crushing and grinding mills in usa

iron ore crushing and grinding machines - liajones

iron ore crushing and grinding machines - liajones

The most commonly used crushers and grinding mills in iron ore crushing and grinding process for iron ore mining are jaw crusher, cone crusher, hammer crusher and ball mill, ultrafine grinding mill, etc. In iron ore mining, miner usually choose a complete iron ore crushing plant for metallurgy. At present, the most popular iron ore production line consists of two jaw crushers. After beening crushed, the material will be transported for the magnetic separation, and then into the ball mill for grinding.

Jaw crusher for iron ore: Jaw crusher is used in primary crushing station. It can crush iron ore into small sizes. Thus, these small iron ore can enter into the iron ore mill such as ball mill for grinding.

Hammer crushers are widely used in small quarries with small capacities. That's because in such situation, the cost and the difficulty of changing and maintaining worn hammers are more acceptable to the quarry owners. However, once the quarry owners want to enhance the capacity to above 50-60t/h by one crushing plant, hammer crushers are no longer suitable. Using hammer crusher to do a big crushing work will lead to a passive situation of high consuming cost and frequent maintenance.

Cone crusher is the most common fine crusher, and usually used as final crushing machine. It has four types: spring cone crusher, CS cne crusher, hydraulic cone crusher, hcs90 cone crusher. Every cone crusher has their different applications.

Iron ore crushing plantAlmost all of the iron ore that is mined is used for making steel. So we need the extraction of a pure metal from its ore. The extract the metal from ores, several physical and chemical methods are used. The method used depending upon chemical properties and nature of the ore from which it is to be extracted. It involves four main steps:

In order to make the size of iron ore materials as fine as possible before entering into milling machine, the crusher must have an excellent fine crushing capability to reduce iron ore size. To achieve this crushing effect, two grades of jaw crushers and one fine crusher (high thin breaker machine) are applied in the crushing process. Two types of jaw crushers are coarse and fine jaw crushers. Tertiary fine crushing machine is the key of the whole production line.

Iron Ore crusher supplierHongxing is a iron ore manufacturer in Chian, and supplies rock crushers and grinding mills for ore beneficiation such as iron ore crusher, copper ore crusher, manganese ore crusher. Hongxing provides iron ore mining equipments in Australia, Brazil, India, Canada, USA, Ukraine, Liberia, Russia, Sweden, France, South Africa and other countries.

As the professional manufacturer of complete sets of mining machinery, such as rotary kiln,China mobile crusher,flotation machine,China spiral classifier, Henan Hongxing is always doing the best in products and service.

crusher equipment and pulverizing mills for shale crushing processing plant

crusher equipment and pulverizing mills for shale crushing processing plant

Shale rock is a type of sedimentary rock formed from clay that is compacted together by pressure. They are used to make bricks and other material that is fired in a kiln. Shales characteristically consist of at least 30 percent clay minerals and substantial amounts of quartz. They also contain smaller quantities of carbonates, feldspars, iron oxides, fossils, and organic matter.

Shale is too soft and too easily broken into small pieces to be used as dimension stone or even as crushed stone (although some shale is used as slate for garden walkways and paving stones). The greatest potential use of shale today is as a new source of oil. It is presently estimated that 1.75 x 1015 barrels of oil are trapped in the worlds oil shales. This is 100 times the total liquid petroleum geologists expect will be removed from known oil reserves.

Positioned on the resource-rich ground of the original site, red shale brick uses native red shale mined from our on-site quarry guaranteeing consistent quality and processing integrity. Added to this native shale are water drawn from deep wells, filtered and tested regularly, and the finest sand from across the country to create red shale bricks.

The whole process of shale comminution usually consists of primary crushing, secondary crushing and fine crushing. Shale rock of different sizes are inserted into the jaw crushers for size reduction. Generally grinding is carried out in one or two stages, while three grinding stages can also be performed. After crushing, the material is returned to the sieving process for sizing. Depending on the desired output size of the crushed stone, the raw material may be fed to one or two impact crushers, cone crushers or complete stone grinding mills in a sequence. Thereafter, the crushed stone is transmitted to the vibrating screen to the size gradation. Product is handled by a conveyor belt to the various places of exploitation, such as jaw crusher to the vibrating screen.

Typically, jaw crusher is used in primary crushing, and impact crusher is used in secondary crushing after jaw crusher. Usually, on the basis of quarry conditions, mobile crushers are also used in the quarrying because of its convenience, high capacity and automation. To produce shale powder, a pulverizing machine is necessary in the shale powder processing plant. The commonly used grinding mills are ball mill, Raymond mill, vertical mill, trapezium mill, coarse powder mill, and ultrafine mill, etc.

