Quartz watch is one kind of wrist-watches, making the quartz crystal used in the clock is a modern invention. The first quartz watch appeared in 1969.The vibration frequency of quartz crystal per second up to 32768 times, we can design simple electric circuit to calculate the number of its vibration, when it counts to 32768, the circuit will spread the message and let the second hand go one second. This is the operating principle of the quartz watch, which has become the representative production of quartz exploitation.
Quartz is an inorganic mineral, which mainly composed of silica, it often contain a small amount of impurities such as Al2O3, CaO, MgO. Quartz is a translucent or opaque crystal, which has very stable physical and chemical properties. Generalized quartz also includes high temperature quartz, it is also known as silica quartz, which can be the material of Sweden refractory products. Quartz stone is the abbreviated form of a name which quartz stone panel manufacturers produced, it is based on the panel main component is quartz and content reaches above 93%. So we can make the bold forecast that quartz has a good prospect in the Swedish building materials market.
The first part of the crushing process is that quartz stone normally is delivered to the feeder and taken to the crusher uniform and continuous. After thecrushing process, quartz is turned to power which is normally 7.5 to 30 centimeters in diameter. The main equipment in quartz crushing exploitation is crusher which can be divided as jaw crusherimpact crusher, hammer crusher. Based on our analysis about quartz hardness and material, we recommend using PFW impact crusher. Impact crusher crushing effect mainly based on the design of cavity type: the first level counterattack plate adopt manganese steel in order to increase the quality and the crushing effect of bulk materials; the second stage counter at back as much as possible and the lower discharge outlet near the rotor horizontal line in order to enhance the shear of the crushing effect. PFW impact crusher has a great improvement in the structure design and must have a wonderful performance in Sweden quartz exploitation crushing plant.
Quartz powderproduction ways can be divided into dry and water two kinds, all kinds of conventional specifications include: 120M, 200M, 260M, 325M, 600M, 800M, 1000M and 2000M (M mesh). In addition,quartz powder can also be processed special specifications according to Sweden customer requirements; the size distribution of the general requirements can also be processed. Sweden quartz milling plant process as follows: quartz stone ore material turned into smaller stone after crushing process, after stone roller compacted into sand, water does not stop when rolling, and then through the vibration sieve, using a bar magnet and magnet iron removal in the screening process, the last part is finished storage and packaging. Quartz exploitation milling plant main equipment is SBM ball mill, whose working principle absolutely has certain contact with its name. Ball Mill is an efficient tool for grinding many materials into fine powder. There are two ways of grinding: the dry process and the wet process. It can be divided into tabular type and flowing type according to different forms of discharging material. In general, Ball Mill name is easy to remember and it is very popular in the Sweden Quartz powder market.
As the most responsible manufacturer which has been working on the crushing equipment and grinding equipment over the years, SBM has a wealth experience of quartz exploitation. We can provide high-efficiency machine to produce high quality quartz materials.
Its fully-enclosed layout features high integration. It integrates the functions of high-efficiency sand making, particle shape optimization, filler content control, gradation control, water content control, and environmental protection into a single syst
Mr. Trump has long proclaimed that he wants to halt offshoring by renegotiating unfair trade deals and pressuring US-based firms to repatriate their foreign operationsand, more importantly, foreign jobsback to the States.
It would be convenient to dismiss much of this as political posturing. The Trump campaignwas not alone in assigning blame to globalism, nor was it the first topoliticians from both parties tend to demonize trade deals rather than peddle their benefits. And despite the highly touted reversals by companies like Carrier and Ford, few would characterize a company-by-company shakedown as an effective way of weakening the forces of global trade.
In the wake of Brexit, ascendant European nationalism, and the US elections, much has been written about populisms threat to global trade growth and the international economic institutions established after the Second World War. There are a number of explanations for the turn inward. Many have blamed growing economic inequality within developed economiessome blame outsourcing or technological transition.
