crusher mining open pit

perovskite mining equipment supplier, mobile crusher for open pit mining

perovskite mining equipment supplier, mobile crusher for open pit mining

Perovskite is a widespread mineral with many deposits all over the world including in Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Germany, Italy, Brazil, Greenland, Canada, and the United States. It forms as an accessory miner in alkaline mafic rocks, as nepheline syenites, kimberlites, carbonatites, commonly and deuteric. It can additionally form in calcium-rich skarn and is a common accessory mineral in calcium and aluminum rich inclusions within carbonaceous chondrite.

Open pit perovskite mining is the process of extracting valuable material from the ground by digging. It is also known as open pit quarries. Most open pits are designed in a step-like structure, with each step dug deeper into the earth to reach the area to be mined. The steps include access roads, and as more material is removed, new steps can be built. The goal is to remove the valuable material, but that involves first removing large quantities of rock at the lowest possible price. Open pit perovskite mining plant involves many mining activities such as drilling, blasting, loading, crushing, screening, separation and transportation etc.

optimum adaptation to the geological and technical requirements of earthworks andsurface mining operations. low investment high availability simple maintenance and operation low operating costs

Perovskite ore mining can be operated by open pit mining method or underground mining method according to ore deposit depth and properties. There are many different types of machines involved in perovskite mining operation. SBM is the world leader in mining technology for meeting the requirements of high production capacity and low investment cost. As global perovskite mining equipment supplier, we developed complete range of perovskite mining equipment for sale, such as extraction plant, crusher machine, grinding mill, screening machine, washing plant etc.

Crusher plant: jaw crusher, impact crusher, cone crusher, VSI crusher. Grinding mill: ball mill, raymond mill, vertical roller mill, high pressure mill, ultrafine mill. Auxiliary machine: vibrating screen, belt conveyor, washing plant.

The perovskitemining equipment are designed and configured for classification, concentration, separation and recovery of metals and minerals concentrate operation. If you are interested, please feel free to contact us for more information.

In open pit perovskite mining plant, after the mineral is extracted, the next step is crushing and grinding the ore and separating therelatively small quantities of metal from the nonmetallicmaterial of the ore in beneficiationoperation.In mining operations, the layout of crushing plants and auxiliary equipment is a main factor in meeting production requirements while keeping capital and operational costs to a minimum.Perovskite crushing can be operated in three stages according to production requirements, including primary crushing, secondary crushing and tertiary crushing.

SBM customize tantalum crushing solution and provides complete range of mobile crusher plant for open pit perovskite ore mining operation. Jaw crusher, impact crusher, or gyratory crushers are usually used for initial reduction. The material that is too large to pass through the top deck of the scalping screen is processed in the secondary mobile crusher plant. Tertiary crushing is usually performed using mobile cone crushers or other types of impact crushers.

All mobile crusher units are built to the highest quality and designed for ease of mobility, quick set-up time and transportation. Many new features in the latest range of equipment have been introduced to simplify operation and maintenance and ultimately maximize uptime.

Base on decades of years R&D experience and thousands of clients production experience, SBM updated our tranditional vibrating feeder and developped the TSW series feeder, which can greatly improve the whole production line capacity.

molybdenum mining equipment for sale, mobile crusher for open pit mining

molybdenum mining equipment for sale, mobile crusher for open pit mining

The world's production of molybdenum was 250,000 tonnes in 2011, the largest producers being China, United States, Chile, Peru and Mexico. The total reserves are estimated at 10 million tonnes, and are mostly concentrated in China, US and Chile. By continent, 93% of world molybdenum production is about evenly split between North America, South America (mainly in Chile), and China. Europe and the rest of Asia (mostly Armenia, Russia, Iran and Mongolia) produce the remainder.

According to the value minerals contained in the molybdenum ore body and their grade, molybdenum mines are classified into three types: a), primary mines, where the recovery of molybdenite is the main goal; b), by-product mines, where the recovery of copper-bearing ores is the primary objective, and molybdenite mining is additional economic value when copper-bearing ore is mined; and c), co-product mines, where the commercial viability of the mine requires that both molybdenite and copper-bearing minerals be recovered.Molybdenum ore mining can be operated by open pit mining method or underground mining method according to ore deposit depth and properties.

