There are two different processes for manufacturing cement.wet process minerals are wet ground (by adding water) to form a slurry and then dried, dryprocess minerals are dry ground to form a powder-like substance. Both the processes are in use and have their own advantages and disadvantages. While in wet process grinding is easier, in the dry process there is a saving in fuel costs involved in drying up the slurry.
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The process, by which cement is manufactured, depends upon the technique adopted in the mixing of raw materials. Therefore, on the basis of mixing the raw materials, the processes may be classified as:-
(i) Drying Zones: In the wet process, the drying zone is comparatively larger than the dry process. It is because the raw material in slurry form is directly fed into the kiln which has more amount of water. As shown in the figure it is the upper portion of the kiln. In this zone, water is evaporated at a temperature of 100-400C.
(iii) Burning Zone:- The modules enter this zone where temperatures are kept about 1400-1500 C. The modules are converted into dark greenish balls and the product obtained in the kiln, known as clinker, is of varying size 5 to 20 mm. The clinkers are very hot when coming out of this zone.
Also, the gypsum is added during grinding about 2-4%. The gypsum acts as a retarder and so allows the cement to mix with sand or aggregate and to be placed in position. i.e. it increases the initial setting time of cement.
Burning and Grinding: These operations are the same as for the wet process. Except for the mixing of raw materials. In the dry process, the raw materials mixed, fined, and then fed into kiln whereas, in the wet process, the raw materials are crushed separately and then directly mixed in correct proportion in the presence of water to make a fine thin paste known as Slurry.