Copper plant or Copperleaf is a popular shrub commonly planted in tropical gardens. The genus Acalypha includes 430 species of weedy herbs and shrubs that grow natively in the South Pacific, and tropical Americas. Some perennials and annuals grow in other regions of Central and South Florida as well. Also known as Jacobs coat or as match-me-if-you-can, the Copper Plant thrives in Fiji and the Pacific Islands.
Most people who grow copper plants describe them as being low-maintenance. These vibrant shrubs are sought after by gardeners around the world for their stunning, coppery-red foliage. Surprisingly, there are many varieties of Acalypha wilkesiana with different foliages that can be white, purple, pink, or green. They can blend beautifully in your backyard or inside your home where theyll add a splash of color.
If you live in Hardiness Zones 9 to 11 you should have no problem planting the Copperleaf outdoors in your garden. The rest of us can enjoy it as an annual addition or as a houseplant in a chic container. Because it grows quickly, you can have it as a perennial, or just bring it inside during winter when temperatures drop.
The most important aspect of growing Copper Plants is the location. Acalypha wilkesiana prefers direct sunlight or partial shade if you live in a hot, dry climate. When choosing where to place it in your garden, keep in mind that it must be in a location always sheltered from the wind.
This plant also thrives indoors in front of windows and areas with maximum sunlight. The ideal growing temperature should be above 60 degrees Fahrenheit (15 C). If you plan on moving the plant outdoors, wait until after the last frost. In cool climates, also check the nighttime temperatures.
Because copper plants are fast-growing, you will have a big shrub taking over your garden before you know it. Its a good idea to prune it by half every spring to reduce its size and also to encourage the growth of new stems and leaves. Take care not to pinch off growing tips, as the plant branches out naturally.
Acalypha wilkesiana is vulnerable to many kinds of pests, especially spider mites and mealybugs. If you notice that the leaves become pale and sticky, you probably have some mites to deal with. When mealybugs attack the plant, it will become more susceptible to fungal infections and growth retardation.
Rising the humidity levels during winter can help prevent spider mites that love dry conditions. A humidifier can be a lifesaver for houseplants. To protect the plant, carefully remove all damaged and discolored leaves and apply a malathion solution.
If the new leaves are growing green or colorless, your Copper Plant might not be getting enough light. On the other hand, if the plant becomes too large, fertilize less often. You can fertilize spring through fall every two weeks with a balanced water-soluble fertilizer. Expect a slower growth rate during winter, so stop fertilizing till spring and water sparingly.
This houseplant grows best in organically rich soil mixed with a good amount of compost. Copper Plants are heavy feeders and they grow fast, so you will obtain the best results by planting them in good soil from the start. Each plant needs a 3-foot (1 m) area to grow, so make sure you give it plenty of room to fill into. Always apply a generous amount of water after planting.
Copper plants grow quite well in a container if you provide a pot twice the size of the root ball. When the roots fill the pot and you see them coming out through the drainage holes, its time to repot your Copperleaf. The best time to repot is in spring. Before transplanting, water the plant so you can lift it off. Dig a new hole and place the root ball inside. Cover it with soil and add some compost around it.
Copper plants love water, so their soil must be constantly moist. If you live in a dry region, misting your plant will support its preference towards high humidity levels. Regular watering is a must during dry weather conditions to prevent the roots from withering. On the other hand, too much water can cause the plant to wilt and the root system to rot, so dont overwater it.
If planted in a pot, make sure there is a drainage hole. After watering, empty the tray. During winter, a copper plant doesnt need so much watering. However, make sure it does not dry out or the leaves might start falling off. In cold climates, the air might get too dry. You can use a room humidifier or a pebble tray to increase humidity levels.
Louisiana Red Copper Leaf Live Plant, from AmazonPropagating Copper PlantThe best way to propagate copper plants is through stem tip cutting. Start by cutting a healthy (3-3-4 inches (8-10 cm) stem at a 45 degrees angle at its base. Next, remove any excess leaves from the cuttings. Prepare a potting mix for your plant of 60% normal garden soil, 20% vermicompost or organic compost, and 20% fine sand. Mix it well inside a large bowl with your hands. Fill up a growing bag or a pot with the potting mix.Take your cutting and dip it into rooting powder and then make a hole in the center of the pot with your finger as low as you can reach. Place the cutting inside the holes and water it generously. Place it in a location with partial shade at a constant 75F (24C). After approximately 45 days, your new Copper Plant should be ready for transplanting to a new pot.In conclusionCopper Plants are perennial and annual shrubs commonly found in tropical gardens in the South Pacific and tropical Americas. If you are looking to add a new member to your plant family, Acalypha wilkesiana might be an excellent choice.Besides being low-maintenance, this stunning shrub can add a splash of color to any garden or interior. You would be surprised to know that there are many varieties to choose from, including some that have purple, pink, white, or green foliage.When growing a Copper Plant, there are a few things you should keep in mind. The most important aspect of growing Acalypha wilkesiana is the location. Make sure you choose a sunny location or light partial shade if you live in a hot, dry, climate.Although it can tolerate dry conditions, this plant loves water and humidity. Try to keep the soil moist at all times, and during winter when the air gets too dry mist or use a room humidifier. The temperature should never drop below 60 degrees Fahrenheit (15 C). Because Copper Plants are fast-growing, you will have a beautiful, vibrant shrub in no time!
