copper ore mining technology

copper ore beneficiation technology

copper ore beneficiation technology

In modern industry and daily life, copper has a wide range of application and demand. It has an important and irreplaceable position in electric, marine, aviation, communication, petrochemicals, household appliances, high-energy physics, metallurgy,

In modern industry and daily life, copper has a wide range of application and demand. It has an important and irreplaceable position in electric, marine, aviation, communication, petrochemicals, household appliances, high-energy physics, metallurgy, etc.

Composition of cooper ore is very complex, including chalcocite, chalcopyrite, azurite, tetrahedrite, malachite, etc. Different beneficiation process is designed according to different ore. Even if the same type of ore in different mining plant, the beneficiation process is also different. According to the properties of different ore, we will choose suitable beneficiation process.

Generally use relatively simple process, after a period ofgrinding, fineness -200 mesh occupy about 50% to 70%, once roughing, two or three times selected, one or two times scavenging. Such as disseminated copper minerals has relatively small size, consider to adopt the stagegrinding and separation processes. Processing bornite concentrator, mostly coarse concentrate regrinding - a selection of stage grinding and separation processes, and its essence is mixed -flotationprocess. First by a coarse grinding, roughing, scavenging, and then rough concentrate regrinding recleaner get high-grade copper concentrate and concentrate. Rough grinding -200 mesh about 45% to 50% and then pulverized -200 mesh occupy about 90% to 95%.

Dense copper ore chalcopyrite and pyrite as tight symbiosis, pyrite is often secondary copper-activated pyrite content is high, difficult to suppress, sorting difficult. Sorting process requires both get copper concentrate and concentrate. Typically election of copper tailings is pyrite concentrate. Dense copper ore processing, often using two stages of grinding or grinding, fine grinding fineness requirements.

Weakly magnetic minerals beneficiation, for example: hematite, limonite, ilmenite, wolframite, tantalum, niobium, etc.. Non-metallic minerals deironing, purification, for example: quartz, feldspar, nepheline, fluorite, sillimanite, spodumene,kaolin.

Mining ores first by thejaw crusherfor preliminary broken, in broken to a reasonable fineness through ascension machine, after to mine machine uniform intoball mill, ball mill by crushing, grinding of ore.

After grindingball millof ore materials into the next procedure and: grading. Hierachial machine with different proportion of solid particles in the liquid and the speed of the precipitation different principle of minerals, the mixture to wash, grading. After a wash and classification of the mineral mixture after magnetic separation unit.

Because of various minerals than magnetized coefficient of different magnetic force and, by mechanical force will mixture of magnetic material separated. After magnetic separators preliminary after the separation in mineral grains was sent into the flotation machine, according to different mineral properties of different drugs, make to the minerals and other material separation open.

escondida copper, gold and silver mine, atacama desert - mining technology | mining news and views updated daily

escondida copper, gold and silver mine, atacama desert - mining technology | mining news and views updated daily

Production at the mine was cut back during the period 2003 on account of the weak world market conditions for copper. The partners in the project decided to mine lower-grade ores while maintaining the concentrator throughput, thus reducing the impact on per-ton-treated costs.

Output was subsequently ramped up again, and during 2004 the mine handled 377 million tonnes (Mt) of ore and waste and processed 82.4Mt of sulphide ore grading 1.51% copper (up from 70.3Mt at 1.43% copper in 2003).

The copper production in FY2020 was increased by 4% to 1,185kt, supported by concentrator throughput of 371ktpd. The mine is expected to produce between 940kt and 1,030kt of copper for FY2021, with a 4% decline in copper grade of concentrator feed as a result of reduced workforce due to Covid-19.

Subsequent weathering and uplifting created a barren, leached cap, up to 180m thick, over a high-grade supergene enriched ore, both overlying the primary sulphides. Primary sulphide mineralisation includes pyrite, chalcopyrite and bornite, with covellite and chalcocite in the enriched zone.

The combined proven and probable ore reserves of Escondida and Escondida Norte as of mid-2004 were: 2,018Mt of copper sulphide ore at 1.24% total copper; 1,701Mt of low-grade copper sulphide ore at 0.55% total copper; and 290Mt of copper oxide ore at 0.73% acid-soluble copper.

1993 and 1994 expansions increased capacity from the initial level of 320,000t/y of copper-in-concentrates to 480,000t/y. Further expansion in 1996 took output capacity to 800,000t/y. In November 1998, concentrator expansion was completed, increasing capacity to 127,000t/d of ore. A new oxide ore processing plant then began operation, reaching its design rate of 125,000t/y of electrolytic copper metal in mid-1999. The $1.044bn 110,000t/d Phase 4 concentrator was completed in September 2002 using retained earnings.

The project partners invested $400m in opening the Escondida Norte pit, 5km north of the existing mine. By the end of 2004, 126Mt of material had been moved during pre-stripping operations, and the first production started in 2005. Ore is moved by conveyor to the existing treatment facilities.

Meanwhile, the Escondida sulphide leach project, designed to produce 180,000t/y of cathode copper cathode, is costing $870m to the commission. The process will use bacterially assisted leaching on low-grade run-of-mine ore from both the Escondida and Escondida Norte pits, with solvent-extraction and electrowinning to produce the copper. Production at the plant began in 2007.

In 2012, a further investment was announced in two projects at Escondida. The $3.8bn Organic Growth Project 1 (OGP1) was undertaken to replace the Los Colorados concentrator with a new 152,000tpd plant and allow access to higher-grade ore located underneath the existing facilities. Construction began in February 2012 and it was commissioned in May 2015.

The third copper concentrate plant with a capacity of 152ktpd was inaugurated in 2016. The plant increased the overall copper processing capacity to over 422ktpd. The mine presently includes three concentrator plants, as well as two leaching operations (oxide and sulphide).

The mining fleet consists of nine Bucyrus 495-B Erie loading shovels fitted with 50yd, 53yd and 55yd buckets, 24 Caterpillar 793B, 28 Komatsu 830-E and 23 Caterpillar 793C dump trucks, each of 218t capacity. Escondida uses eight Bucyrus 49-R and 49-RII electric drills plus an Ingersoll Rand DMM2 diesel drill. Bulk ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) explosive is used for blasting.

Run-of-mine ore is hauled to two semi-mobile, in-pit crushers for a primary reduction before being conveyed to the coarse ore stockpiles. The stripping ratio will average around 1.7:1 over the full life of the project. In-pit truck dispatching and monitoring are handled by a system from Wenco International Mining Systems, while project materials, maintenance and cost control is achieved using Mincoms mine information management system.

Fluor Daniel was awarded the initial contract for designing and constructing the sulphide concentrator, and later for the expansion programmes. The sulphide concentrator employs crushing, milling and flotation circuits. 12m-high, 4m-square column cells are used for cleaning the bulk sulphide concentrate. The concentrator uses 94 Wemco 160m cells for rougher and cleaner flotation.

The separate oxide ore plant uses solvent extraction-electrowinning technology to produce cathode copper metal directly from leached ore. Oxide ore is crushed and sized then heap leached, the dissolved copper being recovered directly by electrolysis.

Copper concentrates from the Escondida mill are pumped through a 170km-long, nine-inch-diameter pipeline, constructed by PSI-JRI Ingenieria, to the coastal port of Coloso where concentrates are dewatered and dried for export.

Concentrate dewatering employs three Larox style PF and four ceramic hyperbaric filters, which reduce the moisture content to an average of 9% after arrival at the pipeline discharge. Effluent is treated before discharge deep into the Pacific Ocean.

copper mining tech: leaders in sustainability and high-tech productivity

copper mining tech: leaders in sustainability and high-tech productivity

Copper demand is set to rise steadily with the electrification of energy and transport systems. How are different parts of the copper industry responding to this growing demand while improving their efficiency and sustainability credentials?

