Fly ash is a fine powder that is a byproduct of burning pulverized coal in electric generation power plants. Fly ash is a pozzolan, a substance containing aluminous and siliceous material that forms cement in the presence of water. When mixed with lime and water, fly ash forms a compound similar to Portland cement.
Fly ash can be used as prime material in many cement-based products, such as poured concrete, concrete block, and brick. One of the most common uses of fly ash is in Portland cement concrete pavement or PCC pavement. Road construction projects using PCC can use a great deal of concrete, and substituting fly ash provides significant economic benefits.
NETZSCH is expanding its product portfolio with an agitator bead mill for the dry grinding of mineral and ceramic raw materials. The Pamir impresses with very high product fineness and high throughput rates with low specific energy consumption.
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Ash is a relatively easy wood to air dry, provided you bring down the surface moisture content quickly by ensuring that it has plenty of airflow during the first few weeks. This is essential because ash has very poor decay resistance and bluestains, if the surface is allowed to remain moist for very long.
The bad news is it is doubtful that even the 4/4 stock you intend to dry will be acceptably seasoned in only 6 months...espectially in a climate like Vermont's. The rule of thumb (which is only the crudest of guidelines anyway) is that a wood should be allowed to air dry one year for each inch of thickness. In reality, this varies anywhere from just a few months to well over a year, depending upon both the species of wood andthe climate.
I agree ash is a better wood for air drying, but 6 months would really depend on the climate wouldn't it? I'm also of the belief that any air dried wood should dry at least one full year at a minimumto go through the full range of seasons. Just my opinion here.
These "how soon will it dry" questions are hard to deal with. I guess sometimes there is a real timing problem that must be addressed, such as getting a project made from a special wood done in time to present it as a gift on a special date...But it sure does violate the primary axiom of air drying, i.e., THE WOOD WILL NEVER GET TOO DRY. This is one aspect of the woodworking craft where patience is the supreme virtue and overkill is virtually impossible.
Right on John. I think you nailed it in your original post in suggesting finding a kiln. The poster should also bear in mind if heshje goes this route to buy the kiln process to a predetermined moisture content, otherwise heshe will more then likely get the top end of the scale to make room in the kiln.
it'll dry just fine, and the color will be richer than kiln dried material - - remember, unless you are in anarid climate, your shed is likely not as dry as your house, so further movement might be expected....
Woodman, I'd second David D's comments on air dried walnut. Walnut has excellent drying characteristics. First, it's exceptionally decay resistant, so bluestaining isn't a problem. Second, it has a very low T/R ratio (the differential between its tangential and radial shrinkage, green to ovendry, is only 1.42 to 1) so it has a very low tendency to cup or distort while it seasons.
...But the big reward in air drying walnut is that the resulting stock is nicer than what you get when you buy walnut that has beencommercially presteamed and thenkiln dried. Air drying peserves some of the wood's very attractive red and purple highlights. They eventually fade with exposure to light, but they're pretty while they last. Also, the wood seems to retain a darker, rich brownheartwood color (as opposed to the slightly grayish hue KD walnut typically exhibits.) You have to trim off the sapwood, which is a little wasteful, but the remaining stock is much nicer. It even has a waxier feel, nicer scent, and better, less brittle, shaping characteristics.
Air dried walnut also bends better. This isn't a critical attribute in most cabinetmaking applications, but I make dulcimers, so it's an important plus for me. I'm not a purist when it comes to air drying everything, though. In fact, I use a lot of KD woods, which are better in some applications...but when it comes to walnut, I much prefer thoroughly air dried stock.
You might want to use some of this stock and try your hand at green chair building. You could end up with a nice chair and some valuable experience working green wood while you're waiting for the rest of the stock to dry sufficiently for casework.