If the molybdenum ore deposit is closed to the earth surface, open pit mining method is employed. Here the overburden is excavated to reveal the ore body for easy extraction. If the ore deposit is deep underground, the underground mining technique is employed. The large blocks of ore are undercut and allowed to collapse under their own weight. The resulting rock is removed to the surface for processing.

In molybdenum mining operation, various types of technologies are involved such as blasting, drilling, mining, transporting, crushing, grinding, screening, and washing operations etc. The mined molybdenum ore will first go through crushing and grinding process for size reduction, and then flotation will be applied to recover the concentrates. Other technique involved includes leaching, roasting, smelting etc.

The milled molybdenum ore powder is mixed with a liquid and aerated in the flotation step. The less dense ore rises in the froth to be collected, while the gangue sinks to be discarded. Flotation separates the metallic minerals from the gangue this way and in the case of molybdenum ores separates molybdenite from copper sulphide.

SBM has been specialized in mining technology for several decades. We are the world leader in developing mining technology to meet modern requirements for high efficiency and low operating costs. As global mining machinery supplier, we provide whole series of molybdenum mining equipment for sale including extraction plant, crushing machine, grinding mill, screening machine, separation equipment, processing plant, flotation machine, classifier etc. Please contact us for detailed information.

SBM machinery has been specialized in crushing technology for long history. We have installed thousands of tracked mounted mobile crusher plants all over the world. With the benefits of lower capital and operating costs, flexible location and elimination of the need for haulers and haul roads, the mobile crusher for open pit mining offer an attractive alternative to the traditional stationary crusher. The minimal manpower, fuel usage and pollution are mirrored by an increase in health and safety.With higher productivity and low operation cost, it is sure that mobile tracked crushing plants will become an even more common sight in quarries and mines around the world in the years to come.

Mobile crusher equipment for molybdenum open pit mining can be equipped jaw crusher, impact crusher, cone crusher, screening machine and belt conveyor for various crushing applications, including primary crushing, secondary crushing and tertiary crushing operation. SBM experts also customize crushing and mining solution according to ore experiment and your requirements. We will be your best choice for investment of mining equipment.

Base on decades of years R&D experience and thousands of clients production experience, SBM updated our tranditional vibrating feeder and developped the TSW series feeder, which can greatly improve the whole production line capacity.

cuprum mining plant in south africa, crusher machine for open pit copper mining

cuprum mining plant in south africa, crusher machine for open pit copper mining

Cuprumis Latin language, it is also known as well know mineral copper. Copper is one of the world's most important industrial minerals; and Africa is an important world producer. While output is traditionally dominated by Zambia, South Africa and Congo, many African nations contribute to copper production.

Mining in South Africa has been the main driving force behind the history and development of Africa's most advanced and richest economy. South Africa is endowed with minerals resources, such as gold, diamond, coal, copper etc. Copper is one of important minerals in South Africa. Cuprum mining in South Africa is operated by open pit and underground mining methods.

Surface cuprummining requires extensive blasting as well as rock, soil, vegetation, and overburden removal to reach lode deposits. Benches are cut into the walls of the mine to provide access to progressively deeper ore as upper-level ore is depleted. Copper ore is removed from the mine and transported to beneficiation plants for milling and concentrating. The concentrate is then smelted and refined. Open-pit mining is the primary domestic source of copper.

Underground mining entails sinking a shaft to reach the main body of ore. Drifts or passages are then cut from the shaft at various depths to access the ore, which is brought to the surface for beneficiation. While underground mines do not create the volume of overburden associated with surface mining, some waste rock must still be brought to the surface for disposal. Waste rock may either be returned to the mine as fill or put in a disposal area.