As for the selection of crushers and grinding mills for shale processing, our engineers strongly recommends the following processing and crushing plant equipment for you. Among the various types of crushers, you can choose our PE series jaw crusher, JC series jaw crusher, impact crusher, hammer crusher, cone crusher and so on. In terms of shale grinding mill, ball mill, Raymond mill, vertical mill, MTM trapezium mill and medium speed super thin grinding mill can be your choice.

Our company is a manufacturer of mining and construction machinery in China. We can supply all kinds of crushers and grinders such as aggregate crusher (limestone crusher, marble, granite crusher, gravel ), coal crusher, cement mill, concrete crusher, gold ore mining equipment and so on. Since we are professional in the crushing and processing of shale, we can design and manufacture shale ore production line according to your requirements.

ball mill crushing

ball mill crushing

Until the advent of the porphyry coppers and the introduction of flotation which soon followed, crushing and grinding for many years proceeded along somewhat stereotyped lines, without important alteration in type of machinery. For the finer crushing and grinding, stamps, rolls, and various patterns of Huntington and Chilean mills were in general use. Ball mills were in use abroadbut owing to their small capacity and the high cost of screens and steel, they never obtained much footing in the United States.

The Inspiration company built a 500-ton test plant to work out the final details of the grinding and flotation problem, itsprevious tests having already indicated the advantage of flotation. The regrinding mills in this 500-ton test plant consisted of 10-ft. by 28-in., 8-ft. by 36-in., 8-ft. by 44-in., 8-ft. by 72-in. Hardinge mills and a 6 by 20-ft. Chalmers & Williams tube-mill. These mills were equipped with pebbles as a grinding medium. During the operation of this test plant, the concentrator building was erected, of the same size and dimensions as that of the Miami Copper Co., having an estimated capacity of 7500 to 10,000 tons per day.

The general results of the regrinding mills at the Inspiration test plant showed that the 10-ft. (3-m.) Hardinge mill was the most unsatisfactory of all, due to the excessive pebble consumption and the power required to operate it. The mill of this type that gave the best results was the one that approached the cylindrical shape, having a cylindrical portion 72 in. in length (182.9 cm.). The mill that seemed to give equal results, as to power and pebble consumption, was the Chalmers & Williams tube-mill, although it required considerably more space than the 8-ft. by 72-in. Hardinge.

Later, the company installed a Marcy ball mill 8 ft. (2.5 m.) in diameter and 5 ft. (1.5 m.) in length. This mill was experimental, an entirely new design, being the first mill in which the entire discharge end was fitted with a grizzly or screen. This grate was intended to deliver a maximum size of 1/8-in. and between the grate and the dischargeend were lifters to discharge the undersize from the mill. It was claimed that by keeping a minimum of undersize in the mill the relative weight and efficiency of the balls was considerably increased.

By allowing the Marcy mill to take 3-in. feed and discharge a product below 1/8-in., capacity of the Hardinge pebble-mill was greatly increased and the general extraction was improved; it was found that an installation of Marcy mills followed by conical pebble-mills could readily treat10,000 tons per day. As a result of the test in October, the company made arrangements to manufacture its own Marcy mills from the designs of the one that was in operation, modified by the results of their own experience.

At this time, it was suggested that it might be possible to do all the crushing in a Marcy mill arranged in closed circuit with a mechanical classifier; that is, to take the 3-in. feed and crush it to flotation size in one operation. Experiments with the Marcy mill and a new classifier were conducted, but were not altogether satisfactory. In December, at the suggestion of Mr. Hardinge, the conical mills equipped with steel balls were tried in a similar manner, but with inferior results. Afterwards, since the Marcy mill had demonstrated that it could do the work in one operation, it was purchased by the Inspiration company and manufacturing proceeded.

The new concentration plant was started in the summer, equipped entirely with No, 86 Marcy mills, 8 ft. in diameter and 6 ft. in length, in closed circuit with Dorr classifiers, the product going to flotation machinesand the sands from these machines to concentration tables. On starting, the shells of the Marcy mills were found to be defective, due partly to the light design and partly to the fact that the manufacturer did not have time under his contract to make and anneal the castings properly.