The best way to propagate copper plants is through stem tip cutting. Start by cutting a healthy (3-3-4 inches (8-10 cm) stem at a 45 degrees angle at its base. Next, remove any excess leaves from the cuttings. Prepare a potting mix for your plant of 60% normal garden soil, 20% vermicompost or organic compost, and 20% fine sand. Mix it well inside a large bowl with your hands. Fill up a growing bag or a pot with the potting mix.
Take your cutting and dip it into rooting powder and then make a hole in the center of the pot with your finger as low as you can reach. Place the cutting inside the holes and water it generously. Place it in a location with partial shade at a constant 75F (24C). After approximately 45 days, your new Copper Plant should be ready for transplanting to a new pot.
Copper Plants are perennial and annual shrubs commonly found in tropical gardens in the South Pacific and tropical Americas. If you are looking to add a new member to your plant family, Acalypha wilkesiana might be an excellent choice.
Besides being low-maintenance, this stunning shrub can add a splash of color to any garden or interior. You would be surprised to know that there are many varieties to choose from, including some that have purple, pink, white, or green foliage.
When growing a Copper Plant, there are a few things you should keep in mind. The most important aspect of growing Acalypha wilkesiana is the location. Make sure you choose a sunny location or light partial shade if you live in a hot, dry, climate.
Although it can tolerate dry conditions, this plant loves water and humidity. Try to keep the soil moist at all times, and during winter when the air gets too dry mist or use a room humidifier. The temperature should never drop below 60 degrees Fahrenheit (15 C). Because Copper Plants are fast-growing, you will have a beautiful, vibrant shrub in no time!
Miruna is an experienced content writer with a passion for gardening. She is the proud owner of an outdoor rose garden and an indoor collection of tiny succulents. She bought her first succulent 10 years ago - an adorable Echeveria Setosa. Now she owns more than 100 succulents and cacti of different colors, shapes, and sizes. Miruna is a versatile writer and, as you might have guessed, her favorite topic is gardening. Contact [email protected]
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Four of the five largest refineriesand 10 of the top 20are located in mainland China. The five largest alonehave a combined capacity of over 7million metric tons or about 33% of global capacity.
Listed are the common names of each smelter followed by the owner in parentheses. The smelter's annual refined copper capacity is then noted in thousands of metric tons (kilotonnes) per anum (kta), or million metric tons per anum (mmta).
India's largest copper refiner, operated by Hindalco and located in Gujarat, Birla first began copper production in 1998. After numerous expansions, it now has a capacity of around 1.5million metric tons per annum.
The Pyshma electrolytic copper refinery first began production in 1934. Located inSverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, Pyshma is operated byUralelectromed, the publicly traded arm of Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company.
Established in 1958, Yunnan Copper is China's third largest producer of copper-based on total capacity. It's smelter in Qingyuan, Guangdong province, is a joint venture betweenYunnan Copper and China Nonferrous Metals Group, which mainly processes blister from the Chambishi smelter in Zambia.
The Toyo Smelter and Refinery, located in the cities of Saijo and Nihama, Japan, are operated by Sumitomo Metals Mining Co. Ltd. Fed by concentrate from South America, Australia, and southeast Asia, including that from the Sierra Gorda mine, the refinery also extracts gold and molybdenum as by-products from the copper.
The Amarillo Refinery in northern Texas employs over 300 staff, refining copper cathode and nickel sulfate. The copper refinery was commissioned in 1974 by Asarco Inc. and is now owned and operated by Grupo Mexico.
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This work presents a nonlinear optimization and scheduling approach applied to a copper production plant. The solution maximizes smelting furnace production and provides valid converting schedules by simulating the evolution of the process over the optimization horizon. The production process is briefly described and the main models used to predict and calculate furnace and converter parameters are detailed. Though the solution is concentrated on the main elements, copper and iron, the optimization framework enables easy future augmentation with more complex models. A schedule optimization case is presented.