The copper ore extracted from the mine must be processed by mining plant and concentrated by beneficiation equipment. The valuable minerals like chalcopyrite are inter-grownwith gangue. Therefore, in the first step in cuprum mining plant in South Africa, the lumpy ore is crushed and milled into fine particles and prepared for further mining operation.Copper mining plant in South Africa for sale includes crushing plant, grinding mill, vibrating screen, separation machine, quarry plant etc.

The primary crusher in copper crushing operation is jaw crusher. Typical equipment for crushing to about 20 cm is gyratory crusher, cone crushers and impact crushers. Then wet grindingin grinding mills takes place. Size classification takes is performedin cyclones. In the next step of mining plant, valuable minerals and gangue are separated by frothflotation of the ore pulp, which exploits the different surface properties of the sulfidic copper oreand the gangue.

In open pit copper mining operation, crushing is the first processing stage. Copper ore crushing may be performed in two or three stages. Primary crushing circuit consists of crushers, feeders, dust control systems, and conveyors used to transport ore to coarse ore storage or further crushing plant. Primary crushing is generally processed by a jaw crusher or gyratory crusher, since these units can handle larger rocks.

The feed to primary crushing is generally run-of-mine ore, which is reduced from large pieces to smaller pieces. Secondary and tertiary crushing usually is performed in surface facilities in cone crushers, although impact crusher or hammer crusher are sometimes used.

SBM provides complete series of crusher machine for open pit copper mining, including jaw crusher, impact crusher, cone crusher, gyratory crusher, mobile crusher. We also do ore experiment and customize crushing solution according to your requirements. Please contact us for more information.

in-pit crushing and conveying saves more than just fuel - metso outotec

in-pit crushing and conveying saves more than just fuel - metso outotec

Operational costs, worker safety and CO2 emissions are challenges faced by most mines and quarries today. While there certainly isnt a silver bullet that would solve all problems overnight, in-pit solutions, such as in-pit crushing and conveying (IPCC) are widely recognized as a good place to start.

In a conventional open-pit mine or quarry, primary crushing is often synonymous with a parade of loud dump trucks driving around, generating dust, noise and consuming excessive amounts of fuel. A drill-and-blast team blasts the shot and develops a muck pile. A front-end loader, hydraulic shovel or backhoe excavator at the muck pile loads the dump trucks, which transport the rock to a fixed primary crusher. This translates to a large number of trucks and people moving between the blast site and the fixed crushing plant, generating unnecessary CO2 and dust emissions as well as exposing the workers to potential injuries caused by the traffic.

In a fully mobile in-pit crushing and conveying system, an excavator located on the muck pile loads material directly into the hopper of a mobile crushing plant, instead of feeding a dump truck. Crushed rock is then transported to an in-pit belt conveyor via mobile conveyors. The conveyor carries crushed rock from the mobile crusher to the fixed secondary crushing plant for further processing no dump trucks required. This cuts operational costs, reduces emissions and helps prevent traffic-related injuries: a conveyor has no exhaust pipe, nor does it need a driver.

And when blasting is performed, the mobile primary crusher and the mobile conveyors move to a safe distance. After the blast, a wheel loader cleans the floor and the crusher moves to the new muck pile. Operation resumes with minimal production downtime.

The University of Queensland in Australia has identified a number of presumed barriers to IPCC implementation; it names high capital cost, orebody characteristics, mine planning and operational reliability as the most common objections cited by mines and quarries.

An IPCC system does require a higher initial capital investment and takes a bit more planning, but in the long run, the pros clearly prevail over the cons and the investment and planning really pay off, explains Veikko Kuosa, In-pit Bid Manager at Metso.

Its a question of mindset. Yes, with a truck-and-shovel system you might be able to get away with neglecting preventative maintenance, but that doesnt mean that its a good way to run your business, he says.

A lot of mining companies put in place a traditional operation because they are looking for low risk, early payback on their investment and to make hay while the sun shines, McEwing states in an SRK paper from 2012, titled The economic and environmental case for IPCC.

