This type of crusher is more recent than hammer crushers. The structural architecture of a blade crusher is very similar to the hammer crusher. The hammers are replaced by blades, which tear up the fruit tissue as it rotates. Due to the structure of the blade crusher, the size of olive pit fragments of the paste is larger, hence the OO yield, polar phenolic, and pigment content are generally lower than those obtained with other metallic crushers. The improved sensorial quality of OOs produced using blade crushers compared with that of oils obtained using hammer crushers is due to the higher release of desirable volatiles (Morrone et al., 2017; Servili et al., 2002).
Annual wine exports in the European Union is around 21.9 billion (Eurostat) with France being the main wine exporting country followed by Italy and Spain. The wine production process (Fig. 9.1) can be divided into the following stages (Sections 18.104.22.168.2.1.4).
Grape crushers or crusher destemmers are initially used via light processing to avoid seed fracture. Sulfur dioxide is added to the mass to prevent oxidation. At this stage, grape stems are produced as one of the waste streams of the winery process. The mash is pressed in continuous, pneumatic, or vertical basket presses leading to the separation of the pomace (marc) from the must. Microbial growth is suppressed via sulfur dioxide addition.
The solids present in the must are removed before or after fermentation for white wine production. Fining is achieved by combined processes including filtration, centrifugation, flocculation, physicochemical treatment (e.g., activated carbon, gelatin, etc.,), and stabilization to prevent turbidity formation (e.g., the use of bentonite, cold stabilization techniques, etc.). Clarification leads to the separation of sediments via racking.
Wine production is carried out at temperatures lower than 20C for 610 weeks in stainless steel bioreactors or vats with or without yeast inoculation (most frequently Saccharomyces cerevisiae). At the end of fermentation, the wine is cooled (4C5C) and subsequently aged in barrels or wooden vats. The sediment that is produced during fermentation and aging is called wine lees and constitutes one of the waste streams produced by wineries. Current uses of wine lees include tartrate production and ethanol distillation. Lees could also be processed via rotary vacuum filtration for recycling of the liquid fraction and composting of the solid fraction.
Wine is cooled rapidly to facilitate the precipitation of tartrate crystals. Fining is applied for the separation of suspended particles using bentonite and gelatin. Filtration is subsequently applied to remove any insoluble compounds. The wine is finally transferred into bottles.
The main differences in the red wine production process are skin maceration duration, fermentation temperature, and unit operation sequence. Whole crushed grapes are most frequently used in red wine fermentation, which is carried out at 22C28C to facilitate the extraction of color and flavors. The remaining skins, seeds, and grape solids after fermentation are pressed to recover wine with the correct proportions of tannins and other compounds necessary for the final wine product.
Stemmer/crusher: grease fittings located at the distal end of the pin shaft should be lubricated as per manufacturers recommendation, and more frequently with heavy use. Grease fittings on drive gears for the pin shaft, destemming cylinder and crusher rollers are often overlooked. Many models have sealed bearings. H1 food grade lubricant should be used on pin shaft and destemming cylinder grease nipples if present.
Sorting/vibrating tables, inclines, belted fruit elevators: improper belt tracking can cause accelerated wear on the belt as well as on belt rollers and greased bearings/bushings. Most belt rollers have two grease nipples per roller. H1 food grade lubricant should be used on these at manufacturers recommended intervals.
Wine press: horizontal bladder style grape presses have a front and rear bearings which require greasing as often as every 23 press cycles. Additionally the central filling (axial) flange should be greased as per manufacturers recommendations. An H1 food grade lubricant is used for these applications. Depending on press model, the filling door may require occasional lubrication to prevent sticking. Use an H3 food grade lubricant here. Lastly, drive chains, drive motors, compressor, vacuum pump, etc., require use-specific lubrication (check with manufacturer for specific recommendations). An H2 lubricant will suffice here.
Pumps: waukesha-style positive displacement pumps require service 23 times per year. At this time it is advisable to check head gearbox and motor reduction gearbox oil levels. It is also recommended at this time to replace body as well as shaft O-rings. Head gearbox oil need not be food grade but is normally synthetic SAE 140. The motor reduction gearbox commonly uses 80w90 gear oil. Oil in both gearboxes should be replaced approximately every 2 years. Centrifugal pumps most often will have a grease fitting(s) on the ends of the drive motor. Occasionally these fittings are hidden on the underside of the unit. See manufacturers recommendations for unitspecific frequency of lubrication. Air pumps may or may not require oil for operation. Some units have a combination water trap/regulator/oiler which introduces a small amount of oil to internal air actuated parts during use. This oil should be H1 food grade lubricant oil.