while I agree with others comments about drying, design plays a part - - a simple carcase where thereis no cross grain structures (breadboard ends, for example) can shrink or swell with not much practical effect - - similarly, frame and panel doors minimize the effects of shrinkage opposed to solid panel doors - - - so it might be reasonable to stack and sticker your lumber inside thru this winter and make the center next spring and get by with it - - your 12/4 material should be quarter grained so as not to dry to an out of square condition as it would not be to equilibrium in a few months - - 1" ash should dry readily in a heated space over winter -
The advice the others have given are good, but their are things to consider when air drying. I'm a self employed furniture builderand I have air dried most of the lumber I use and have found that air dried lumber is more stable and with careful attention when stickering the lumber and weighting it down willprevent cupping and or warping, also the climate will be a big factor. Like the others asked , are you in a hurry to start building this project. Number one thing to think about is the direction of the wood going to be stacked? And why is this you say an important factor? The reason is , you don't stack the lumber so that the ends are facing the direction the wind comes from the most, The end should be coated with ether a heavy coat of paint orwax to prevent from checking,if this is not done you will loose at least 2" of lumber at each end, I use spray undercoating used for cars. Next your lumber should be stacked on ties or something strong enough to hold the weight load, 4" to 6" off the ground, I'm sure you know how to sticker lumber,so I won't go into detail on that, but I do put my sticks every 12"to 14" apart, some recommend 18" to 24". And I turn the lumber over every 3 to 6 months. Making sure the edge that was facing the west is now toward the east, then I cover the stack just on the top to keep the weather and rain off, and have it so the rain will run off on to grass or gravel , so the rain will not splash back up on your wood. I have air dried red oak, cherry, ash ,Maple and walnut this way. I even keep it stored out side this way,but I cover it even around the sides in the winter, I bring enough in the shop about 2 weeks before I use it in the winter. If you have any more questions , feel free to contact me: [emailprotected]
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The paper describes a study carried out to explore the potential for recovery of fly ash from wet-storage areas for use as an addition in concrete, and involved drying and processing material to achieve finer fractions/reduce particle size. Three relatively coarse fly ashes with medium/high carbon contents (loss-on-ignition; LOI) were obtained from two UK lagoons and a stockpile. Initially, drying (105C) and screening (600m) were carried out, giving acceptable handling properties. Thereafter, processing using (63m) sieving, air classifying or grinding was investigated. The methods gave increased fineness levels (greatest with grinding), with some reductions in LOI also found after sieving and air classifying. Assessment of fly ash reactivity indicated improvements with processing, and most noticeable effects by grinding. Tests on concrete found that both consistence (slump) and compressive (cube) strength increased with processing and tended to follow fly ash fineness. Further analysis showed that strength could be related to the sub 10m particle level in fly ash. This appeared to be irrespective of processing method, with progressive increases (in strength) up to sub 10m contents of about 60% (maximum in the study). Concrete tests for water absorption and intrinsic (air) permeability, carbonation and chloride diffusion showed that these were also influenced by fly ash sub 10m content. The factors affecting behaviour are discussed and practical implications of the research considered.
Intended to be integrated into a conventional closed or open dry grinding circuit, gyrotor air classifiers can also be utilized in a classification only system with cyclone, fabric filter, fan, and rotary air locks.
While sweet corn is the common choice for most gardeners (who doesnt love its rich, milky flavor?!), there are other types of corn readily available, of which I knew very little until 2 years ago. I was gifted a jarful of heirloom corn seed by a friend, was told it was grinding corn. I had never milled whole corn kernels, but as always, was happy to expand my learning! Later, I was informed that it was a Floriani Red Flint Corn.
You can read more about it in this Mother Earth News Article. Originally grown in Italy, it makes less of a yellow and more of a pink-tinted cornmeal or corn flour. Its wonderful in all kinds of baked goods! When milled into flour, it acts as a quick gravy thickener. Always looking for healthier alternatives to potato starch and not liking the flavor of most flours, I fell for this natural, home-grown alternative!
Because I had found a suitable use for this corn that didnt require planting an entire field to make it worthwhile, Ijust had to save some of the seeds! Into the soil they went that spring! Even though we had an exceptionally wet year, the corn did well and stalks averaged out at 7 ft in height.
I watered and watched their growth, was wondering about the outcome. Had I actually found something for my homemade gravies and stews? Or would the growing and cleaning process be too much? Being naive, I planted on single row (see year-end garden picture below) thinking to get corn for millingand shade for my red rock cabbages! When harvest came, some cobs were lined with even, full rows of kernels. Others had gaps in the kernels and I wondered why? It was then that I remembered: if planting corn, there ought to be at least several rows side by side (even if it means planting in a square block) for good pollination. Lesson learned! Id remember for next time!
Suddenly (as things always seem to happen in summer), I realized it must be getting close to harvest time! How did one go about drying the corn? And at what point does a person remove it from the cobs? This time, I followed my own advice about living lifewith others and showed reliance on a local gardener. Going back to the seed-giving friend, I asked for more details about the process. What did it boil down to? I was supposed to:
I did just that. Stripping the stalks of ears after they seemed quite dry on the plant (even in a northern climates they usually dry out before frost hits), I tossed the them into a gunny sack and lugged them up the hill to home. There, I promptly peeled back the husk and was surprised to find not a deep red, but instead a orange-yellow ear of corn. I discovered its the drying the deepens their color!
From brackets on the wall of an empty back room I hung my corn, the husks tied together with strips of cloth (Id recommend usingstring). The first time, I didnt tie them tight enough. As the husk dried out, the corn ears began slipping. One day they fell with a grand boom on the hardwood floor. I tied them tighter and re-hung to continue drying.
After Christmas, it was time. Pulling the ears down, I removed the dry, papery white husks. This accomplished, I began to remove the kernels. A deep red in color with slightly yellowing tips, they were beautiful and intriguing to look at!
Excited to learn, I began the work. I had no idea that corn was so rough on the hands! This particular type had tiny hook-like points at the end of each kernel. They can very quickly rub the hand raw! Leather gloves are a wonderful option!