While an IPCC requires an investment, in the long-term it helps mining companies reduce their capital and operating costs. Your traditional truck-and-shovel mining operation is equipment-intensive and has a heavy reliance on diesel fuel. You have loaded trucks travelling up and out of the mine 24 hours a day, so you need a fleet of trucks and a roster of drivers. Youre burning up huge amounts of diesel and wearing tires at a time when there is a worldwide shortage of them, writes McEwing.

Studies have demonstrated that operating costs can be significantly reduced. This shows that if youre prepared to outlay that extra money upfront, there is the potential for large savings in the long run, he states.

In-pit solutions are applicable both to greenfield projects and expansions of existing mines. They lend themselves especially well to deep, high-capacity open-pits where the orebody is homogenous and the pit is located relatively close to the processing plant. As the conveying system is the most expensive part of an IPCC solution compared to a traditional process the primary crusher has to be bought anyway it generates the biggest savings in applications where the transportation route is short but steep.

If you double the capacity, you usually need to double the number of dump trucks as well. But with in-pit crushing and conveying, doubling the capacity only requires about a 30 percent larger investment in conveyors upfront, he explains.

When comparing conveyors to dump trucks, you should also keep in mind that, with trucks, youre constantly paying for the truck to carry its own weight in addition to the material. With a conveyor, well, it just simply moves the material, Kuosa adds.

In mining operations where the orebody is more heterogeneous and trucks offer the advantage of flexibility to move quickly between different ore zones, IPCC systems can still be used to significantly reduce operating costs by doing the heavy lifting of the ore out of the pit.

Both the ore and the waste rock can becrushed and conveyed in the pit. The design of the IPCC solution depends on a variety of factors, such as stripping ratio and ore blending requirements, which means that the solutions for waste handling and ore handling are individually designed and normally very different. Forwaste, crushing takes place only to make the material transportable on the conveyor; for ore, in-pit crushing is a part of the total comminution process.

If the waste rock has to be crushed, crushing it in the pit and conveying it out is the most economical solution. You save in operational costs by not spending money on hauling waste, Veikko Kuosa iterates.

Crushing and properly sorting the waste rock in the pit also enables its use as backfill and for other site infrastructure purposes. In addition, preventing it from entering the following phases of the process, such as grinding, has significant impacts on the profit per ton.

open pit coal mine crusher station

open pit coal mine crusher station

Utah Kennecott s Bingham Canyon Copper Mine largest open pit mine in the world actually the largest man made hole in the Free with a dump station You can see the quot in-pit-crusher quot in the extreme left side of the picture on the right Read more...

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Open pit mines can be used in coal mining and they are used extensively in quot hard rock quot mining for ores such as metal ores copper gold iron aluminum and many minerals In a open pit coal mine the pit bottom would be the bottom mined coal seam elevation since it is usually feasible to extract multiple seams when surface mining coal...

Posted 2017 12 15 Source Shanghai Machinery Views 373 Coal mines are generally divided into well coal and open-pit coal mines Most of the users in the open-pit coal mine are power plants and the fineness of coal supply to the power plant is less than 200 mm without suitable crushing equipment the grain size of coal can not reach the requirement which will directly affect the...

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The Sebuku coal mine is an open cut truck and shovel coal-mining operation tiny and remote island of Sebuku in the province of South Kalimantan Indonesia the primary crushing system where typical 500mm ROM coal is broken down to a The plant processes...

Cost To Start Coal Open Pit Mine - Portable Crusher Cost Open pit mines can be used in coal mining and they are used extensively in quot hard rock quot potential impacts of versus in-pit backfilling wheel excavator and conveyor belt technology in open pit...

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Mobile Rock Crusher In Open Pit Mine About Us - Montana Resources - Montana Montana Resources operates an open pit copper and molybdenum mine in Butte Montana The operation comprises the Continental mine crushers and a concentrator facility where tons of raw ore are processed into high-quality metal concentrates...