Copper has been part of the human conversation for thousands of years, from the Bronze Age right up to Brexit. This mining commodity is inextricably tied to the health of the global economy, with a bewildering array of factors influencing the metals supply/demand dynamics and market value. Between Brexit, an escalating US-China trade spat and concerns over Europes economic fortunes, modern copper prices face volatility and some degree of uncertainty. But in the long-term, coppers place as an in-demand commodity seems secure, with demand set to rise steadily as the world continues to electrify its energy systems along with the rise of the electric vehicle beginning in earnest. Copper, with its superb electrical conductivity and lack of price-competitive substitutes, will be the key metal wherever electricity is used, noted a copper outlook report published by the Development Bank of Singapore in October last year. The production, distribution and transmission of all that power will require a great deal of copper. In particular, the electrification of transportation will be a mega-trendWith a battery-powered electric vehicle containing four times as much copper as an ICEV [internal combustion engine vehicle], the red metal is expected to emerge a big winner from the electrification of light-duty vehicles. But how will the mining industry satisfy copper demand as it trends ever-upwards in the coming decades, and how will technology help to satisfy this demand as the industry increasingly emphasises sustainability? Below is a snapshot of three companies that are leading the way in various aspects of modern copper production. Aurubis: pushing for copper recycling in the circular economy The steadily growing demand for copper is prompting concerns around how this demand can be met in the most sustainable way, and different parts of the mining and metals industry are responding to this challenge in various ways. The circular economy the idea of keeping resources in use for as long as possible and recovering reusable material from societys waste streams is an important concept for the metals supply chain, as recycled commodities help to supply the market while taking the pressure off limited natural deposits and reducing energy consumption when compared to traditional extraction projects. Secondary copper is a good fit for recycling because it like gold, silver and other non-ferrous metals suffers no loss in quality from the process, making it infinitely repeatable. Hamburg-based Aurubis is one of the companies leading the charge on the recycling of copper and other metals. The firms largest recycling plant in Lnen, Germany, uses only secondary raw materials as input to produce high-grade copper cathodes that Aurubis describes as indistinguishable from those that come from primary copper production. Input sources include copper cable scrap, waste electronics such as circuit boards and even industrial residues and slimes, which undergo processing, smelting and refining using the Kayser Recycling System. BHPs green copper push While the recycling of secondary copper from waste streams will go some way towards relieving future supply shortages, it wont be enough on its own, as copper flow modelling conducted by the Fraunhofer Institute has demonstrated. This is partly because of the aforementioned societal and population changes driving demand, and also because copper tends to remain in use for years or decades before becoming available for reprocessing. So primary copper production will remain necessary for years to come, but how is the industry responding to changing expectations around sustainability? Mining giant BHP is looking to take a leading role in the environmental rehabilitation of copper, both in terms of direct savings in energy and water consumption, and in improving the transparency of the supply chain. The company is using data analytics to drive down freight emissions in its copper supply chain, and the massive new seawater desalination plant for the Escondida copper mine in Chile, which opened last year, is part of a broader plan to entirely eliminate freshwater usage at the mine by 2030. The copper industry already has green credentials, said BHPs president of operations for the Americas Daniel Malchuk at Aprils IWCC 2019 conference in Santiago. But together, we can do more to put these under the spotlight and show a more discerning consumer that our products are both ethical and valuable. Codelco: tech innovation at the worlds largest copper producer Chilean state-owned mining company Codelco is the largest copper producer in the world, controlling around 19% of the worlds total copper reserves and producing more than 1.6 million tonnes of the red metal (nearly 10% of global output) last year. However, rising costs and declining ore grades at many of the companys largest mines have been an increasing challenge for the copper giant, spurring massive investments such as the ongoing $5bn project to convert the huge Chuquicamata mine from an open-pit to an underground operation. Codelcos challenges do seem to have prompted a range of innovative technology deployments to improve efficiency and sustainability at the companys operations in Chile. Like Rio Tinto, Codelco is increasingly emphasising automation in its mining fleets and processing facilities, and in April announced an agreement with long-time partner Sandvik to introduce fully automated loaders and predictive analytics to Chuquicamatas new underground operations. Artificial intelligence (AI) is on the menu, too; this year the company started working with Uptake to deploy an AI-based system that will manage and predict the condition of much of its equipment and infrastructure. Related Companies Midwest Valves & Controls Industrial Valves for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Ultra-Dynamics High-Performance Monitoring Equipment for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Applied Measurement Australia Testing and Measurement Solutions for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

Between Brexit, an escalating US-China trade spat and concerns over Europes economic fortunes, modern copper prices face volatility and some degree of uncertainty. But in the long-term, coppers place as an in-demand commodity seems secure, with demand set to rise steadily as the world continues to electrify its energy systems along with the rise of the electric vehicle beginning in earnest. Copper, with its superb electrical conductivity and lack of price-competitive substitutes, will be the key metal wherever electricity is used, noted a copper outlook report published by the Development Bank of Singapore in October last year. The production, distribution and transmission of all that power will require a great deal of copper. In particular, the electrification of transportation will be a mega-trendWith a battery-powered electric vehicle containing four times as much copper as an ICEV [internal combustion engine vehicle], the red metal is expected to emerge a big winner from the electrification of light-duty vehicles. But how will the mining industry satisfy copper demand as it trends ever-upwards in the coming decades, and how will technology help to satisfy this demand as the industry increasingly emphasises sustainability? Below is a snapshot of three companies that are leading the way in various aspects of modern copper production. Aurubis: pushing for copper recycling in the circular economy The steadily growing demand for copper is prompting concerns around how this demand can be met in the most sustainable way, and different parts of the mining and metals industry are responding to this challenge in various ways. The circular economy the idea of keeping resources in use for as long as possible and recovering reusable material from societys waste streams is an important concept for the metals supply chain, as recycled commodities help to supply the market while taking the pressure off limited natural deposits and reducing energy consumption when compared to traditional extraction projects. Secondary copper is a good fit for recycling because it like gold, silver and other non-ferrous metals suffers no loss in quality from the process, making it infinitely repeatable. Hamburg-based Aurubis is one of the companies leading the charge on the recycling of copper and other metals. The firms largest recycling plant in Lnen, Germany, uses only secondary raw materials as input to produce high-grade copper cathodes that Aurubis describes as indistinguishable from those that come from primary copper production. Input sources include copper cable scrap, waste electronics such as circuit boards and even industrial residues and slimes, which undergo processing, smelting and refining using the Kayser Recycling System. BHPs green copper push While the recycling of secondary copper from waste streams will go some way towards relieving future supply shortages, it wont be enough on its own, as copper flow modelling conducted by the Fraunhofer Institute has demonstrated. This is partly because of the aforementioned societal and population changes driving demand, and also because copper tends to remain in use for years or decades before becoming available for reprocessing. So primary copper production will remain necessary for years to come, but how is the industry responding to changing expectations around sustainability? Mining giant BHP is looking to take a leading role in the environmental rehabilitation of copper, both in terms of direct savings in energy and water consumption, and in improving the transparency of the supply chain. The company is using data analytics to drive down freight emissions in its copper supply chain, and the massive new seawater desalination plant for the Escondida copper mine in Chile, which opened last year, is part of a broader plan to entirely eliminate freshwater usage at the mine by 2030. The copper industry already has green credentials, said BHPs president of operations for the Americas Daniel Malchuk at Aprils IWCC 2019 conference in Santiago. But together, we can do more to put these under the spotlight and show a more discerning consumer that our products are both ethical and valuable. Codelco: tech innovation at the worlds largest copper producer Chilean state-owned mining company Codelco is the largest copper producer in the world, controlling around 19% of the worlds total copper reserves and producing more than 1.6 million tonnes of the red metal (nearly 10% of global output) last year. However, rising costs and declining ore grades at many of the companys largest mines have been an increasing challenge for the copper giant, spurring massive investments such as the ongoing $5bn project to convert the huge Chuquicamata mine from an open-pit to an underground operation. Codelcos challenges do seem to have prompted a range of innovative technology deployments to improve efficiency and sustainability at the companys operations in Chile. Like Rio Tinto, Codelco is increasingly emphasising automation in its mining fleets and processing facilities, and in April announced an agreement with long-time partner Sandvik to introduce fully automated loaders and predictive analytics to Chuquicamatas new underground operations. Artificial intelligence (AI) is on the menu, too; this year the company started working with Uptake to deploy an AI-based system that will manage and predict the condition of much of its equipment and infrastructure. Related Companies Midwest Valves & Controls Industrial Valves for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Ultra-Dynamics High-Performance Monitoring Equipment for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Applied Measurement Australia Testing and Measurement Solutions for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