Bottling equipment: for filler, check for grease fittings on the filler bowl axis (above and below the deck). All gearbox lubrication as well as shaft bearings below deck need not be food grade type. Below deck lubrication should comply with manufacturers recommended timelines. If the filler is heat sterilized, lubrication interval will be shorter. Once cleaned and sanitized and while the filler bowl is rotating, lubricate each pedestal with mineral oil or other comparable food grade oil. Lubrication for corker gearbox and shaft bearings below deck need not be food grade. Corker guide bars as well as corker jaws should be lubricated with light food grade oil after each cleaning cycle before each use. Internal cams and tacks should maintain a thin coating of lubricating oil at all times.
On all winery equipment, drive motors may or may not have user serviceable grease fittings or lubrication access. This does not imply that they do not require lubrication. It is advisable to contact equipment representatives for specific maintenance recommendations for all winery equipment at your facility. This information should be compiled into a winery service manual specific to your equipment. Integrate this data into your winerys annual operating procedures.
Practices vary: roller crushers are used with or without destalking; red grapes are normally fermented on skins; white wines may or may not be pressed before fermentation. Depending on the scale, fermentation may be in stainless steel tanks, concrete tanks, Algerian-type autofermenters, or wooden casks. The same casks are used from year to year. There seems to be no temperature control, so that in the larger vessels, 35C may be reached. In contrast to other areas, such temperatures are not considered deleterious. Grape concentrate is sometimes added to the fermentation to increase alcohol production. Cultured yeast is rarely required. Traditionally, all wines were fermented dry, and sweetening wine was added later as in sherry production, but nowadays, some producers, particularly of wines intended for the sweeter styles, prefer to stop the fermentation at the required sweetness by adding brandy, as port producers do. (See PORT | The Product and its Manufacture; Sherry | The Product and its Manufacture.)
Owensboro Grain is a fully integrated (crusher/refiner) facility for soybeans. This is the only plant world-wide than uses all expanders in preparation for solvent extraction. All of the crude oil is water degummed to make lecithin. This degummed oil, which is actually super-degummed oil, is transferred to the refinery. It is ultra- degummed, bleached, and physical refined. This refinery was started in 1995, and even today is still the most efficient and highest quality of any new refinery built in the last twenty years. The capacity is 500 million lb/year.
The effect of pectinases used at the crusher-destemmer is quick and easy to monitor, as free-run and low-pressure juice fractions (<1bar) are readily released from the press. Pilot-scale trials using a Speidel bladder press show that free-run juice volume is increased up to 50%, juice fraction at 0.6bar by 22% and total juice yield by 10% (Canal-Llaubres, 2004) (Fig.4.8).
Similar results were obtained in industrial direct pressing trials on Grenache grapes. In the experiment, pectinases of similar concentration were used at 3g/100kg (Vinozym Process) and 1g/100kg (pectinase 1) of grapes at the crusher. Higher juice volumes were obtained on combined free-run and dynamic draining (0.1bar) and juice fraction at 0.8bar when applying the pectinase at 3g/100kg grapes. The total juice yield was increased by 11.9% (Table4.3). In these conditions, the winery needed only 116kg of grapes (instead of 133kg) to produce 100 litres of wine. Furthermore, the juice resulting from Vinozym Process processed grapes was quicker and easier to clarify. Volume of sediment was reduced compared to pectinase 1, generating an extra gain of 3% (Fig.4.9).
Table4.3. Comparison of two pectinases in terms of volume of juice fractions from 40 tons of Grenache grapes enzyme treated at the crusher (pH3.3, 15C) on Bucher XPert 100320 Inertis (Cooprative La Valdze, 2009)
Fig.4.9. Clarification of Grenache must in response to two pectinases used in extraction. Percentage of clear juice and sediment volume after settling 16 hours at 15C (direct pressing, 40 tons, pH3.3, pressing cycle 3h 30min. Cooperative La Valdze, 2009). The initial turbidity was: Vinozym Process, 175 NTU; pectinase 1, 433 NTU.
The most common equipment includes pneumatic presses and draining tanks. There is a trend towards using decanter technology as well. If the correct enzyme dose is applied, the total juice yield (free-run juice and pressure fractions) is increased by up to 611% depending on the grape variety, maturity and equipment. The pressing time can be reduced by 30%. This rule also applies to the maceration time.
In addition, downstream processing is further improved. On average, enzymatic treatment resulted in 30% more clarified juice against a non-enzyme-treated lot after 24 hours clarification in trials conducted on Semillon (Provisor, 2008, personal communication).
