed to about 12cm by a jaw crusher or a cone crusher. Then the crushed materials are sent to the grinding equipment, and the final particle size of the copper ore is reduced to 0.15-0.2mm.

Copper sulfide can be divided into single copper ore, copper sulfur ore, copper-molybdenum deposit, copper nickel, carrollite and so on. Basically, only flotation can be considered in its separation.

Almost all copper sulphide ores contain iron-bearing sulfides, so in a sense, the flotation of copper sulfide is essentially the separation of copper sulfide from iron sulfide. The common iron sulfide minerals in copper ore are pyrite and pyrrhotite.

1 Disseminated grain size and symbiotic relationship of copper and iron sulfide. Generally, pyrite has a coarse grain size, while copper ore, especially secondary copper sulfide, is closely associated with pyrite. Only when the copper ore is finely ground can it be dissociated from pyrite. This characteristic can be used to select copper-sulphur mixed concentrates, discard the tailings, and then grind and separate the mixed concentrate.

2 The influence of secondary copper sulfide minerals. When the secondary copper sulfide mineral content is high, the copper ions in the slurry will increase, which will activate the pyrite and increase the difficulty of Cu-S separation.

3 The influence of pyrrhotite. The high content of pyrrhotite will affect the flotation of copper sulfide. Pyrrhotite oxidation will consume the consumption of oxygen in the pulp. In severe cases, the copper minerals do not float at the beginning of flotation. This can be improved by increasing inflation.

Generally, copper is floated firstly and then sulfur. The content of pyrite in dense massive copper-bearing pyrite is quite high and high alkalinity (free CaO content> 600800g/m3) and high dosage of xanthine are often used to suppress the pyrite. There is mainly pyrite in its tailings with few gangues, so the tailings are sulfur concentrates.

For the disseminated copper-sulfur ore, the preferential flotation process is adopted, and the sulphur in the tailings must be re-floated. To reduce the consumption of sulfuric acid during the floatation and ensure safe operation, the process condition of low alkalinity should be adopted as far as possible.

It is more advantageous for copper sulfur ore containing less sulfur with copper easy to be floated. Carry out the bulk flotation firstly in the weakly alkaline pulp and then add lime to the mixed concentrate to separate the copper and sulfur in the highly alkaline pulp.

In semi-preferential bulk-separation flotation, Z-200, OSN-43 or ester-105 with good selectivity are used as collectors to float copper minerals firstly. The copper concentrate is then subjected to copper-sulfur bulk flotation and the obtained copper-sulfur mixed concentrate is subjected to separation flotation of floating copper and suppressing sulfur.

It avoids the inhibition of the easily floating copper under high lime consumption and does not require a large amount of sulfuric acid-activated pyrite. It has the characteristics of reasonable structure, stable operation, a good index and early recovery of target minerals.

3 The xanthate collector mainly plays the role of chemisorption together with the cation Cu (2 +), so minerals whose surface contains more Cu (2 +) minerals have a strong effect with the xanthate. The order of the effect is: chalcocite > covellite > porphyrite> chalcopyrite.

4 The floatability of copper sulfide minerals is also affected by factors such as crystal size, mosaic size, being original or secondary. The minerals with fine crystal and mosaic size are difficult to float. Secondary copper sulfide ore is easy to oxidize and more difficult to float than original copper ore.

As for the grinding and floating process, it is more advantageous to adopt the stage grinding and floating process for refractory copper ore, such as the re-grinding and re-separation of coarse concentrate, re-grinding and re-separation of bulk concentrate, and separate treatment of medium ore.

Copper oxide (CuO) is insoluble in water, ethanol, soluble acid, ammonium chloride and potassium cyanide solutions. It can react with alkali when slowly dissolving in ammonia solution. The beneficiation methods of oxidized copper ore mainly include gravity separatio, magnetic separation (see details on copper ore processing plant), flotation and chemical beneficiation.

Flotation is one of the commonly used mineral processing techniques for copper oxide ores. According to the different properties of copper oxide ores, there are sulphidizing flotation, fatty acid flotation, amine flotation, emulsion flotation and chelating agent-neutral oil flotation method.

Process flow: The dosage of sodium sulfide can reach 1~2kg/t during vulcanization. Because the film produced by vulcanization is not stable and is easy to fall off after vigorous stirring, and sodium sulfide itself is easily oxidized, sodium sulfide should be added in batches.

Besides, the vulcanization speed of malachite and azurite is relatively fast, so the vulcanizing agent can be directly added to the first flotation cell with no need to stir in advance during vulcanization and adjust the amount of vulcanizing agent according to the foam state.

Fatty acids and their soaps are mainly used as collectors of fatty acid floatation, also known as direct flotation. During flotation, water glass (gangue inhibitor), phosphate, and sodium carbonate (slurry regulator) are also usually added.

There is a practice of mixing vulcanization and fatty acid methods. Firstly float the copper sulfide and part of the copper oxide with sodium sulfide and xanthate, and then float the residual copper oxide with fatty acid.