Copper, with its superb electrical conductivity and lack of price-competitive substitutes, will be the key metal wherever electricity is used, noted a copper outlook report published by the Development Bank of Singapore in October last year. The production, distribution and transmission of all that power will require a great deal of copper. In particular, the electrification of transportation will be a mega-trendWith a battery-powered electric vehicle containing four times as much copper as an ICEV [internal combustion engine vehicle], the red metal is expected to emerge a big winner from the electrification of light-duty vehicles. But how will the mining industry satisfy copper demand as it trends ever-upwards in the coming decades, and how will technology help to satisfy this demand as the industry increasingly emphasises sustainability? Below is a snapshot of three companies that are leading the way in various aspects of modern copper production. Aurubis: pushing for copper recycling in the circular economy The steadily growing demand for copper is prompting concerns around how this demand can be met in the most sustainable way, and different parts of the mining and metals industry are responding to this challenge in various ways. The circular economy the idea of keeping resources in use for as long as possible and recovering reusable material from societys waste streams is an important concept for the metals supply chain, as recycled commodities help to supply the market while taking the pressure off limited natural deposits and reducing energy consumption when compared to traditional extraction projects. Secondary copper is a good fit for recycling because it like gold, silver and other non-ferrous metals suffers no loss in quality from the process, making it infinitely repeatable. Hamburg-based Aurubis is one of the companies leading the charge on the recycling of copper and other metals. The firms largest recycling plant in Lnen, Germany, uses only secondary raw materials as input to produce high-grade copper cathodes that Aurubis describes as indistinguishable from those that come from primary copper production. Input sources include copper cable scrap, waste electronics such as circuit boards and even industrial residues and slimes, which undergo processing, smelting and refining using the Kayser Recycling System. BHPs green copper push While the recycling of secondary copper from waste streams will go some way towards relieving future supply shortages, it wont be enough on its own, as copper flow modelling conducted by the Fraunhofer Institute has demonstrated. This is partly because of the aforementioned societal and population changes driving demand, and also because copper tends to remain in use for years or decades before becoming available for reprocessing. So primary copper production will remain necessary for years to come, but how is the industry responding to changing expectations around sustainability? Mining giant BHP is looking to take a leading role in the environmental rehabilitation of copper, both in terms of direct savings in energy and water consumption, and in improving the transparency of the supply chain. The company is using data analytics to drive down freight emissions in its copper supply chain, and the massive new seawater desalination plant for the Escondida copper mine in Chile, which opened last year, is part of a broader plan to entirely eliminate freshwater usage at the mine by 2030. The copper industry already has green credentials, said BHPs president of operations for the Americas Daniel Malchuk at Aprils IWCC 2019 conference in Santiago. But together, we can do more to put these under the spotlight and show a more discerning consumer that our products are both ethical and valuable. Codelco: tech innovation at the worlds largest copper producer Chilean state-owned mining company Codelco is the largest copper producer in the world, controlling around 19% of the worlds total copper reserves and producing more than 1.6 million tonnes of the red metal (nearly 10% of global output) last year. However, rising costs and declining ore grades at many of the companys largest mines have been an increasing challenge for the copper giant, spurring massive investments such as the ongoing $5bn project to convert the huge Chuquicamata mine from an open-pit to an underground operation. Codelcos challenges do seem to have prompted a range of innovative technology deployments to improve efficiency and sustainability at the companys operations in Chile. Like Rio Tinto, Codelco is increasingly emphasising automation in its mining fleets and processing facilities, and in April announced an agreement with long-time partner Sandvik to introduce fully automated loaders and predictive analytics to Chuquicamatas new underground operations. Artificial intelligence (AI) is on the menu, too; this year the company started working with Uptake to deploy an AI-based system that will manage and predict the condition of much of its equipment and infrastructure. Related Companies Midwest Valves & Controls Industrial Valves for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Ultra-Dynamics High-Performance Monitoring Equipment for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Applied Measurement Australia Testing and Measurement Solutions for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

But how will the mining industry satisfy copper demand as it trends ever-upwards in the coming decades, and how will technology help to satisfy this demand as the industry increasingly emphasises sustainability? Below is a snapshot of three companies that are leading the way in various aspects of modern copper production. Aurubis: pushing for copper recycling in the circular economy The steadily growing demand for copper is prompting concerns around how this demand can be met in the most sustainable way, and different parts of the mining and metals industry are responding to this challenge in various ways. The circular economy the idea of keeping resources in use for as long as possible and recovering reusable material from societys waste streams is an important concept for the metals supply chain, as recycled commodities help to supply the market while taking the pressure off limited natural deposits and reducing energy consumption when compared to traditional extraction projects. Secondary copper is a good fit for recycling because it like gold, silver and other non-ferrous metals suffers no loss in quality from the process, making it infinitely repeatable. Hamburg-based Aurubis is one of the companies leading the charge on the recycling of copper and other metals. The firms largest recycling plant in Lnen, Germany, uses only secondary raw materials as input to produce high-grade copper cathodes that Aurubis describes as indistinguishable from those that come from primary copper production. Input sources include copper cable scrap, waste electronics such as circuit boards and even industrial residues and slimes, which undergo processing, smelting and refining using the Kayser Recycling System. BHPs green copper push While the recycling of secondary copper from waste streams will go some way towards relieving future supply shortages, it wont be enough on its own, as copper flow modelling conducted by the Fraunhofer Institute has demonstrated. This is partly because of the aforementioned societal and population changes driving demand, and also because copper tends to remain in use for years or decades before becoming available for reprocessing. So primary copper production will remain necessary for years to come, but how is the industry responding to changing expectations around sustainability? Mining giant BHP is looking to take a leading role in the environmental rehabilitation of copper, both in terms of direct savings in energy and water consumption, and in improving the transparency of the supply chain. The company is using data analytics to drive down freight emissions in its copper supply chain, and the massive new seawater desalination plant for the Escondida copper mine in Chile, which opened last year, is part of a broader plan to entirely eliminate freshwater usage at the mine by 2030. The copper industry already has green credentials, said BHPs president of operations for the Americas Daniel Malchuk at Aprils IWCC 2019 conference in Santiago. But together, we can do more to put these under the spotlight and show a more discerning consumer that our products are both ethical and valuable. Codelco: tech innovation at the worlds largest copper producer Chilean state-owned mining company Codelco is the largest copper producer in the world, controlling around 19% of the worlds total copper reserves and producing more than 1.6 million tonnes of the red metal (nearly 10% of global output) last year. However, rising costs and declining ore grades at many of the companys largest mines have been an increasing challenge for the copper giant, spurring massive investments such as the ongoing $5bn project to convert the huge Chuquicamata mine from an open-pit to an underground operation. Codelcos challenges do seem to have prompted a range of innovative technology deployments to improve efficiency and sustainability at the companys operations in Chile. Like Rio Tinto, Codelco is increasingly emphasising automation in its mining fleets and processing facilities, and in April announced an agreement with long-time partner Sandvik to introduce fully automated loaders and predictive analytics to Chuquicamatas new underground operations. Artificial intelligence (AI) is on the menu, too; this year the company started working with Uptake to deploy an AI-based system that will manage and predict the condition of much of its equipment and infrastructure. Related Companies Midwest Valves & Controls Industrial Valves for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Ultra-Dynamics High-Performance Monitoring Equipment for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Applied Measurement Australia Testing and Measurement Solutions for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

The steadily growing demand for copper is prompting concerns around how this demand can be met in the most sustainable way, and different parts of the mining and metals industry are responding to this challenge in various ways. The circular economy the idea of keeping resources in use for as long as possible and recovering reusable material from societys waste streams is an important concept for the metals supply chain, as recycled commodities help to supply the market while taking the pressure off limited natural deposits and reducing energy consumption when compared to traditional extraction projects. Secondary copper is a good fit for recycling because it like gold, silver and other non-ferrous metals suffers no loss in quality from the process, making it infinitely repeatable. Hamburg-based Aurubis is one of the companies leading the charge on the recycling of copper and other metals. The firms largest recycling plant in Lnen, Germany, uses only secondary raw materials as input to produce high-grade copper cathodes that Aurubis describes as indistinguishable from those that come from primary copper production. Input sources include copper cable scrap, waste electronics such as circuit boards and even industrial residues and slimes, which undergo processing, smelting and refining using the Kayser Recycling System. BHPs green copper push While the recycling of secondary copper from waste streams will go some way towards relieving future supply shortages, it wont be enough on its own, as copper flow modelling conducted by the Fraunhofer Institute has demonstrated. This is partly because of the aforementioned societal and population changes driving demand, and also because copper tends to remain in use for years or decades before becoming available for reprocessing. So primary copper production will remain necessary for years to come, but how is the industry responding to changing expectations around sustainability? Mining giant BHP is looking to take a leading role in the environmental rehabilitation of copper, both in terms of direct savings in energy and water consumption, and in improving the transparency of the supply chain. The company is using data analytics to drive down freight emissions in its copper supply chain, and the massive new seawater desalination plant for the Escondida copper mine in Chile, which opened last year, is part of a broader plan to entirely eliminate freshwater usage at the mine by 2030. The copper industry already has green credentials, said BHPs president of operations for the Americas Daniel Malchuk at Aprils IWCC 2019 conference in Santiago. But together, we can do more to put these under the spotlight and show a more discerning consumer that our products are both ethical and valuable. Codelco: tech innovation at the worlds largest copper producer Chilean state-owned mining company Codelco is the largest copper producer in the world, controlling around 19% of the worlds total copper reserves and producing more than 1.6 million tonnes of the red metal (nearly 10% of global output) last year. However, rising costs and declining ore grades at many of the companys largest mines have been an increasing challenge for the copper giant, spurring massive investments such as the ongoing $5bn project to convert the huge Chuquicamata mine from an open-pit to an underground operation. Codelcos challenges do seem to have prompted a range of innovative technology deployments to improve efficiency and sustainability at the companys operations in Chile. Like Rio Tinto, Codelco is increasingly emphasising automation in its mining fleets and processing facilities, and in April announced an agreement with long-time partner Sandvik to introduce fully automated loaders and predictive analytics to Chuquicamatas new underground operations. Artificial intelligence (AI) is on the menu, too; this year the company started working with Uptake to deploy an AI-based system that will manage and predict the condition of much of its equipment and infrastructure. Related Companies Midwest Valves & Controls Industrial Valves for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Ultra-Dynamics High-Performance Monitoring Equipment for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Applied Measurement Australia Testing and Measurement Solutions for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