Even though the relationships between the enzymatic profile and the technology effect were difficult to demonstrate, the effect of pectinases on grape juice yield as well as on the clarification speed in studies on ros was remarkable (Cayla et al., 2009). Among eight commercial pectinases tested on extraction (addition of the enzymes to the grape), the mean increase of free-run juice was 17% compared to no enzyme use. The same is noted for the total juice yield which increased by 10%. These yield increases have a direct economic impact.
For white or ros winemaking, pectinases can be used for two options. The first one is qualitative: the enzyme helps to achieve shorter maceration times and softer pressing, releasing higher quality juice. Oxidation is limited and free-run juice quality is better. Aroma extraction can be optimized as well; pectinases influence the wine sensory profile (Fig.4.10; Delteil, personal communication, 1992). The second is quantitative: pectinases applied to grapes allow an increase in the performance of the equipment (shorter time, more efficient pressing). In both cases, the use of enzymes on grapes will help the clarification and the settling of the must.
Fig.4.10. Sensory attributes (apricot, dried flowers, volume, astringency) in response to enzyme treatment (Kzym Plus) on Muscat (1992). Pectinase was used during grapes maceration (QDSA: quantifed descriptive sensory analysis) (Delteil, personal communication, 1992).
Before the development of efficient stemmer-crushers in the late 1800s, some grapes remained whole throughout much if not all of the fermentation process. Before breaking open and releasing their juice, they underwent a grape-berry fermentation. Although the alcohol content rose to only about 2%, it activated the production of distinctive aromatic compounds. If the grape clusters were collected and piled together without crushing, most of the grapes underwent grape-cell fermentation. This is in essence what occurs in the process now termed carbonic maceration (Fig. 7.1). It is how Beaujolais wines are produced and why they possess a distinctive fragrance. Although occasionally used to produce white wines, this procedure is primarily employed in the production of red wines.
Occasionally, harvested grapes are stored whole for a period of post-maturation. For the production of certain white wines, the grapes are left to partially dry in the sun. This increases their relative sugar content, enhancing their alcohol producing potential. In some locations, this has resulted in the production of fortified wines. A classic example is the sherry-like wine from Montilla, Spain. Partial drying has also been used in the production of red wines. Here, however, the grapes are usually stored under cool, shaded conditions. For the production of old-style Chianti wines, part of the harvest was so stored. These grapes were subsequently crushed and added to the wine derived from the majority of the harvest, inducing a second fermentation. For reasons that are still unclear, this technique produces a lighter wine that can be enjoyed early. The procedure, called governo, produced the jug Chianti that for decades made it synonymous with easy drinking wine.
Partially drying grape clusters or their wings (the smaller side branch of a cluster) are also occasionally used in Veneto and Lombardy, Italy (Fig. 7.2). During the slow drying and over-maturation, nascent Botrytis infections may reactivate (Plate 7.1, Usseglio-Tomasset et al., 1980). They generate chemical changes that resemble those that occur during the noble-rotting of white grapes in the vineyard. These include marked increases in glycerol, gluconic acid, and sugar content. Surprisingly, the anthocyanin content is not as oxidized as might be expected. Botrytis has the potential to produce a powerful polyphenol oxidase, laccase. Thus, although the color may be more brickish than usual for a red wine of equivalent age, it is not brown. Nonetheless, the sharp tulip and daffodil odor of recioto wines, such as Amarone, probably derives from phenols oxidized by laccase.
Typically, harvested grapes are destemmed and crushed shortly after harvest. The crush is then either allowed to ferment directly (red wines) or kept cool for flavor extraction for up to 24 h prior to pressing (white wines). Occasionally, white grapes are pressed whole (without prior destemming and crushing). This is typical in the production of sparkling and botrytized wines, but is also receiving renewed interest from dry, white wine producers. Its primary benefit is to minimize the extraction of tannins or undesirable constituents found in the skins. Depending on the character of the desired wine, it can also limit the extraction of flavorants.
Before pressing, the juice (or wine) is normally allowed to run free under gravity (free-run). Extra juice (or wine) is subsequently extracted by pressing the remainder (called pomace). There are many methods of extracting the remaining juice or wine (press-run). The method and number of successive pressings affect the release of flavorants, anthocyanin pigments, and tannic substances. It is up to the winemaker to decide what method is most appropriate for the style desired and to determine what proportion of free- to press-run juice (or wine) should be used in the finished wine. These procedures affect the attributes of the wine but do not modify the wine's style as the procedures noted previously.