Others posit that a decline in inequality may be a motivating factor. Danny Quah, Professor of Economics at Singapores Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, and Kishore Mahbubani, the schools Dean, blame populisms rise on improved income equality across all nations. During the 1990s, a 70% income gap stood between emerging economies and the G7. That gap shrunk to under 14% in 2016 and will disappear by 2020.
Ordinary Americans careat a deep, instinctual levelthat they or at least their elected leaders, get to be in charge, and get to write the rules of the game, says Professor Quah. Others around the world are catching up to them, and what is now in the cards is a shared, genuinely global futureone where no nation is exceptional or indispensable.
Only time will determine the shape of this shift. Nonetheless, the current anti-global mood raises a few questions for Asia, which, at least until now, has largely benefited from globalization. If a return to mercantilism accelerates, and global trade slows, will Asia pivot? And if the West steps back from pushing international solutions, will others fill those shoes?
Theres an idea going around that emerging economies in Asia have grown only because Asians export to US consumers, and that consumption is too weak within Asia to support sustainable growth. But just as in every other economy, economists tell us, when disposable incomes grow, so will consumption.
Domestic demand has remained remarkably resilient throughout most of the region, supported by rising real incomes, says Changyong Rhee, Director of the Asia and Pacific Department at the IMF. External demand wont be helped by the death of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and Chinas rebalancing will continue to have ripple effects. But theres no denying that Asias economy will continue to play a major role in the global economy as its emerging and frontier markets continue to grow.
If the US turns inwardperhaps because it thinks trade is letting others win while it losesemerging Asia will seek out other security arrangements, predicts Professor Quah. Will China benefit from this new balance? It wont hurt China, no.
In fact, China, who would have been excluded from the TPP, will now have greater scope to boost trade with its regional partners. Asias trade channels run deep, and will only become stronger if initiatives like One Belt, One Road and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership are successful.
Even as it grows, Asias concentration of consumers and rapidly expanding markets will need infrastructure and industry to support them. At the same time, as Western neo-mercantilism takes shape, US companies will have to decide what their role will look like.
In an interview with the Wall Street Journal, John Dulchinos, VP of digital manufacturing at Jabil, supplier to companies like Apple and Electrolux SA, says In no other country can you scale up so quickly. You have the ability to move quickly and theres a really strong electronics supply chain in Asia centered around China.
Whether US or Asian, industries that succeed will be those that dont pit humans against machines but use the latters speed and precision to let humans perform better. Asia has learned that lessonits the global hub for advanced manufacturing and sophisticated logistics.
Whats more, China is now the worlds largest consumer market for smartphones and other gadgets. And regardless of East or West, shrewd businesses will always look to capitalize on the opportunities available to them. Asia holds many.
Chinas transformation into the worlds manufacturing powerhouse has been remarkable. When it joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, it was a minor player on the global manufacturing stage. But after years of reforming its economy around producing goods for export, its formal entrance to the WTO helped its output soar. In the years since, it has offered itself up as the worlds low-cost factory, making labor-intensive products such as textiles, toys, clothes, footwear, and furniture for companies, and ultimately consumers, around the globe.
These industries were a springboard, allowing China to develop economically and move into more advanced production of items such as electronics, as they were for economies such as Hong Kong and South Korea before. With education and wages on the rise, shrinking its cost advantage, China now wants to focus on higher-end manufacturing, lean on domestic consumption to fuel its economy, and leave the work of cranking out cheap, labor-intensive goods to others.
Its a question Gordon Hanson, a professor of economics at the Harvard Kennedy School, tackled in a recent working paper for the National Bureau of Economic Research. Right now, theres no clear answer. After reviewing the candidates best-positioned to take Chinas place, and examining whether China itself might keep the rolealbeit with some important changeshe reaffirms just how confounding a question it is. Who will fill Chinas shoes remains something of a puzzle, he admits.