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Bingham Canyon Mine located near Salt Lake City is the world s deepest man-made open pit excavation The mine is miles 4 5km across and mile 1 2km deep Since mining operations started in 1906 Bingham Canyon Mine has been the Get Price...

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crushers for open pit mine | engineer live

crushers for open pit mine | engineer live

Metso has signed a contract with Codelco, a major Chilean mining company, to supply big cone crushers for a process improvement project in the Chuquicamata division. The contract also includes an automatic control system for crushers delivered by Metso. The complete value of the order exceeds EUR 9 million.

According to the new contract Metso will supply three biggest cone crushers ever manufactured by Metso. The operational weight of one MP1250 series cone crusher exceeds 150 tons, and the crusher can process up to 1800 tons of ore per hour in secondary position for this application.

We are very excited to receive this order. Codelco Chuquicamata its one of the most important mining companies in Chile, and they chose Metsos cone crushers to increase capacity in their division, comments Renato Verdejo, Manager, Crushing and Screening Capital Equipment South Cone, Metso.

The total project delivery comprises three Nordberg MP 1250 cone crushers. The MP 1250 continues the success of the MP 1000 and MP 800 using the same footprint as the MP 1000, but delivering up to 25 per cent increase in capacity.

With an increased power rated up to 1250 HP (932 kW), the MP 1250 performs more work per crushing cycle, and its power-to-production ratio exceeds that of its similarly sized competitors in the market.

Codelco is the largest mining company in Chile. Chuquicamata division operates two copper and molybdenum producing mines, named Chuquicamata and Mina Sur. By the excavation volume, Chuquicamata mine is worlds largest open pit copper mine.Fig. 1. Three of Metsos biggest MP1250 series mining cone crushers will be assembled at Codelcos Chuquicamata and Mina Sur mines.

evaluation and risk analysis of open-pit mining operations | springerlink

evaluation and risk analysis of open-pit mining operations | springerlink

Mining of raw materials is aprocess that consists of several stages. In open-pit mining, material with high compressive strength is extracted by drilling and blasting and material with low compressive strength is extracted by e.g. abucket wheel excavator. Most important influencing factors for crusher decision are compressive strength, moisture content, capacity of crusher, abrasiveness, and feed size. Depending on sequence of mining, fixed, semi-fixed, semi-mobile, or fully-mobile crusher stations can be applied. Compressive strength, tensile strength, cleavage, fracture behaviour, and stickiness are the most significant influencing factors for bucket wheel excavator selection. The waste removal and dumping associated with mining must be handled very well, so that the environmental impacts are as low as possible and dump stability is guaranteed. Essential are dump foundation properties, design of dump, and construction of dump. Open-pit mining operations harbour risks which can lead to project delays, operation standstill, injury to personnel, damage to equipment, or negative impacts on the environment. Therefore, risk identification and prevention of risks is essential.

Der Abbau von Rohstoffen ist ein Prozess, der aus mehreren Schritten besteht. Im Tagebau wird Material mit hoher Druckfestigkeit mittels Bohren und Sprengen und Material mit niedriger Druckfestigkeit z.B. mittels Schaufelradbagger gewonnen. Die wichtigsten Einflussfaktoren fr die Entscheidung des Brechers sind Druckfestigkeit, Feuchtegehalt, Kapazitt des Brechers, Abrasivitt und Aufgabegre. Abhngig von der Abbausequenz knnen fixe, halb-fixe, halb-mobile oder voll-mobile Brecherstationen eingesetzt werden. Druckfestigkeit, Zugfestigkeit, Spaltbarkeit, Bruchverhalten und Klebrigkeit sind die wesentlichsten Einflussfaktoren fr die Auswahl eines Schaufelradbaggers. Die mit dem Abbau verbundene Entsorgung und Verhaldung des Abraums mssen bestens gehandhabt werden, damit die Umweltauswirkungen so gering wie mglich sind und die Stabilitt der Halde gewhrleistet ist. Wesentlich sind die Eigenschaften der Haldenbasis, das Design der Halde und die Errichtung der Halde. Der Tagebaubetrieb birgt Risiken, die zu Projektverzgerungen, Stillstand des Betriebes, Personenschden, Gerteschden oder negativen Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt fhren knnen. Daher ist die Risikoerkennung und -vermeidung von wesentlicher Bedeutung.