Later yet, the Inspiration company decided to add two sections to its mill, and an offer by Mr. Hardinge to equip a section with two of his mills without cost to the company was accepted. These mills were expected to do the work of the same number of Marcy mills, with much less power. The fact that a joint test between Hardinge and Marcy mills was to be run by the Inspiration company was widely advertised and created considerable interest among those interested in crushing; since the expense of crushing is greater than that of any other milling operation, these tests were of considerable importance. A statement by David Cole covers this very well and is therefore repeated verbatim:

The comparison of work done, based upon the scientific theory of Stadler, Gates, Kick, et al., is beautiful on paper, but there are a lot of us who hesitate to accept the theory as law. We are inclined to regard a direct comparison of grinders arranged side by side, getting feed from a common source through a mechanical distributor, and making a product that affords as nearly as may be the same screen measure, and at any rate affording an equal metallurgical opportunity for the subsequent treatment, as the Supreme Court in these grinding matters. The Marcy versus Hardinge ball- mill controversy is soon to have this kind of a hearing at the Inspiration plant, and the results will be watched with great interest.

A section comprising two 8-ft. Marcy mills equipped with 225-hp. motors, which had been in continuous operation, was used in comparison with a section comprising two 8-ft. Hardinge mills equipped with 150-hp. motors. Each of the Marcy mills took the coarse feed from the bin and, in closed circuit with a 6-ft. Dorr classifier, made a finished product.

The Hardinge mills were first arranged in tandem, the first mill taking all of the coarse feed from the bin, its product going to a Dorr classifier, the sands from which passed to the second Hardinge mill working in closed circuit with the second Dorr classifier. Each of the sections was equipped with an automatic scale so that the total or the hourly tonnage could be recorded and noted. The crushed product, the overflow from the Dorr classifiers, was carefully sampled in each case by automatic samplers. The daily report sheets of the finished product showed some variation from the desired 2 per cent, on 48-mesh with both types of mills, but by applying a correction factor the final results, as tabulated, could be reduced to the basis of 2 per cent, on 48-mesh. This correction factor was derived by Dr. Gahl from actual operating experience. The results are as shown in Tables 1 and 2.

The daily reports show that various ball charges and various sizes of balls were used in the Hardinge mills; that the speed of the Hardinge was changed a number of times; various types of scoop feeders were used; the delays due to overloading the Hardinge mill, changing balls, etc., as mentioned, were very great. The Marcy mill continued with its ball load unchanged and practically without delays.

The record shows that the capacity of the Marcy mill was 130.5 per cent, greater than the Hardinge, and the Marcy saving in power over the Hardinge was 34.04 per cent. At times the motors of both types of mills were slightly overloaded. As the power was measured by integrating wattmeters, this does not affect the results and comparisons given.

Hardinge mill results from May 15 to June 11, when the contest ended,were not so good as shown in the data given. The figures showing dailytonnage and kilowatt-hours per ton are averaged from the daily report sheets issued by the Inspiration management. These figures were accepted by the manufacturers of both the Hardinge and the Marcy mill, and there is no doubt as to their correctness.

No ball consumption was given out by the Inspiration company on the Hardinge mills because many changes had been made in the ball load. The operation of the Marcy mills was in charge of the regular mill crew, while that of the Hardinge section was under the supervision of Mr. Hardinge and his assistants, who were at the plant when the test was discontinued. The ball consumption of the Marcy mill in the entire plant is 1.7 lb. of steel for each ton of ore crushed. The speed of the Hardinge mills was faster than the Marcys; the. ball load was greater, and from the tabulated reports, the tonnage was less than one-half. From this, it would appear that the ball consumption in the Hardinge mill would be nearly double, as the total daily ball consumption depends upon the speed and number of balls used in the mill rather than upon the amount of ore crushed.

The ball-mill floor in this plant is equipped with a traveling crane capable of picking up a mill and its load of balls. When a mill needsrelining, the bearing caps are removed, the mill is picked up by the crane, and a relined mill with its load of balls is placed in the same bearings. This saves the time that would be lost if the mills were lined in place, so that the actual loss of time due to ball-mills in the entire Inspiration plant averages less than 0.4 per cent.

The Anaconda Copper Mining Co. purchased about 50 Hardinge mills when it decided to install flotation. The mills were 10 ft. (3 m.) in diameter with a 60 cone on the feed end and a 40 cone on the discharge end, and with the cylindrical portion 48 in. (121.9 cm.) in length. This was about the size of one of the Hardinge mills used in the Inspiration plant and, as heretofore pointed out, was the most undesirable.