Secondary copper is a good fit for recycling because it like gold, silver and other non-ferrous metals suffers no loss in quality from the process, making it infinitely repeatable. Hamburg-based Aurubis is one of the companies leading the charge on the recycling of copper and other metals. The firms largest recycling plant in Lnen, Germany, uses only secondary raw materials as input to produce high-grade copper cathodes that Aurubis describes as indistinguishable from those that come from primary copper production. Input sources include copper cable scrap, waste electronics such as circuit boards and even industrial residues and slimes, which undergo processing, smelting and refining using the Kayser Recycling System. BHPs green copper push While the recycling of secondary copper from waste streams will go some way towards relieving future supply shortages, it wont be enough on its own, as copper flow modelling conducted by the Fraunhofer Institute has demonstrated. This is partly because of the aforementioned societal and population changes driving demand, and also because copper tends to remain in use for years or decades before becoming available for reprocessing. So primary copper production will remain necessary for years to come, but how is the industry responding to changing expectations around sustainability? Mining giant BHP is looking to take a leading role in the environmental rehabilitation of copper, both in terms of direct savings in energy and water consumption, and in improving the transparency of the supply chain. The company is using data analytics to drive down freight emissions in its copper supply chain, and the massive new seawater desalination plant for the Escondida copper mine in Chile, which opened last year, is part of a broader plan to entirely eliminate freshwater usage at the mine by 2030. The copper industry already has green credentials, said BHPs president of operations for the Americas Daniel Malchuk at Aprils IWCC 2019 conference in Santiago. But together, we can do more to put these under the spotlight and show a more discerning consumer that our products are both ethical and valuable. Codelco: tech innovation at the worlds largest copper producer Chilean state-owned mining company Codelco is the largest copper producer in the world, controlling around 19% of the worlds total copper reserves and producing more than 1.6 million tonnes of the red metal (nearly 10% of global output) last year. However, rising costs and declining ore grades at many of the companys largest mines have been an increasing challenge for the copper giant, spurring massive investments such as the ongoing $5bn project to convert the huge Chuquicamata mine from an open-pit to an underground operation. Codelcos challenges do seem to have prompted a range of innovative technology deployments to improve efficiency and sustainability at the companys operations in Chile. Like Rio Tinto, Codelco is increasingly emphasising automation in its mining fleets and processing facilities, and in April announced an agreement with long-time partner Sandvik to introduce fully automated loaders and predictive analytics to Chuquicamatas new underground operations. Artificial intelligence (AI) is on the menu, too; this year the company started working with Uptake to deploy an AI-based system that will manage and predict the condition of much of its equipment and infrastructure. Related Companies Midwest Valves & Controls Industrial Valves for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Ultra-Dynamics High-Performance Monitoring Equipment for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Applied Measurement Australia Testing and Measurement Solutions for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

The firms largest recycling plant in Lnen, Germany, uses only secondary raw materials as input to produce high-grade copper cathodes that Aurubis describes as indistinguishable from those that come from primary copper production. Input sources include copper cable scrap, waste electronics such as circuit boards and even industrial residues and slimes, which undergo processing, smelting and refining using the Kayser Recycling System. BHPs green copper push While the recycling of secondary copper from waste streams will go some way towards relieving future supply shortages, it wont be enough on its own, as copper flow modelling conducted by the Fraunhofer Institute has demonstrated. This is partly because of the aforementioned societal and population changes driving demand, and also because copper tends to remain in use for years or decades before becoming available for reprocessing. So primary copper production will remain necessary for years to come, but how is the industry responding to changing expectations around sustainability? Mining giant BHP is looking to take a leading role in the environmental rehabilitation of copper, both in terms of direct savings in energy and water consumption, and in improving the transparency of the supply chain. The company is using data analytics to drive down freight emissions in its copper supply chain, and the massive new seawater desalination plant for the Escondida copper mine in Chile, which opened last year, is part of a broader plan to entirely eliminate freshwater usage at the mine by 2030. The copper industry already has green credentials, said BHPs president of operations for the Americas Daniel Malchuk at Aprils IWCC 2019 conference in Santiago. But together, we can do more to put these under the spotlight and show a more discerning consumer that our products are both ethical and valuable. Codelco: tech innovation at the worlds largest copper producer Chilean state-owned mining company Codelco is the largest copper producer in the world, controlling around 19% of the worlds total copper reserves and producing more than 1.6 million tonnes of the red metal (nearly 10% of global output) last year. However, rising costs and declining ore grades at many of the companys largest mines have been an increasing challenge for the copper giant, spurring massive investments such as the ongoing $5bn project to convert the huge Chuquicamata mine from an open-pit to an underground operation. Codelcos challenges do seem to have prompted a range of innovative technology deployments to improve efficiency and sustainability at the companys operations in Chile. Like Rio Tinto, Codelco is increasingly emphasising automation in its mining fleets and processing facilities, and in April announced an agreement with long-time partner Sandvik to introduce fully automated loaders and predictive analytics to Chuquicamatas new underground operations. Artificial intelligence (AI) is on the menu, too; this year the company started working with Uptake to deploy an AI-based system that will manage and predict the condition of much of its equipment and infrastructure. Related Companies Midwest Valves & Controls Industrial Valves for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Ultra-Dynamics High-Performance Monitoring Equipment for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Applied Measurement Australia Testing and Measurement Solutions for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

While the recycling of secondary copper from waste streams will go some way towards relieving future supply shortages, it wont be enough on its own, as copper flow modelling conducted by the Fraunhofer Institute has demonstrated. This is partly because of the aforementioned societal and population changes driving demand, and also because copper tends to remain in use for years or decades before becoming available for reprocessing. So primary copper production will remain necessary for years to come, but how is the industry responding to changing expectations around sustainability? Mining giant BHP is looking to take a leading role in the environmental rehabilitation of copper, both in terms of direct savings in energy and water consumption, and in improving the transparency of the supply chain. The company is using data analytics to drive down freight emissions in its copper supply chain, and the massive new seawater desalination plant for the Escondida copper mine in Chile, which opened last year, is part of a broader plan to entirely eliminate freshwater usage at the mine by 2030. The copper industry already has green credentials, said BHPs president of operations for the Americas Daniel Malchuk at Aprils IWCC 2019 conference in Santiago. But together, we can do more to put these under the spotlight and show a more discerning consumer that our products are both ethical and valuable. Codelco: tech innovation at the worlds largest copper producer Chilean state-owned mining company Codelco is the largest copper producer in the world, controlling around 19% of the worlds total copper reserves and producing more than 1.6 million tonnes of the red metal (nearly 10% of global output) last year. However, rising costs and declining ore grades at many of the companys largest mines have been an increasing challenge for the copper giant, spurring massive investments such as the ongoing $5bn project to convert the huge Chuquicamata mine from an open-pit to an underground operation. Codelcos challenges do seem to have prompted a range of innovative technology deployments to improve efficiency and sustainability at the companys operations in Chile. Like Rio Tinto, Codelco is increasingly emphasising automation in its mining fleets and processing facilities, and in April announced an agreement with long-time partner Sandvik to introduce fully automated loaders and predictive analytics to Chuquicamatas new underground operations. Artificial intelligence (AI) is on the menu, too; this year the company started working with Uptake to deploy an AI-based system that will manage and predict the condition of much of its equipment and infrastructure. Related Companies Midwest Valves & Controls Industrial Valves for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Ultra-Dynamics High-Performance Monitoring Equipment for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Applied Measurement Australia Testing and Measurement Solutions for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