For example, the ore in the Nchanga processing plant in Zambia contains 4.7% copper. The copper content achieved to 50% ~ 55% through flotation by adding 500g/t of lime (pH 9 ~ 9.5), 10g/t of cresol (foaming agent), 60g/t of ethylxanthate, 35g/t of amyl xanthate, 1kg/t of sodium sulfide, 40g/t of palmitic acid and 75g/t of fuel oil.

It is mainly to sulfurize the copper oxide mineral firstly and then add the copper accessory ingredient to create a stable oil-wet surface. Then, the neutral oil emulsion is used to cover the mineral surface, resulting in a strong hydrophobic floating state. In this way, the mineral can be attached to the foams firmly to complete the separation.

Many problems should be paid attention to in the flotation of copper ore, such as the length of the vulcanization time, whether to add sodium sulphide in batches and the proportion of chemicals. Here is a brief introduction.

1 The vulcanization time. Different ores require different vulcanization times. Generally speaking, it should be short rather than longer. The suitable vulcanization time is 1 to 3 minutes. After 6 minutes, the recovery rate and concentrate grade will decrease.

2 Add sodium sulfide in batches. The roughing time for processing the ore in the concentrator is about ten minutes, while the ore contains a large amount of carbonaceous gangue and the divalent sulfur ions disappear quickly in the slurry. So the effect of adding sodium sulfide in batches is better than that of adding it once.

3 Add sodium sulfide proportionally. Generally, copper oxide floats in the liquid at a slower speed, and reduce the number of cycles of the mineral in the flotation process can obtain a higher recovery rate. It is of great significance to study the distribution ratio of sodium sulfide among different operations to catch the mineral at the right time.

The chemical beneficiation method is often used for refractory copper oxide and mixed copper. For some copper oxide minerals with high copper content, fine mosaic size and rich sludge, the chemical beneficiation method will be used to obtain good indicators because the flotation method is difficult to realize the separation.

The solution of ammonia and ammonium carbonate in a concentration of 12.5% was used as the solvent to leach for 2.5h at a temperature of 150, a pressure of 1925175~2026500Pa. The mother liquor can be distilled by steam at 90 to separate ammonia and carbon dioxide. Copper, on the other hand, is precipitated from the solution as black copper oxide powder.

Because some copper oxide minerals are not tightly combined with iron, manganese, etc., it is difficult to separate them by using the magnetic separation method alone, and flotation has a good separation effect.

Therefore, the flotation method is used to obtain high-grade concentrates, the magnetic separation is for tailings and wet smelting is carried out finally. This process combines flotation, magnetic and wet smelting very well, which greatly increases the recovery rate and reduces the beneficiation cost.

The above are several common beneficiation methods for copper oxide minerals. For the selection of copper oxide minerals, it is best to conduct a professional beneficiation test and customize the process according to the report.

Flotation is the most widely used method in copper mine production. The copper ore pulp is stirred and aerated, and the ore particles adhere to the foams under the action of various flotation agents. The foams rise to form a mineralized foam layer, which is scraped or overflowed by the scraper. This series of flotation processes are all completed in the flotation machine. (Contact Manufacturer)

The internal magnetic system of the barrel adopts a short circuit design to ensure that the barrel skin has no magnetic resistance at high speeds, and the stainless-steel barrel skin does not generate high temperatures, extending the life of the magnetic block.

Since it adopts a dynamic magnetic system design, the roller does not stick to the material, which is conducive to material sorting. The selected grade can be increased by 3-6 times to more than 65%.

Copper mines are generally purified by flotation, but for the beneficiation of copper minerals with coarser grain size and higher density, the pre-selection by the gravity separation method will greatly reduce the cost and achieve flotation indicators.

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mineral drying

mineral drying

Drying is a critical aspect of mineral processing; throughout the journey from ore to end product, the ability to control moisture content helps to reduce shipping costs, streamline downstream processing, and produce a refined product.

While mineral dryers may appear the same as other industrial dryers, they are typically built to withstand more rigorous demands compared to many other industry; due to the nature of minerals, mineral dryers are subject to consistently harsh processing conditions, necessitating a dryer with heavy-duty components and materials of construction.

The diverse nature of minerals and associated processing techniques can demand drying at any and all stages of mineral processing, from raw ore to concentrate, all the way to finished product. Minerals that commonly require a drying step during processing include:

Extracted ore, no matter the mineral, is typically first crushed, and then must go through a beneficiation process to remove the unwanted impurities. Beneficiation can vary significantly from one ore type to the next. In most cases, however, beneficiation is carried out through a wet process that necessitates a subsequent drying step. Mineral drying at this stage offers several benefits:

Drying raw ore makes transportation much more economic by removing the bulk of the moisture from the material, so producers are not paying to transport water weight and can utilize fewer transportation units.

Moisture in raw material feedstock is problematic in downstream processing, because it increases the potential for buildup. Buildup in turn has the potential to clog equipment, stalling the operation, or even damaging equipment due to corrosion or abrasion. Depending on the mineral being processed, damage can be worsened by the materials unique properties. Such is the case with gypsum, which can harden in place because of its cementitious nature.