Open-pit mining is avery important aspect of raw materials mining and it is present all over the world. The period from the start to the construction of an open-pit mine takes several years and includes prospection/exploration, mineral extraction, and waste handling and management. Big machinery like bucket wheel excavators are used to break rock masses out of the ground that usually have low compressive strength (20MPa) [1]. For rock masses with high compressive strength (>20MPa), excavation with shovels or drilling and blasting is applied. The downstream haulage system depends on specific mine conditions (e.g. depth below surface, pushback rates, annual production) and environmental influences (e.g. emissions, surface impacts). While excavating rock mass with bucket wheel excavators, dumping is normally done by discharging the material onto adump using conveyor systems and spreaders which run along the pit wall to the dumping area [1]. In-pit crushing and conveying (IPCC) is used to transport the blasted rock mass out of the pit by breaking it into smaller pieces with acrusher and hauling it with aconveyor belt. In comparison, haulage can be done transporting the rock mass with truck fleets. Advantages and disadvantages of both systems must be compared for several criteria to guarantee optimum choice. Open-pit mining operations harbour risks which can lead to operation standstill, injury to personnel, injury to equipment, or negative impacts on the environment.

The crusher system receives material from the feed system which is excavated at the working face. In-pit crusher stations can be divided into fixed, semi-fixed, semi-mobile, and fully-mobile stations based on degree of mobility, structural design and location of operation [2]. Fixed in-pit crushers are typically gyratory or jaw crushers which are designed to operate the whole lifetime of mine at the same place [2]. Semi-mobile crusher stations are normally located at the operating bench and they can be fed by multiple loading machines (e.g. front-end loaders) [2]. Due to the agility of fully-mobile crusher stations, asimultaneous movement along the working face is possible, but only afew crushers are actually able to follow the movements of the loading unit [2]. Best application for fixed crusher systems is in deep, pre-existing pits with alow vertical advance rate. The crusher must be able to handle the operation without being relocated over atime longer than five years [3]. Fully-mobile in-pit crushing stations are best applied in greenfield operations [3].

Bucket wheel excavators are used to extract material using awheel that consists of buckets which are digging into the rock mass. Material characteristics (e.g. compressive strength, cleavage, tensile strength, fracture behaviour, stickiness) are the most important parameters that influence the design of abucket wheel excavator [4]. Application of bucket wheel excavators is based on several investigation steps which are implemented prior to mining. For aGreenfield project, various evaluation stages are necessary. After prospection and exploration, test methods should be applied to determine uniaxial compressive strength and cutting resistance of material to get afirst estimation of mine conditions. Additionally, mine conditions ought to be compared to mines with similar conditions for application of bucket wheel excavators. During operations, the documentation of process data and geological conditions is recommended. Drebenstedt [5] describes aconcept developed at the University of Freiberg where process data (e.g. excavation capacity, chip parameter) and geological information are connected in acommon data base. The so-called Geo-Technical Data Base (Fig.3) connects the data and uses it for certain data analyses to improve information quality (e.g. necessary drive power in aspecific geological environment).

Pre-blasting of material ensures apre-fragmentation which is preferable for bucket wheel excavators to extract hard material. Hard interbedded inclusions/boulders have abig influence on the workability of the material that must be excavated e.g. to get access to the coal seam. Blasting of overburden or usage of other machinery (impact ripper, classic excavator) is necessary if the amount of inclusions is large [6].

Removal of overburden can be done via drilling and blasting or mechanical excavation to get access to the deposit. The choice depends on the properties of the material that must be excavated. While excavating overburden with bucket wheel excavators, dumping is normally done by discharging the material onto adump using conveyor systems and spreaders which run along the pit wall to the dumping area. Spreaders are mostly mounted on crawler travel gears and they are fed by trains or conveyor systems [1]. To overcome large distances, conveyor bridges can be used additionally. If drilling and blasting have to be implemented, the material can be transported with an IPCC system out of the mine until reaching the dumping area.