So primary copper production will remain necessary for years to come, but how is the industry responding to changing expectations around sustainability? Mining giant BHP is looking to take a leading role in the environmental rehabilitation of copper, both in terms of direct savings in energy and water consumption, and in improving the transparency of the supply chain. The company is using data analytics to drive down freight emissions in its copper supply chain, and the massive new seawater desalination plant for the Escondida copper mine in Chile, which opened last year, is part of a broader plan to entirely eliminate freshwater usage at the mine by 2030. The copper industry already has green credentials, said BHPs president of operations for the Americas Daniel Malchuk at Aprils IWCC 2019 conference in Santiago. But together, we can do more to put these under the spotlight and show a more discerning consumer that our products are both ethical and valuable. Codelco: tech innovation at the worlds largest copper producer Chilean state-owned mining company Codelco is the largest copper producer in the world, controlling around 19% of the worlds total copper reserves and producing more than 1.6 million tonnes of the red metal (nearly 10% of global output) last year. However, rising costs and declining ore grades at many of the companys largest mines have been an increasing challenge for the copper giant, spurring massive investments such as the ongoing $5bn project to convert the huge Chuquicamata mine from an open-pit to an underground operation. Codelcos challenges do seem to have prompted a range of innovative technology deployments to improve efficiency and sustainability at the companys operations in Chile. Like Rio Tinto, Codelco is increasingly emphasising automation in its mining fleets and processing facilities, and in April announced an agreement with long-time partner Sandvik to introduce fully automated loaders and predictive analytics to Chuquicamatas new underground operations. Artificial intelligence (AI) is on the menu, too; this year the company started working with Uptake to deploy an AI-based system that will manage and predict the condition of much of its equipment and infrastructure. Related Companies Midwest Valves & Controls Industrial Valves for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Ultra-Dynamics High-Performance Monitoring Equipment for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Applied Measurement Australia Testing and Measurement Solutions for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

The copper industry already has green credentials, said BHPs president of operations for the Americas Daniel Malchuk at Aprils IWCC 2019 conference in Santiago. But together, we can do more to put these under the spotlight and show a more discerning consumer that our products are both ethical and valuable. Codelco: tech innovation at the worlds largest copper producer Chilean state-owned mining company Codelco is the largest copper producer in the world, controlling around 19% of the worlds total copper reserves and producing more than 1.6 million tonnes of the red metal (nearly 10% of global output) last year. However, rising costs and declining ore grades at many of the companys largest mines have been an increasing challenge for the copper giant, spurring massive investments such as the ongoing $5bn project to convert the huge Chuquicamata mine from an open-pit to an underground operation. Codelcos challenges do seem to have prompted a range of innovative technology deployments to improve efficiency and sustainability at the companys operations in Chile. Like Rio Tinto, Codelco is increasingly emphasising automation in its mining fleets and processing facilities, and in April announced an agreement with long-time partner Sandvik to introduce fully automated loaders and predictive analytics to Chuquicamatas new underground operations. Artificial intelligence (AI) is on the menu, too; this year the company started working with Uptake to deploy an AI-based system that will manage and predict the condition of much of its equipment and infrastructure. Related Companies Midwest Valves & Controls Industrial Valves for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Ultra-Dynamics High-Performance Monitoring Equipment for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Applied Measurement Australia Testing and Measurement Solutions for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

Chilean state-owned mining company Codelco is the largest copper producer in the world, controlling around 19% of the worlds total copper reserves and producing more than 1.6 million tonnes of the red metal (nearly 10% of global output) last year. However, rising costs and declining ore grades at many of the companys largest mines have been an increasing challenge for the copper giant, spurring massive investments such as the ongoing $5bn project to convert the huge Chuquicamata mine from an open-pit to an underground operation. Codelcos challenges do seem to have prompted a range of innovative technology deployments to improve efficiency and sustainability at the companys operations in Chile. Like Rio Tinto, Codelco is increasingly emphasising automation in its mining fleets and processing facilities, and in April announced an agreement with long-time partner Sandvik to introduce fully automated loaders and predictive analytics to Chuquicamatas new underground operations. Artificial intelligence (AI) is on the menu, too; this year the company started working with Uptake to deploy an AI-based system that will manage and predict the condition of much of its equipment and infrastructure. Related Companies Midwest Valves & Controls Industrial Valves for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Ultra-Dynamics High-Performance Monitoring Equipment for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Applied Measurement Australia Testing and Measurement Solutions for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

However, rising costs and declining ore grades at many of the companys largest mines have been an increasing challenge for the copper giant, spurring massive investments such as the ongoing $5bn project to convert the huge Chuquicamata mine from an open-pit to an underground operation. Codelcos challenges do seem to have prompted a range of innovative technology deployments to improve efficiency and sustainability at the companys operations in Chile. Like Rio Tinto, Codelco is increasingly emphasising automation in its mining fleets and processing facilities, and in April announced an agreement with long-time partner Sandvik to introduce fully automated loaders and predictive analytics to Chuquicamatas new underground operations. Artificial intelligence (AI) is on the menu, too; this year the company started working with Uptake to deploy an AI-based system that will manage and predict the condition of much of its equipment and infrastructure. Related Companies Midwest Valves & Controls Industrial Valves for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Ultra-Dynamics High-Performance Monitoring Equipment for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Applied Measurement Australia Testing and Measurement Solutions for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

Codelcos challenges do seem to have prompted a range of innovative technology deployments to improve efficiency and sustainability at the companys operations in Chile. Like Rio Tinto, Codelco is increasingly emphasising automation in its mining fleets and processing facilities, and in April announced an agreement with long-time partner Sandvik to introduce fully automated loaders and predictive analytics to Chuquicamatas new underground operations. Artificial intelligence (AI) is on the menu, too; this year the company started working with Uptake to deploy an AI-based system that will manage and predict the condition of much of its equipment and infrastructure. Related Companies Midwest Valves & Controls Industrial Valves for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Ultra-Dynamics High-Performance Monitoring Equipment for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Applied Measurement Australia Testing and Measurement Solutions for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

Artificial intelligence (AI) is on the menu, too; this year the company started working with Uptake to deploy an AI-based system that will manage and predict the condition of much of its equipment and infrastructure. Related Companies Midwest Valves & Controls Industrial Valves for the Mining Industry 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Ultra-Dynamics High-Performance Monitoring Equipment for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile Applied Measurement Australia Testing and Measurement Solutions for Mining Applications 28 Aug 2020 Visit Profile

morenci copper mine, arizona - mining technology | mining news and views updated daily

morenci copper mine, arizona - mining technology | mining news and views updated daily

The Detroit Copper Company started mining at Morenci, 16km south of Silver City, Arizona, in 1872. Copper Queen Consolidated Mining bought the property in 1885, with the company name changed to Phelps Dodge in 1917.

Ninety years later in March 2007, Phelps Dodge merged with Freeport McMoRan Copper & Gold, whose principal asset is the massive Grasberg copper-gold mine in Indonesia, in an agreed $25.9bn takeover by Freeport, the smaller of the two companies.

Morenci is the largest copper producer in North America and remains a major contributor to Phelpss copper output, which is second only to that of Chiles Codelco. In 1986, Phelps Dodge Morenci was established as a partnership between Phelps Dodge Mining Company (72%) and Sumitomo Metal Mining Arizona Inc. The latter belongs to Sumitomo Corp. (15%) and Sumitomo Metal Mining (13%).

For many years as an integrated mine-concentrator-smelter operation, Morenci pioneered the large-scale hydrometallurgical treatment of mined copper ore by dump leaching, solvent extraction (SX) and electrowinning (EW) during 1985, in parallel with conventional treatment.

In 1999, Phelps Dodge started a $220m mine-for-leach (MFL) conversion project, and from mid-2001 until 2006 produced all its copper this way. However, in 2005, the company announced the go-ahead for a $210m project to create the worlds first commercial copper-concentrate leaching / direct electrowinning operation at Morenci, a proprietary technology that allows primary sulphide ore treatment by leaching in combination with secondary ore processing.