In general, the less moisture content a material has, the easier it is to handle (this is only true up to a point, as material then becomes dusty and presents new handling challenges). A moisture-rich material can wreak havoc on the flow of operation as material moves through hoppers, bins, transfer points, conveyors, and more. Drying greatly improves material flowability, avoiding such issues.

The extent to which a mineral must be dried is highly variable, differing based on the type of mineral, characteristics found at the specific deposit, subsequent processing techniques, and the desired end product.

Drying is also essential in ensuring product integrity is maintained. Every product has a unique range (or even exact percentage) at which it will maintain its form; too dry and the material is more likely to degrade and cause dust issues (attrition); too wet and the material could foster caking or harbor mold growth. Reaching the precise moisture content for a given material ensures that the product will stay in its intended form throughout its lifecycle.

Rotary dryers are the industrial dryer of choice for mineral drying applications. Mineral drum dryer design varies based on the unique characteristics of the mineral to be processed. In general, however, one can assume that a dryer intended for mineral processing will meet certain objectives required by the industry:

Outside of these considerations, the characteristics of the mineral to be processed will largely dictate the dryer design, influencing factors such as retention time, length and diameter, air flow configuration (co-current or counter-current flow), and more. When processing potash, for example, a co-current air flow is used to avoid excess attrition and discoloring of the product that could occur with a counter-current configuration.

The variation in mineral types and characteristics often merits a mineral dryer testing program to assess how the material will respond to drying and subsequently, how the dryer must be designed to work best with the material.

In this setting, batch- and pilot-scale testing are conducted to gather initial process data and scale up the process to aid in the design of a commercial-scale mineral dryer. Various particle characteristics can be targeted during testing to refine the product and ensure an optimal drying solution.

The ability to control the moisture content of a mineral whether raw ore or end product is essential to the mineral processing industry, providing economic, handling, and processing benefits and allowing a premium product to be produced.

Rotary dryers have proven to be an ideal industrial dryer for meeting the demanding processing conditions required by the industry. Providing mineral processing solutions since 1951, FEECO is the global leader in custom rotary dryers for the diverse needs of the mineral processing industry. In addition to our custom dryers, we also offer a wide array of mineral processing equipment, as well as batch and pilot testing capabilities for process and product design. For more information on our mineral processing capabilities, contact us today!

rotary drum dryer systemworking principle and design -palet

rotary drum dryer systemworking principle and design -palet

The Materials to be dried enter into the dry zone of special combination plates are thrown by drying plate for vertical movement because of angle difference and rotational motion of the drying plate. After making heat exchange with the materials, the high-temperature furnace gas discharged into the cylinder evaporates water and drys the material, it can prevent the material from sticking on the inside of the cylinder. It is a part of the pellet mill plant.

Qingdao PALET Machinery can design and supply the Rotary Dryer Machine,dryer equipment for the customers especially according to the information of material. This raw material is wood chips, sawdust, etc.

1. The capacity is different. The output capability of the rotary drum dryer ranges from around 1000 to 5000kg /h at most while the sawdust flash dryer can produce around 100-2000kg/h. The air flow dryeris suitable for drying the wood powdersawdustect.

2. The price is different. The air flash dryer is cheaper than that of the rotary drum dryer price. How to select the dryer? When purchasing the dryer, it is better to consider the all-around situation of your dryer and pellet production and find a suitable dryer.

Qingdao palet machinery co,.ltd is a professional manufacturer of biomass wood pellet mill, wood pellet plant, rotary dryer, activated carbon rotary klin,activated carbon machine, hammer mill, crusher, etc.

amazing deals on revlon one-step hair dryer & volumizer copper smooth edition

amazing deals on revlon one-step hair dryer & volumizer copper smooth edition

Bring on the salon-worthy blowouts! This hairdryer meets brush is the solution for no-fuss styling in less time. We are introducing the newest addition to the One-Step Family, the Revlon Salon One-Step Hair Dryer and Volumizer Copper Smooth Edition. It features damage reduction technology designed to help protect hair against over styling and create even more shine. The copper ceramic barrel provides even heat distribution for ultra-smooth styles with less frizz ande shine. The copper ceramic barrel provides even heat distribution for ultra-smooth styles with less frizz and plenty of protection for your strands. The oval brush design and unique vent pattern helps distribute airflow efficiently for full, consistent coverage, fast drying and perfect volume. Mixed combination bristles work to gently detangle hair, smooth and add shine. Advanced Ionic Technology is the trick to a salon-worthy finish. It fights frizz for healthy-looking strands full of shine. Multiple heat settings provide styling flexibility and gorgeous results for every hair type. This item comes with a swivel cord for tangle-free styling and a 4-year limited warranty. How to Use For best results start with damp hair (air dry after a wash or use a spray bottle to re-moisten post-wash day strands). Divide hair into manageable sections. Set Revlon Volumizer to heat/speed setting appropriate for hair type. Begin with barrel close to root and pass through section from root to tip. Repeat as needed and work through sections. read more

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