The Anaconda mills were equipped with 225-hp. motors, so that balls could be used. It was found that the pebble consumption was from 12 to 15 lb., which was prohibitive, and when steel balls were used the motors were not of sufficient capacity, for which reason, it was necessary to lag up the mills with wooden blocks. The cylindrical portion is now 7 ft. 6 in. (2.29 m.) in diameter, and about the same length, and the mills, due to the 40 discharge end, are practically cylindrical mills. The fifty 10-ft. Hardinge mills of the original installation have all been rebuilt to the above size and are operated at 15 r.p.m. The effect of converting these into cylindrical mills and reducing the speed has been a great improvement in cost and character of operation, as compared with the original recommendations.

The Calumet & Hecla Co. has installed sixty-four 8-ft. by 16-in. (2.44-m. by 40.64-cm.) Hardinge mills in its crushing plant at Lake Linden. These mills use pebbles and crush about 45 tons per day each, taking feed at below 3/16 in. and reducing it to about 30-mesh. A new crushing plant of this company, however, will consist of 8-ft. mills having a cylindrical portion 72 in. in length, which will make their inside dimensions practically the same as those of the Anaconda Copper Mining Co. The Calumet & Hecla Co., in running a test with a 5 by 20-ft. (1.5 by 6-m.) tube-mill and a Hardinge mill, found the tube-mill equally efficient, but it required too much space.

Analyzing the mill on the assumption that the greatest diameter is to produce the greatest effect in crushing, we find that the weight of crushing pebbles is proportional to the square of the diameter (machine half full); that the energy per unit pebble weight is something nearer the square than the first power of the diameter; and that the velocity with which the ore or pulp being crushed passes through the mill is inversely proportional to the square of the diameter. The result is that the energy applied per pound of pulp at various points along the cone is inversely proportional to about the sixth power of the diameter. This means that half way toward the apex of the cone, only 1/64 as much work is done as at the cylindrical portion, while three- fourths of the way toward the apex, only 1/4000 is done.

At Anaconda, and at the Calumet & Hecla mill, it has been found that a lengthening of the cylindrical portion increases the efficiency and capacity of theHardinge mill. Undoubtedly, in the Hardinge mill there is a tendency for the smaller balls and pebbles to segregate in the conical portion. Taggart has shown, however, that the segregation decreases the efficiency of the mill. He says:

The reason for the greater reduction in the size of the particles is that the smaller balls tend to segregate in the conical portion of the mill and cut down its efficiency, both on account of the small size of the cone and the small size of the balls themselves. There is not sufficient energy to do the work.

I carried on experiments with the Hardinge mill in the laboratory of the Engineering Co., to determine its efficiency. It would appear that if the feed were introduced into the so-called discharge end there would be a marked difference between the resulting product and that produced when the feed is put into the mill through the feed end, in the regular way. To conduct this simple experiment, I operated a 36-in. (91.44-cm.) Hardinge pebble-mill, feeding first in the regular way, into the short cone. After running this test, I placed the scoop feeder on the long, or discharge end, and ran a second test in this maimer. The entire product in each case was caught in a tank, then mixed and sampled. My tests were carefully run on samples of quartz gravel, using about 1 ton of gravel to each test, with particular care to maintain uniformity of operating conditions for both tests. These samples, both feed and discharge, were carefully mixed and a portion cut out for screen analysis. All slimes were first washed out of the samples to be screened, through a 200-mesh sieve, and dried and weighed. The sands were then sized on Tyler standard sieves, using a Rotap machine, with results shown in Table 3.

Two similar tests were made at the University of Utah, using a mill of the same diameter, 3 ft., but with a shorter cylindrical portion, which, therefore, did not crush so rapidly. The result of these two tests confirmed the data observed in the first test, except slightly greater reduction in average size when operated the reverse way. This work was checked and reviewed by Prof. Robert S. Lewis. The power instruments were connected to the motor by the electrical department for the purpose of ascertaining whether the motor requirements differed when the scoop feeder was changed from feed to discharge end. From the averages, no differences could be determined. On account of the light motor load and heavy friction load, no attempt was made to determine the efficiency of the mill by measurement of power.

I will draw no conclusions from my own experiments, but desire only to say that I believe they are of sufficient importance to be repeated with a large conical mill. When operating a Hardinge mill at a very reduced tonnage, it is possible to make a fairly uniform product in one pass, just as it is with a cylindrical overflow mill with a reverse screw in the trunnion; but when operating with a large circulating load, according to modern practice, the shape of the conical mill is a disadvantage. It is suggested that the conical mill is strong because of its truss shape; but it seems unnecessary to build a truss over a long span when a tubular construction can do better work within less space and is equally strong. For instance, the conical mills at Inspiration were 16 in. longer between the bearings than the Marcys, with less than half the capacity.