As well as new leach-electrowin capacity, the project required reopening the mothballed Morenci concentrator. This programme was accelerated in 2006 to provide copper-in-concentrate for treatment at Phelpss Miami smelter, also in Arizona, before completion of the hydrometallurgical facilities at Morenci.

A feasibility study was conducted for an expansion project to raise the current milling rate from 50,000tpd to 115,000tpd. The Morenci mill expansion project began operations in in May 2014 and achieved full milling rates in the second quarter of 2015.

Copper mineralisation, identified by a regiment of California Volunteers in 1865, turned out to be part of a major porphyry copper ore body extending across a dissected mountain terrain. Both sulphide and oxide ores occur, pyrite and chalcocite being the main sulphide minerals, and chrysocolla and malachite the predominant oxides. Molybdenite, galena and sphalerite are also present.

Phelps mined underground until the 1930s depression, converting to an open-cut operation with rail haulage in 1937. The topography prevented development as a single pit: today the working area extends across 2.5km x 2.2km but is worked as three pits: the Metcalf (within the original Morenci pit), the NWX (Northwest Extension) and the Coronado.

Electric rotary rigs, mainly made by Bucyrus, drill blast holes and P&H 4100 and 2800 series electric rope shovels load the truck fleet. This includes more than 60 Caterpillar units, both 793 (218t capacity) and 797 (272t) models.

When hydrometallurgical processing started, these two mills worked in parallel with two leaching / solvent extraction operations and one electrowinning tankhouse. The MFL conversion required an expansion of the hydrometallurgical facilities to yield 365,000t/y of cathode copper, but led to the Metcalf concentrator being closed and the Morenci unit placed on care-and-maintenance until 2006.

While high-graded ore is conveyed to leach pads within the pit, the bulk of the primary crusher output (63,500t/d of ore) is secondary crushed and conveyed to the Stargo dump-leaching site. This ore is agglomerated for spreading by two Rahco mobile stacking units. Leaching is bacterially assisted, with air blown into alternate lifts.

The total heap and dump leach-liquor yield is 16,500m/h, copper recovery was 58.5% in 2003. Four SX plants, namely Central, Metcalfe, Stargo and Modoc, feed three tankhouses (Central, Southside and Stargo). The new leaching-electrowinning capacity was incorporated into the existing complex, which is already the worlds largest.

kghm copper - mining technology | mining news and views updated daily

kghm copper - mining technology | mining news and views updated daily

The integrated mining, smelting and refining facilities operated by KGHM Polska Miedz SA (KGHM) ranked as the worlds sixth largest refined copper supplier, and the third largest source of silver in 2005.

The KGHM Combine was created in 1961 to develop a copper deposit located north of some existing small mines in Lower Silesia, southwest Poland. Four mines were developed between 1961 and 1980. In 1971, KGHM built the Glogw I smelter-refinery, 20km north of the Legnica smelter-refinery which opened in 1959. The Glogw II flash smelter and refinery was completed in 1978.

KGHM added a precious metals plant in 1993 and sulphur treatment units in 1994 and 1998. During 2000, the firm started sinking shafts to access ore below 1,200m depth in the Glogw area. Three have been completed and SW-4 is under construction.

The average group workforce is around 27,000, with its mining and metals operations accounting for over 85% of total KGHM revenues. Employment within the companys mining operations is around 17,900 people.

The Legnica-Glogw copper basin extends over a polygonal area of 416km. The stratiform mineralisation occurs where Permian limestone lies against New Red Sandstone within varying combinations of sandstone, shale and dolomite. The proportions of carbonate, shale and sandstone ore types vary from mine to mine and the ore horizon ranges from 1.2m to 20m in thickness, lying at depths of between 600m and 1,200m from surface. The overall average thickness in the mineable zones is 3.38m.

Chalcocite, bornite and chalcopyrite are the most important minerals. KGHM is currently accessing the recently licensed Glogw Gleboki Przemyslowy deposit, which contains ore at depths of 1,1001,400m equivalent to 26% of the resources currently being worked. As of December 2005, KGHM stated its geological resource as being 1,603Mt, containing 32.2Mt of copper and 23,003t of silver, while industrial ore reserves totalled 922Mt, containing 21.2Mt of copper and 58,496t of silver.

The Lower Silesian deposit was developed as four mines: Lubin (196168), Polkowice (196268), Rudna (197074) and Sieroszowice (197680). Polkowice and Sieroszowice, which shared a concentrator, were merged in 1996. Shaft sinking through aquifers utilised a special freezing method. The deposit is stressed, and is subject to seismic events and rock bursts, so KGHM has developed a sophisticated monitoring system and makes extensive use of rock bolts.

Thicker seams are worked by cut-and-fill but most production relies on room-and-pillar mining on a number of levels; 950m, 1,000m, 1,050m and 1,150m at Rudna, for instance. Until the 1990s, room and pillar mining was restricted to the 25m-thick sections, mainly using locally built pneumatic drilling rigs.

Electro-hydraulic rigs have since increased productivity and reduced dilution in these sections, while thin-seam equipment such as the Facemaster 1.5, developed by a joint venture between KGHM and Boart Longyear and now built by Mine Master, has extended mining into thinner seams. LHDs, shuttle cars and, in thicker working areas, Toro 50D trucks, take ore to conveyors that run to the hoists.

KGHM also mines salt above the copper seam at Sieroszowice, using a roadheader. The mines traditionally worked three shifts/day for five days, with extra shifts on Saturdays as required, but during 2003 a new multi-shift system was introduced.

The concentrators at Lubin (23,000t/d), Polkowice (22,000t/d) and Rudna (43,500t/d) use a conventional flotation process to produce 2526% copper concentrates for the shaft smelters at Legnica and Glogw I and the Glogw II flash smelter. Three-stage milling with rod and ball mills feeds flotation circuits. Pressure filtration yields concentrates, while tails are dewatered. There is a centralised tailings disposal system. Recovery rates in the mid-1990s were 8890% for copper and 8388% for silver, but have improved since. Optimising the concentrator capacity and transport to the HM Glogw smelter remain KGHM priorities, as does one station flash smelting.

Copper production increased from 400,000t/y in the early 1990s to almost 500,000t in 2001. In 2003, KGHM mined 25.83Mt of ore averaging 1.99% Cu, and processed 1.88Mt of 26.76% Cu concentrates. Electrolytic copper output was 529,616t, crude lead 20,134t, metallic silver 1,223t, dor silver 135t and gold 356kg. Other products included platinum-palladium slime, selenium and over 600,000t of sulphuric acid.

In 2004, the total output was 550,000t of copper and 1,344t of silver. During 2005, the company mined 30.4Mt of ore averaging 1.89% Cu, and this lower grade more than offset the higher tonnage produced, so copper-concentrate production fell from 2.05Mt to 1.98Mt, although the copper grade of the concentrate was increased by better recovery. Electrolytic copper production rose from 550,000t to a record 560,000t thanks to the increased use of imported charge materials in order to make optimum use of the smelter capacity. However, these materials contained relatively little silver, so that total silver output fell from 1,344t to 1,244t in 2005.

palabora copper mine, palabora, south africa - mining technology | mining news and views updated daily

palabora copper mine, palabora, south africa - mining technology | mining news and views updated daily

The project was previously developed by Palabora Mining Company (PMC), which was owned by Rio Tinto (57.7%) and Anglo American (16.8%). The partners reached a binding sales agreement with PMC and Empowerment Partners to sell their respective shares in Palabora in December 2012.

Open-pit mining commenced at Palabora in 1964 and ended in 2002 when the pit reached its final economic depth. The development of an underground mine to work the ore remaining below the pit bottom began during the final years of open-pit production, at a cost of $465m, with the prospect of a further 20 years life in the underground operation.

The integrated copper-production complex has a metal-refining capacity of 135,000tpa, although the change to underground mining means that some of this capacity is now redundant. The operation employs 2,200 people.

Palabora contains magnetite, vermiculite, apatite, zirconium, titanium and uranium, as well as copper. The deposit is hosted in an alkaline igneous complex comprising mainly pyroxenite with occurrences of pegmatites, foskorite and carbonatite.

Three separate mineralised zones have been identified within the complexs 20km surface outcrop, of which the most northerly is phosphate-rich while the central (Loolekop) zone forms the basis for Palaboras copper production.