Mining activities and beneficiation processes are directly related to waste generation and their disposal on Earths surface or in mine openings. Heaps, dumps or ponds represent the impacts of these actions.

Foundation stability and bearing capacity are assessed using shear and compressive strength characteristics [7]. Presence of fine-grained soils in foundation must be handled with care. As aresult, unconfined and triaxial compression tests and direct shear tests need to be conducted on undisturbed samples, e.g. shelby tube, piston samples, block samples [7]. Mixed-grained or coarse-grained soils, softened glacial tills with aconsiderable amount of gravels, and cobbles/boulders are difficult to sample in an undisturbed state. In such acase, penetrometer or vane shear testing provides most reliable strength information [7]. The occurrence of discontinuities has an essential influence on stability of foundation bedrock. First estimations are done using empirical relations or simple hardness tests. Point Load Index testing of core samples would be conducted if more detailed rock strength information is required [7].

First, selection of site for the facility must be done whereby key selection factors as regulatory and social factors, fill material quality, terrain and geology, mining, environmental factors, geotechnical components, and closure are to be considered [8].

For initial site identification, study of regional geology plans and maps is necessary. Aranking should be applied if more than one potential site occurs. In the following step, aconceptual design (e.g. access routes, site preparation) must be implemented for each site. Capital expenditure and operational expenditure calculations with an accuracy up to 15% and laboratory and field testing have to be done in the 3rd and 4thstage. The 5thstage consists of stability and sensitivity analysis, development of access routes, and quantitative risk assessment. Part of 6thstage are field trials, closure plans, and ongoing monitoring of foundation. Closure includes finishing of the closure plan and implementation of plan for finished sections [8].

Arisk checklist is necessary to understand open-pit mining operations and to improve safety. Several risk issues regarding environment, financial aspects, maintenance, safety, repair, availability, offer, geology, and reliability are decided to be the most important issues. Atotal of 99risks were identified during literature research and brainstorming. Table1 gives an overview of the checklist structure. For each risk, causes, preventative controls, impacts, and mitigating controls are described.

Selection of crusher depends on material properties, application requirements, depth of mine and pushback rates. Fixed crusher stations are located for several years at the same place whereby fully-mobile crushers are designed to follow the movement of the loading system. It must be considered that fully-mobile crushers need alarger working area than fixed crushers.

Evaluation of bucket wheel excavator is usually based on cutting resistance and uniaxial compressive strength of rock mass. The values provided by the tests used for determination of cutting strength should be seen as reference values. It could always be helpful to compare mine conditions with conditions of other mines. During operations, process data of bucket wheel excavator and geological information of working positions must be documented. The result is an overview of lithologies and associated machinery parameters for certain exploitation positions.

Before dumping of waste piles has started, construction of aproper dump foundation is crucial. Occurrence of fine-grained material and geological disturbances in the foundation must be handled with care. If the amount of fine material exceeds acertain value, it will get more difficult to dump properly. Dump construction consists of certain steps which become more and more detailed.

Mining is asector of the industry which harbours several risks that can cause severe damage to both machinery and work force. Main reason is the huge amount of energy that is present within the system. The objective is to recognize risks in terms of operation, safety, geology, environment, finance, maintenance, repair, reliability, offer, and availability and to use preventative and mitigative controls to eliminate/reduce risks.

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Raaz, V.: Assessment of the digging force and optimum selection of the mechanical and operational parameters of bucket wheel excavators for mining of overburden, coal and partings, Braunkohle: Surface mining, 5 (1999), no. 51, pp544554

Drebenstedt, C.: State of the art and new concepts for prediction of cutting resistance on example of continuous mining equipment, in: Scientific reports on resource issues 2010, vol.1, Freiberg: IUR Office, 2010, pp104123 (ISBN 978-3-86012-394-2)

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