As noted, crushed white grapes may be left in contact with the seeds and skins for several hours after crushing. The process, termed maceration, helps extract grape flavorants, most of which are located in the skin. To limit the growth of microbes during this period, maceration is usually conducted at cool temperatures. The same procedure may also be used in the production of ros wines, but this time to limit the extraction of anthocyanins. Cool maceration is also being used with some red wines, notably Pinot noir. In this instance, maceration may last several days. It has been associated with improved coloration and flavor. Why coloration is improved is unclear, but may be associated with the extraction of other phenolics. Because Pinot noir wines tend to be relatively poorly colored, the extra phenolics may help stabilize them from oxidative color loss.
Before the development of efficient stemmer-crushers in the late 1800s, some grapes remained whole throughout much, if not all of, the fermentation process. Before breaking open and releasing their juice, they underwent grape-berry fermentation. Although the alcohol content in the grapes rose to only about 2 percent, it activated the production of distinctive aromatic compounds. If grape clusters are collected and piled together without crushing, most of the grapes undergo a grape-cell fermentation. Flushing the air surrounding the grapes with carbon dioxide and heating the volume to 30C or above facilitates rapid grape-cell autofermentation. The process is termed carbonic maceration (Fig. 7.3). A simpler, more ancestral, version is used in much of Beaujolais to produce its wines. Either way, the wine develops a distinctive fruity fragrance, often likened to that of strawberries, raspberries and occasionally pears, and typically unrelated to any varietal aroma the used cultivar(s) may possess. The nouveau version is the lightest, producing an easily drinkable wine shortly after completion of both alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. However, the process does come with a distinct handicap. It typically loses its pleasantness within 6 months to a year. Although occasionally used to produce white wines, carbonic maceration is primarily employed in the production of red wines.
In some regions, harvested grapes are stored whole for a period of postmaturation and partial dehydration. The procedure has recently become popularized under the name appassimento. Except for the longer, cooler, more stable storage temperature, and avoidance of the risks of inclement weather in the vineyard, it differs little from leaving the grapes on the vine to overmature for several weeks to months. In Europe, postharvest drying has primarily been used for the production of certain white wines. In some instances, the grapes are left to partially dry in the sun, markedly increasing their relative sugar content, potentially generating higher alcohol contents in the finished wine. In some locations, this led to the production of naturally fortified wines, e.g., the sherry-like wines from Montilla, Spain. Other classic wines made from partially dehydrated white grapes are vin santo (Italy) and vin de paille (France). Partial dehydration has also been used in the production of red wines. It was partially used in the production of old-style Chianti wines. The portion of the harvest so treated was crushed and added to wine produced from the majority of the crop, inducing a second fermentation. For reasons that are still unclear, this technique produced a lighter, earlier-drinking wine. The procedure, termed governo, produced much of the jug Chianti that for decades was synonymous with easy-drinking wine.
A distinctive wine style, based on partially dried grape clusters, or their wings (the smaller side-branch of a cluster) is also used in Veneto and Lombardy (Fig. 7.4, Plate 7.1). The treatment appears to activate several stress-related genes (Zamboni et al., 2008). In addition, nascent Botrytis infections may reactivate (Plate 7.2, Usseglio-Tomasset et al., 1980). This initiates chemical changes that resemble those that occur during the noble-rotting of white grapes. These include marked increases in glycerol, gluconic acid, and relative sugar content. Surprisingly, the anthocyanin content is not as oxidized as might be expected. Botrytis cinerea has the potential to produce a powerful polyphenol oxidase, laccase. Despite this, the color may be only more brickish than usual for a red wine of equivalent age, and not brown as would occur with Botrytis bunch rot. Nonetheless, the sharp tulip and daffodil odor that characterizes traditional recioto wines, such as Amarone, probably originates from the phenols that are oxidized by laccase. The sharp odor does not apply to most appassimento, or even many modern Amarone wines, the latter resembling late-harvested red wines more than Amarones, except for their high alcohol contents.
Currently, it is typical for harvested grapes to be destemmed and crushed shortly after harvest. With some modern harvesters, both procedures can occur immediately after harvesting with white grapes, only the juice being delivered to the winery. More typically, the released juice from white grapes remains in contact with the seeds and skins for a short period at cool temperatures, before pressing and the commencement of fermentation. In contrast, the released juice from red grapes is allowed to ferment in the presence of the seeds and skins for several days to weeks, depending on the desires of the winemaker. Occasionally, white grapes are pressed whole (without prior destemming and crushing), notably in the production of sparkling and botrytized wines. However, there is renewed interest in whole-grape pressing from the producers of dry white wines. Its primary benefit appears to be reducing the extraction of tannins or other undesirable constituents from the skins. Depending on the character of the desired wine and the cultivar, it can also limit the extraction of flavorants.