The copper orebody is hosted in a carbonatite pipe within which grades are typically concentric with the highest values (1.0% copper) at the core. The higher-grade mineralisation extends well beneath the centre of the projected final open-pit floor.

The underground mine has been developed on a proven reserve of 225Mt at 0.7% copper, in addition to an additional probable reserve of 16Mt grading 0.49% copper. By the end of 2005, proven and probable reserves totalled 112Mt grading 0.56% copper, representing a significant reduction from the tonnage and grade cited the year before. Rio Tinto recorded a $161m asset write-down in its 2005 accounts to reflect this.

While early production of the underground operation had been affected by problems with fragmentation in the block cave and secondary breaking systems, these seem to have been overcome in the past two-to-three years. The Palabora smelter produced 81,200t of copper metal, compared with 80,300t in 2005.

The mines output of magnetite and nickel sulphate was 1.13Mt and 120t respectively, with 198,000t of vermiculite. Since it began operations, Palabora has created a stockpile of some 240Mt of magnetite, grading 56% iron and 2.3% titanium dioxide, for which it began soliciting offers for sale in early 2005.

Throughout its 35-year life, Palabora was often at the forefront of surface mining technology developments. A key feature was its use of a trolley-assist system for haul trucks coming out of the pit, to save diesel, and it was one of the early users of both in-pit crushing and computerised truck dispatching.

The open-pit fleet consisted of around 20 Euclid and Unit Rig trucks, with four P&H 2100XPA and 2,800 shovels. Truck payloads were monitored using a Pit Control on-board weighing system on the shovels, linked to the Modular Mining Systems despatching and monitoring programme.

The Fuller-Traylor gyratory in-pit crusher, with a nominal capacity of 5,000tph, fed the 1.8m-wide main conveyor that carried crushed ore up a drift in the pit wall to the coarse ore stockpiles on the surface.

The underground mine is a block caving operation, the first such system to be used in metal mining in South Africa. With the introduction of the underground operation, the output of ore has fallen from the 82,000tpd achieved in the previous open pit to 30,000tpd.

However, the transition to underground production has proved to be problematic, especially in relation to the handling of oversized ore in the draw points, and the mine has struggled to meet its production targets. The average output during late 2003 was around 20,000tpd, and additional secondary breaking systems are being installed to help reduce the draw-point bottleneck.

Shaft Sinkers was contracted to install the main service shaft and a 1,280m-deep production shaft, while RUC Mining Contracting has been carrying out the underground development. This included driving around 36km of tunnels plus the underground crusher stations, ore handling infrastructure and the undercut level for the first block cave, situated 500m below the final pit bottom. The crushing stations are being fitted with four ThyssenKrupp 900t/h double-toggle jaw crushers that feed a 1.32km conveyor linking to the production shaft.

The production fleet consists of a mixed fleet of 19 8.5m load haul dumpers (LHDs), which load and deliver the ore from the draw points to the crushers. These loaders are capable of delivering approximately 2500t of ore per day each.

The fleet also consists of ten Medium Reach Rigs for drilling holes and inserting explosives into large rocks that get trapped within draw-points. The mine also employs seven Robust Rigs, four water cannons Agi-Cars, scissor lifts, logistics vehicles, and trailers.

The complex includes a concentrator, copper smelter and refinery, currently capable of producing 135,000tpa of copper plus byproducts. Phosphate-rich tailings are delivered to Foskor while Palabora sells its own copper, precious metals, nickel, zirconium, magnetite and vermiculite on domestic and world markets.

mitsubishi ups stake in jetti resources copper extraction technology

mitsubishi ups stake in jetti resources copper extraction technology

Mitsubishi Corporation (MC) announced that it has increased its stake in, and formed a new business alliance with Jetti Resources, a Colorado-based company that has developed a catalytic technology that enables extraction of copper from primary sulfide ores.

With the global decarbonizion race intensifying, demand is on the rise for copper, a metal vital for growth in electric vehicles and renewable energies. Facing aging mines with lower grades, the industry is looking at how much more copper they can produce out of existing operations Chiles Codelco, for example, is planningmassive upgrades of its aging mines.

Jettis catalytic technology enables heap and stockpile leach extraction of copper trapped in primary sulfide ores, which are usually discarded due to their low copper yields being insufficient to justify traditional processing methods.

Capstone Mining confirmed the commercial-scale effectiveness of Jetti technology through its trial application last year at the Pinto Valley copper mine in Arizona. During the first year of the miners partnership with Jetti, cathode production per area irrigated doubled, Capstone announced last July.

Mitsubishi has been supporting the technologys commercialization since 2019, when it first invested in Jetti to secure a stable supply of copper and contribute to MCs efforts to address the problem of diminishing natural resources.

By forming a new business alliance, Jetti and MC will be strengthening their framework for future collaborations and making effective use of MCs assets to promote the widespread adoption of Jettis technologies, Mitsubishi said.

The partners are set to start discussions on the proactive adoption of Jettis catalytic technology at mines that have thus far been unable to extract copper efficiently due to their high concentration of low-grade, primary sulfide ores.

copper ore processing technology development and research in china, mineral processing and copper beneficiation technology

copper ore processing technology development and research in china, mineral processing and copper beneficiation technology

Copper is one of the earliest discovered and used metals. Because of its good ductility, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance, the consumption of copper is only less than that of steel and aluminum in metal materials

Copper is one of the earliest discovered and usedmetals. Because of its good ductility, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance, the consumption of copper is only less than that of steel and aluminum in metal materialsconsumption, and it has become an indispensable basic material and strategic resource in national economy and people's lives, national defense engineering and even high-tech fields.

There are more than 200 kinds of copper minerals in total, and there are about 15 kinds of common copper minerals in nature, including native copper, chalcocite, covellite, bornite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, tennantite, zigueline, tenorite, chessylite, malachite, chrysocolla, chalcanthitum, brochantite, atacamite. Among the copper ores withindustrial value, 80% of themare sulfides, in which most are chalcocite, chalcopyrite, bornite, tennantite, chessylite, andthe others are native copper and copper oxide. The copper ore deposits in China are mainly divided into the following categories:

4)Skarn-type Copper Deposits:They are mainly composed of gossan, malachite and chalcopyrite. There are often secondary enrichment zones in the lower part of skarn-type copper deposits, which are composed of dense and fume-like chalcopyrite.

Porphyry copper deposits account for more than 60% of the total reserves of all types of copper deposits in the world, sandstone copper deposits account for about 25%, copper-bearing pyrite for more than 5%, and other types of copper deposits account for less than 10%.

From the proved copper reserves, although China's copper reserves rank 7th in the world, but the per capita possession is low, and the number of high-grade ore available is relatively small, while China's copper resources demand is huge.

"Low grade, many impurities,high oxidation rate, and difficult to separate" arethe most appropriate descriptionsof China's copper resources. Its estimated thatmore than 40% of China's copper resources are hard to utilize.Therefore, how to develop and utilize refractory copper ores has become an important topic in copper processing research. Copperoressuitable forprocessingmostly occur in various types of deposits. The types of deposits with mining value in China include magmatic copper-nickel sulfide deposits, porphyry copper deposits, sedimentary layered deposits and so on, with relatively low grade. The structure of the oresiscomplex and the size of the ore is inhomogeneous, and most of them are non-uniformly disseminated. There are even many mineral assemblages with fine structure, complex composition and more refractory ores. The mineral composition is diverse, accompanied and symbiotic with many beneficial and harmful components, and the processingconditions are complex. At present, most of the copper depositsdeveloped in China are comprehensive, accompanied by a variety of beneficial and harmful elements. How to make comprehensive use of these resources and turn harm into benefit is also the main objective of the study of processing.

For polymetallic sulfide ores, different separation methods are adopted for different composition characteristics, including mixed flotation, preferential flotation, mixed preferential flotation, combined flotation and gravity method, combined flotation and magnetic method, combined flotation and hydrometallurgy method, etc.

Mixed ores can be treated by flotation alone or be treated by flotation with sulfide ores, or combined flotation and hydrometallurgy, i.e. copper concentrate is obtained by flotation firstly, and then tailing after flotation is treated by hydrometallurgy.

The flotation process forcopper sulfur ores varies widely. Generally speaking, it can be divided into priority flotation, mixed flotation, iso-floatability flotation, partial priority flotation ~ mixed flotation, fast flotation, distributed priority flotation, partial mixed flotation and asynchronously mixed flotation. The development of newlyprocessing technology is mainly based on the principle of "quick recovery, early recovery and early discharging of waste". It can be shown in the following aspects: more crushing and less grinding, asynchronous flotation, branch-stream flotation, electrochemicalcontrolledflotation and primary potential controlled flotation.