The Marathon, or rod-mill, has not been adopted as quickly as one would expect. Undoubtedly it requires more care than a ball-mill, and its mechanical troubles offset its power efficiency in some degree. If the rods become bent its great advantage is lost. Its particular field is in fine crushing where slimes are considered undesirable.

plagioclase quarrying crushers and grinding mills used in processing line

plagioclase quarrying crushers and grinding mills used in processing line

Plagioclase isa series of feldspar lead minerals and it includes sodium feldspar, oligoclasite, andesine, labradorite, bytownite and calcium feldspar. Most of plagioclase varieties can produce fine and parallel stripes on the surface; some still have blue or green iridescence, which is caused by their twin structure. Plagioclase is used to manufacture glass and ceramics. The most common is plagioclase feldspar; bake feldspar is the rarest.

Plagioclase crystal is triclinic crystal system frame structure of silicate minerals, it mainly assumes columnar crystal shape, the thick plate, often for granular or massive; Many colors are pale, sometimes microstrip , pale blue and pale red. The hardness is 6-6.5; and the relative density is 2.61 2.76. It has glass luster and two groups of cleavage. Visible on the surface is crystal or cleavage fine and parallel twin lines. Two groups of cleavage (a set of complete, a set of medium) intersect at 86 24 ', therefore, it is known as plagioclase. The Mohs hardness is 6-6.5 and the proportion is 2.6-2.6. It can be used as a ceramic material.

Plagioclase quarrying plant can be regarded as the mining processing plant. Depending on the specific characteristics of the plagioclase, the quarrying plant can be divided into dry processing and wet processing.

Dry process is a simple and economic processing. The raw materials are crushed by the hammer crusher to 25.4mm, and then send the plagioclase to the impact crusher to6.35mm. The heat air in the impact crusher will take away 10% water of plagioclase. The crushed minerals continue to be crushed by the Raymond Mill which equipped with centrifugal separator and cyclone dust collector. Dry process could eliminate most of the sand stone, and the products are usually used in rubber, plastic and paper-making. With dry process, it does not need the dehydration and drying processes. It will reduce the ash content running off, the technology process is short and cost is relative low. It is suitable to the dry and water-deficient area. However, to get the high purity and quality plagioclase, wet process is still the best choice.

We processing involve: hydraulic classification, flotation, magnetic separator and other ways to remove the different kinds of impurities. The preparation stage involves burdening, crushing and smashing. The pulp will be sent into washing box, flotation classifier in sequence to remove the sand. And then with the continuous centrifugal, water spiral separator and vibrating screen, the materials will be divided into coarse and fine mineral.

SBM is professional stone processing machine manufacturer from China. It has more than 20 years' production experience and high technology. The processing machine has advanced quality and high quality. Our processing machine is welcomed by the worldwide clients and it has brought high profits for stone processing businessmen.

The plagioclase processing machines mainly has crushing machine and grinding machines. The crushing machines include jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher, mobile crusher machines. The grinding machine mainly includes ball mill, Raymond mill and the other milling machines.

SBM's plagioclase crusher portable plant can be operated as independent units or as a two- or three-stage crushing application: from primary to secondary, tertiary and fine crushing. As required, a portable screen can be attached to the process.

SBM's plagioclase crusher portable plants are built around the proven SBM crushers, which are respected world-wide for their engineering quality, crushing efficiency, versatility and cost effectiveness. Lightweight and superior in engineering design, these crushers offer exceptional crushing performance. They are ideally suited to the most demanding portable crushing and screening applications. Take a closer look at SBM's plagioclase crusher portable plant series - it offers new possibilities in mobile crushing - always at the lowest cost per ton.

After crushing, the plagioclase material is ground in small mobile ball mill for plagioclase mining. There are a variety of different grinding mills, including rod and ball mills. In the grinding mills, the impact of the minerals grinding against each other and against the steel balls in the mill breaks down the size of the minerals even further. The mining process also includes a vibrating screen that sorts the crushed material into desired grain sizes. Rock material is extremely hard and thus it wears down the crushers and grinders. Therefore the wear parts, like the various blades and rotors and the liners of grinding mills, must be replaced regularly.

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