Copper (Cu) is one of the micronutrients needed in very small quantities by plants. The normal range in the growing medium is 0.05-0.5 ppm, while in most tissues the normal range is between 3-10 ppm. In comparison, the ideal range for iron in the tissue is 20 times higher than that of copper. Although copper deficiencies or toxicities rarely occur, it is best to avoid either extreme as both can have a negative impact on crop growth and quality.
Copper activates some enzymes in plants which are involved in lignin synthesis and it is essential in several enzyme systems.It is also required in the process of photosynthesis, is essential in plant respiration and assists in plant metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins. Copper also serves to intensify flavor and color in vegetables and color in flowers.
Copper is immobile, meaning its deficiency symptoms occur in the newer leaves. Symptoms vary depending on the crop.Typically, the symptoms start as cupping and a slight chlorosis of either the whole leaf or between the veins of the new leaves.Within the chlorotic areas of the leaf, small necrotic spots may form, especially on the leaf margins. As the symptoms progress, the newest leaves are smaller in size, lose their sheen and in some cases the leaves may wilt. The apical meristems may become necrotic and die, inhibiting the growth of lateral branches. Plants typically have a compact appearance as the stem length between the leaves shortens. Flower color is often lighter than normal.
Excess potassium, phosphorus or other micronutrients can indirectly cause copper deficiency.Also if the pH of the growing medium is high, this can induce a copper deficiency as it is less available for plant uptake.
Excess copper in the growing medium can restrict root growth by burning the root tips and thereby causing excess lateral root growth. High levels of copper can compete with plant uptake of iron and sometimes molybdenum or zinc. The new growth can become initially greener than normal, then exhibit symptoms of iron deficiency or possibly other micronutrient deficiencies. If not corrected, copper toxicity can reduce branching and eventually plant decline follows.
Copper, like most micronutrients is more available when the growing medium pH is low, so if copper toxicity is occurring, test the pH of the growing medium. Also certain fungicides have copper as their active ingredient, so it is essential to rinse the foliage off before testing the tissue. Legumes tend to be the most sensitive plants to copper toxicity.
Copper is provided entirely by most water soluble and controlled release fertilizers, as long as they are applied at recommended rates. Several fungicides have copper as their active ingredient and some will be absorbed through the leaves. Irrigation water often provides some copper and in rare cases, it may provide excessive copper. Have the water tested to verify how much copper and other elements the water provides.
If additional copper is needed, we recommend using a complete micronutrient fertilizer to avoid providing too much copper and inducing a deficiency of another micronutrient. A single element application of copper sulfate or a chelated form of copper can be used, but be cautius as there is a thin line between too little or too much copper. Apply the product as a drench and not as a foliar spray as it can scorch the foliage.
In 2021, Chiles copper output is expected to grow by 3.7% to 5,957.1 kt. This figure is expected to reach 6,702.8 kt in 2024 posting a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4%. Over 20 projects are expected to commence operations during this period, of which, seven are under construction and expected to add 641.3kt of copper production capacity, says GlobalData, a leading data and analytics company.
Chiles copper production is estimated to have declined by 0.7% in 2020. While the countrys mining sector avoided a full-scale lockdown as seen in neighboring Peru, operational restrictions and rising cases impacted the progress of various developments.
For example, Codelco had to halt on-site construction activities at Chuquicamata and El Teniente, with rising cases leading to mounting pressure from workers and the temporary shutdown of Chuquicamata at the end of June 2020.Teck Resources suspended construction activities at Quebrada Blanca Phase 2 between March and August as part of COVID-19 measures, delaying the start date by up to six months.
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The project is now expected to commence operations in H1 2022. COVID-19 related delays also disrupted the timelines of other projects, including Spence Growth Option (from December 2020 to H1 2021), Esperanza Sur Pit (delayed to the end of 2022), Zaldivar (by six months to H1 2022) and Los Pelambres expansion (H2 2022 instead of 2021).
Despite, reporting over 3,400 active cases during July 2020, Codelco achieved 1.2% growth in its production in 2020. The company implemented a four-phase plan, as part of the COVID-19 measures, to ensure the health and safety of its employees, while also having no significant impact over its copper output.
In 2020, BHPs copper production fell by 3.9% to reach 1,680 kt. The restrained growth was attributed to lower production from the Escondida mine, which reported a year-on-year (Y-o-Y) fall of 3% in Q3 2020, due to a 30% reduction in its operational workforce under a plan implemented against COVID-19.
Meanwhile, Antofagasta reported a 4.7% decline in its output in 2020, due to major maintenance work carried out at the Los Pelambres mine and lower grades at its Antucoya mine. Under the pandemic restrictions, the company had been operating with two-thirds of its workforce at the mine site.