The flotation of copper oxide ore includes direct flotation and indirect flotation. Direct flotation is mainly used to treat copper oxide ores with simple mineral composition and uncomplicated properties; indirect flotation is to sulfide copper oxide ores by adding sulphide agent, and then flotation with common sulphide flotation agent. This method requires high sulphidation effect, and it willdirectly affects the flotationeffectof sulphide ores.

In addition to optimizing the flotation process of copperores, a lot of work has been done on the agents, mainly for the study of foaming agents and collectors. The research focuses on reducing toxicity and improving effect. At the same time, a lot of efforts have been made inagentsmixing and pre-treatment technology, which has greatly reduced the dosage and cost ofagents and greatly improved environmental pollution.

Since the introduction of hydrometallurgical process for copper in the late 1980s, it has been widely used in China, especially for copper-bearing materials that cannot be effectively recovered by conventional processing methods, such as waste rock from open-pit ore stripping and low-grade copper oxide ore. Hydrometallurgical process is the process of extracting copper from pregnant liquid by leaching copper from ore or concentrate with solvent.The main processes include leaching, solvent extraction, electrodeposition and so on.

Leaching~solvent extraction~electrowinning method can not only obtain high quality cathode copper from ore in mine site, but also lower initial investment and production cost than conventionalflotationand pyrometallurgy.

The main advantages of thismethodinclude:can treatlow grade copper ore, especially suitable for treating lean ore, waste ore, surface ore and refractoryores. It has the outstanding advantages of simple process, low cost, low energy consumption and low environmental pollution. In the United States, thismethodhas been used to treat ultra-low grade copper ores with less than 0.04% and has been successful.

Thehydrometallurgical processhas been put into production and application in Zijin Copper Mine, Zhongtiaoshan Copper Mine and Dexing Copper Mine in China, and satisfactory results have been achieved.

Aresearch team led by Professor Qiu Guanzhou of Central South University carried out the research on the composite catalyst oflow-grade copper and zinc ore and the new technology of bioleaching of improved bacteria. The key technology of this study is to use mutagenic strains and composite catalysts to enhance both direct and indirect processes in order to improve the leaching rate and leaching rate.

For the first time, the researchers used pyrrhotite to screen dominant bacteria in leaching, ultraviolet-nitrite mutagenesis, domestication, adaptive culture and other breeding methods and means to breed six kinds of high-efficiency and excellent leaching strains with strong adsorption, high oxidation activity and strong tolerance from Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. It has also been applied to the bioleaching of low-grade chalcopyrite-type primary copper sulfide ore, and the leaching speed and leaching rate have been significantly improved. The technology has been widely applied in copper mine projects in Jiangxi and Yunnan provinces with remarkable economic benefits.

The development ofcopper ore processing technologycannot be separated from the support of equipment. Because the grade of copper ore is lower than that of iron ore and the processing capacity of copper ore is larger, large-scale, energy-saving and high-efficiencyprocessingequipment is a way to improve the grade of copper concentrate and economic benefit of copper mine. At present, remarkable achievements have been made in the application of large-scale flotation machine,AG mill/SAGmilland flotation column.

In the recovery and utilization of refractory copper oxide ores, it will be a major trend for the development of processing technology of refractory copper oxide to seek efficient flotation reagents or combination reagents.

In addition, in terms of process improvement, the current research mainly focuses on the research offastflotation, early removal of waste, reduction of overgrinding and undergrinding, etc. At the same time, the joint process is also the focus of current research.

At present, the proportion of copper recovery by bioleaching accounts for about 25% of the world's total copper production. Therere only two copper mines in China adopt this method, so it is still a long way to go to develop the bioleaching process in China. For some refractory copper oxide ores which are difficult to be processed by flotation, chemicalmineral processingmethod plays an important role, especially the leaching-extraction-electrowinning process with the advantages of low unit cost, less environmental pollution and strong adaptability, which is bound to be one of the main directions of technical development of refractory copper oxide mines at present and in the future.

capstone adopts novel copper extraction technology at pinto valley

capstone adopts novel copper extraction technology at pinto valley

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TSX-listed copper miner Capstone Mining Corporations Pinto Valley mine has successfully demonstrated positive economics from enhanced dump leach performance by partnering with technology-driven natural resources company Jetti Resources.

Capstone is using the mineral extraction technology at its Pinto Valley mine, located 125 km east of Phoenix in Arizona, in the US. It is using the novel and patented catalytic technology at an existing dump leach operation.

A plan to increase activity is being implemented with the goal of generating strong cash flow from Pinto Valleys underused 25-million-pound-a-year solvent extraction and electrowinning (SX-EW) plant, which is currently operating at only 20% of capacity. The plan is to increase cathode production to between 300-million and 350-million pounds from residual and high-grade waste over the next two decades, thereby creating 30 new jobs at Pinto Valley.

Its catalysts enable the disruption of the sulphur metal bond of the mineral, enabling copper extraction to take place unimpeded. As a result, Jetti is now increasing profitability at operations and extending project life, while also converting uneconomic waste rock into valuable assets.

Capstone president and CEO Darren Pylot says the mining industry has long been pursuing a viable technology to leach low-grade chalcopyrite ores. The results after year one of our partnership with Jetti are exciting because it means we can generate high margin from material that would have been waste.

He notes that the Pinto Valley project represents an opportunity to position the mine more competitively, which will create and sustain jobs, and increase economic benefits in a socially and environmentally responsible manner.

The engagement of Jetti and adoption of its proprietary technology was an extension of Pinto Valleys existing PV3 Optimisation Study, which is focused on several low capital expenditure, high-impact projects aimed atmaterially increasingthe net present value of the operation. The results of the PV3 Optimisation Study is scheduled for release in the fourth quarter of the year.

Jetti co-founder and CEO Mike Outwin says Pinto Valley was a perfect candidate to pioneer its breakthrough technology, given the abundance of copper resources available for leaching and the underused plant and infrastructure in place.

Pinto Valley started producing copper cathode in 1981 from material below the cut-off grade of its mill that had been stockpiled since the early 1970s. This provided a 12% to 15% boost to total copper production as cathode accounted for an average of 16-million pounds a year through to the early 2000s.

Since then, the production of copper cathode has decreased consistently to under four-million pounds a year as a result of the impact of reduced leach kinetics as chalcopyrite is subjected to a passivation layer inhibiting further breakdown.

As a result of the positive commercial demonstration phase, Pinto Valley intends to significantly expand leaching activity, targeting about 280-million to 300-million tonnes of historic leach stockpile and 175-million to 185-million tonnes of high-grade waste already scheduled for removal over the remaining 19 years of mine life.

Potential to increase the mill cut-off grade to bolster copper concentrate production, thereby increasing the tonnage of high-grade waste available for leaching, will be studied during the second half of the year, after which an updated National Instrument 43-101 technical report is expected.

JETTI RESOURCES Jetti, whoseinvestors and partners include Mitsubishi Corporation and the University of British Columbia, as well as several US technology investors, reports that is in advanced testing programmes with some of the largest copper mines in the world. Thisincludes about20 mines in Chile, Peru and the US.

The company notes that extensive testing programmes completed with some of the world's biggest copper producers haveprovided it with a high degree of confidenceto accurately predict the impact that its catalytic technology has on the recovery of copper from different ore types. As a result, Jetti is now proactively identifying and evaluating further opportunities to deploy its technology, in an accelerated manner.

"Jettis commercially proven and proprietary catalytic leaching technology addresses the key technical problem preventing recovery of trillions of dollars of trapped resources. We apply our catalysts to hundreds of millions of tons of ore, and significantly increase copper yields in a cost effective and environmentally responsible manner.

It adds that its technology also makes itpossible to produce copper in a more sustainable manner. "Jettis technology allows for the use of leaching systems on primary sulphides, which have a far superior environmental profile compared withtraditional extraction methods."

Jetti's board of directors comprises a number of industry veterans, including former BHP CEO Chip Goodyear, former Xstrata CFO Trevor Reid, former Rio Tinto Copper CEO Jonathan Leslie and former Anglo American Copper CEO John MacKenzie.

Edited by: Chanel de BruynCreamer Media Senior Deputy Editor Online EMAIL THIS ARTICLE SAVE THIS ARTICLE ARTICLE ENQUIRY To subscribe email [email protected] or click here To advertise email [email protected] or click here

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