Taking an ear of dried corn, I gripped it with both hand. Twisting one clockwise and the other, counter clockwise, kernels began popping off slowly at first, but then quicker as more of the cob was exposed. Id recommend keeping an eye open for mold if stored in a damp place. If corn didnt have proper ventilation, its entirely possible. The shelling was best done over a pan or large bowl to catch the falling kernels! If I were to have a corn shelling party, Id spread a cloth over the table and have each person work directly on the cloth. From there it could be easily scooped into containers.
Corn kernels can be successfully sent through the grain mill just as you would wheat or smaller grains. Be sure to open up grinders width as far as it will go! One cup of corn kernels will make approximately 2 1/4 C of corn flour. Approximately 1/2-3/4 C of flour will thicken 4-5 C broth into a delicious gravy!
Due to a critter problem we had to harvest our corn early before it was able to start drying on the stalk. Will we still be able to use this method of drying? Would love to salvage as much of our crop as possible but cannot risk the squirrels eating any more. Looking forward to your feedback. Thanks!
Your corn should still be fine. Husk the ears (or else theyll mold) and spread them out on a place with good airflow, leaving them to dry until you CANT dent the kernels with a fingernail. And then you can remove them from the cob!
So Id like to make some corn bread but Im so not sure my corn kernels are thoroughly dried yet. At the moment, the kernels are very very very hard and I cant dent them with a finger nail. They are still a bright yellow, though.
Hi there! Ive only ever used red corn for milling into flour, so Im not familiar with yellow field corn. It sounds quite dry. Try smashing a kernel and if it shatters, its definitely ready! The only thing Id worry about if it isnt fully dry is clogging your grinder. Good luck!
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The Vulcan Drying Systems Fly Ash Drying System is custom-designed and manufactured to suit the customer's individual project needs, whether it be stockpiled or retrieved from ash ponds. These drying systems consist of a rotary drum dryer with a burner. Sizing is designed to reduce air velocity and ash carryover. Vulcan Drying Systems Fly Ash Drying Systems are designed specifically to dry fly ash, making the material easy to transport, store and handle.
Fly ash is fed into the rotary dryer. After passing through the dryer, the dried material is discharged to a transfer conveyor for further sorting, separation, or storage. The vapor from the process is pulled through a which removes particulates from the vapor stream.
Fly ash is loaded into the conveyor hopper 1 of the optional incline conveyor 2 and is transported into the feed chute 3. Hot gases from the burner 4 fires into the rotary drum. 5 The dried material exits the system through the 6 knockout box and is discharged from the flap gate. 7 The vapor continues through duct work 8 to the baghouse 9for dust collection before being discharged through the 10exhaust stack.
As a result of industry trends, public scrutiny, government regulation, water constraints, etc., coal power plants domestically and internationallyare striving to eliminate their ash ponds and replace them with dry solutions. For those considering a transition from wet to dry ash handling, Vulcan Drying Systems can help.
Vulcan Drying Systems' Fly Ash Dryers are custom-designed and manufactured around the desired solids tonnage and the moisture content of the customer's individual project. Our technical team considers all the parameters: available space, budget, current and future fuel use, storage capacity, location, generation rate, routing, and aftermarket choices, such as marketing and resale.
Typically, drying systems include a rotary dryer consisting of a drum with a burner. Fly ash is fed into the rotary dryer, then discharged to a transfer conveyor for sorting and separation. The vapor from the process is pulled through a baghouse to remove fine particulates from the vapor stream.
The resulting dry fly ash is easier to store and transport, and road construction and concrete industries have increased the demand for this material. The sale of fly ash for concrete production is potentially an excellent ancillary profit source for your plant.
Fly ash is created by coal-fired power plans and electric utilities through the process of coal combustion. Most fly ash is disposed of in landfills or ash ponds, but in recent years, more plants have started or are looking into recycling fly ash for reuse, rather than storing it in landfills.
Improperly stored fly ash in landfills or ponds can leach out into the surrounding environment, causing pollution of the earth and groundwater. This issue is of significant concern because most coal-fired power plants are located near towns or major metropolitan areas, which means that the fly ash from their waste storage facilities can leak into the drinking water and cause health issues for the surrounding population.
Selling fly ash is a more environmentally friendly and cost-effective method of disposal than placing ash in a landfill or pond. Producers who recycle their fly ash for reuse will save money on disposal costs, avoid the concern of meeting state and federal disposal regulations and potentially make some money back through the sale of their treated product.
Fly ash can be used as an ingredient in many cement-based products, including poured concrete, concrete block and brick. One of the most common uses of fly ash is in Portland cement concrete pavement (PCC pavement). PCC pavement made from fly ash is a more affordable option for road crews as they can go through a lot of concrete.
Dried fly ash is easier to transport, store and handle than wet ash and can help producers more easily meet federal and state regulations for fly ash disposal. In addition, the sale of fly ash for concrete production can serve as an additional source of profit.