Before pressing crushed grapes (or the fermenting pomace of red grapes), a fraction is normally allowed to escape under the action of gravity; this is called the free-run. Additional juice (or wine) is subsequently extracted by pressing the remaining wet solids one or more times; these are the press-run fractions. The equipment used affects their chemical composition, and thereby the number of successive pressings deemed acceptable. Thus, the press, how it is used, and the proportion of free- to press-run juice (wine) can be used to significantly affect the style and characteristics of the wine.
Crushed white grapes may be left in contact with the seeds and skins for several hours after crushing. The process, termed maceration, helps extract grape flavorants, most of which are located in the skin. To limit the growth of microbes during this interval, maceration is usually conducted at cool temperatures. The same procedure may also be used in the production of ros wines, in this case to limit color extraction. Cool maceration is also used with some red wines, notably Pinot noir. The procedure has been correlated with improved wine coloration and flavor development. In this instance, prefermentative maceration can last several days. Why coloration is improved is unclear, but it may be associated with the extraction of other phenolics. Because Pinot noir wines tend to be relatively poorly colored, extracted copigments appear to stabilize the anthocyanins from oxidative color loss.
Hot water or steam clean the destemmercrusher just prior to the operation. Calculate the weight of K2S2O5 required according to the weight of fruit and the anticipated yield of juice. This is usually prepared as a 1% m/v solution and added progressively during the crush if not already added at harvest. Note that the concentration of K2S2O5 required may be varied according to the state of the fruit, or, if wishing to delay the onset of fermentation to increase color or aroma extraction, then increase, and vice versa (e.g. Makhotkina et al., 2013).
It is feasible for the small-scale winemaker to ferment berries from red wine cultivars directly, uncrushed, from a mechanical harvester or destemmer into a small, open fermenter (cf. carbonic maceration, although that would be into a closed fermenter under CO2 and controlled temperature). This is good for building muscle fitness (i.e. the ferment requires a lot of physical input to ensure complete mixing and extraction) during the early stages of fermentation and maceration.
Run a small part of the fruit through the destemmercrusher and check the adjustment of the rollers and the speed of the auger. All berries should be removed; if they are not, you may need to change the size of the screen provided your machine has a variety of screen sizes available. Check that the berries are crushed but that no seeds are damaged by the rollers. Thorough crushing will speed the onset of the ferment and make cap management easier during the early stages, but may reduce color and tannin extraction. It is common to run the juice into a receiving vessel with a cover of CO2 (chips of dry ice).
The EU is the third-largest worldwide sunflower crusher, after the Ukraine and Russia. Annual sunflower crushing in the EU is around 19% of the total world sunflower oilseed production, whereas sunflower seed production is around 20.5% (FAOSTAT, 2014; Oil World, 2013). Therefore, the EU is a net exporter of sunflower seed. Annually, the EU crushes the equivalent of 84% of its internal sunflower production. Net seed export (excluding internal EU trade) equals around 4% of sunflower production. The main exporters within the EU are Bulgaria and Romania, which together account for 84% of EU exports. Most of the seed (59%) is exported to Turkey. The main importers are Spain (18% of total EU imports), followed by The Netherlands (15%), and Germany (13%). The two main crushers in the EU are France (1.3 million t; 21%) and Spain (1.1 million t; 18%). Hungary and Italy crush 0.8 and 0.4 million t annually, respectively. It is noteworthy that The Netherlands, with no sunflower seed production, crushes 0.5 million t annually. Sunflower crushing in this country mainly takes place around the Rotterdam port (CBI, 2012).
Unlike sunflower seed, the EU is a net importer of sunflower oil and sunflower meal. Net sunflower oil imports per year were 0.8 million t in the past four years. The large majority of the oil is imported from Ukraine (62%), Russia (14%), and Argentina (10%). Annual sunflower meal imports have averaged 0.3 million t in the past four years, mainly also from Ukraine (59%), Russia (24%), and Argentina (14%) (FAOSTAT, 2014; Oil World, 2013).
Sunflower oil prices in the EU have risen considerably (Figure 18.8). Considering averages over 5-year periods, the average price has risen from $514/t in 1999 to 2003, to $908/t in 2004 to 2008, to $1135/t in 2009 to 2013 (Oil World, 2013).