China looks to have already peaked as a maker of labor-intensive goods. Hanson focuses his analysis on 10 products, including textiles, clothing, footwear, sporting goods, scooters, toys, and fixtures and fittings used in sectors such as sanitation, heating, and lighting. He finds Chinas share of world exports for these items reached their height in 2013 at 39.3% and declined to 31.6% by 2018. This form of manufacturing isnt likely to pick up again either, he notes, given factors such as the slowing growth of Chinas labor force and climbing rates of college education.
Perhaps the most obvious contenders to fill the opening are emerging export economies in Asia, namely India, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. But only Bangladesh, Cambodia, and Vietnam have seen significant growth in their global share of labor-intensive exports in the past two decades. Bangladesh, for one, has grown into the worlds second-largest clothing exporter because of its low costs, while Vietnam has become a favorite alternative to China for producing sneakers and textiles.
Bangladesh and Vietnam have seen the most rapid growth, Hanson says. If you had to say whos the next China, its them. The problem is theyre just not nearly big enough to fully take over production in the way that China did from East Asia in the 1990s. Their combined populations total about 260 millionless than 20% of Chinas 1.4 billionand when factoring in economic productivity, they shrink beside China even further. With Cambodia, they make up less than 8% of labor-intensive exports globally, according to Hansons analysis.
The case isnt any more compelling for candidates in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East, such as Romania, Poland, Morocco, Tunisia, and Turkey. The largest exporter of the group, Turkey, hasnt notably increased its share of labor-intensive exports for years.
Its possible labor-intensive manufacturing could remain in China but undergo great changes. Technology, and automationin particular, offers the promise of robots doing the laborious work while humans concentrate on more skilled pursuits. China, in fact, is one of the global leaders in using industrial robots. But its adoption of them has primarily been in sectors such as cars and electronics. It hasnt shown much motivation in using this technology for low-cost goods, perhaps because of its still quite large supply of cheap labor.
There are also limits on the technology itself. Soft, pliable materials such as fabric can be difficult for robots to handle, making jobs such as putting laces into sneakers exceedingly difficult to automate. While some companies are making progress on this front, automation isnt imminently poised to revolutionize how many labor-intensive goods are made.
There is another possibility Hanson considers. China is unevenly developed, with most of its labor-intensive manufacturing concentrated in big cities. That industry could fan out to other parts of the country. In such an event, China would end up replacing itself, Hanson writes. A similar development occurred in the US after World War II, when manufacturing migrated from the more traditional urban hubs to smaller cities around the country, enabled by the spread of interstate highways.
In China, however, firms havent been eager to move en masse from their coastal hubs to interior cities, where the scarcity of industrial infrastructure could potentially curb their productivity. Efforts by Chinas government to encourage manufacturers to move to these areas have had limited success. One can make an economic case that China may be on the brink of major changes in its spatial distribution of manufacturing, Hanson writes, but evidence of it actually taking place is hard to find.
Despite supply chain leadersactively working to expand their sourcing beyond China and companies in industries such as fashion exploring the possibility of producing items closer to their end consumers in Europe and the US, many still find it difficult and prohibitively expensive to abandon China. The manufacturing infrastructure remains unmatched and quality for the price competitive. It has given rise to the China Plus One strategy, where companies keep the bulk of their manufacturing in China but diversify some share to a country such as Vietnam.
Hansons paper doesnt go into the consequences, but he says one effect might be higher costs for products such as clothing and footwearfor companies and, by extension, consumers. Weve gotten used to very low prices in these goods, and I dont know if we fully appreciate how much the price of these goods relative to other goods has declined over the past 20 years, he says. Fast fashion is a consequence of Chinas rise.
Companies will probably continue to experiment with their sourcing too. We think about innovation as being about creating new products or new ways of producing goods, but changing the location where you produce something is another form of innovation, Hanson says. Its new. Its risky. Youre unsure how all the pieces will fit together. That experimentation process of figuring things out can take a while.
While it generally takes time for a new paradigm to become clear, once it does, its often quick to take over. Its the typical S-curve pattern used to describe how innovation spreads. It may not be evident at present who or where the next China is, but that doesnt mean the answer wont ever emerge. When it does, industries will react. That, after all, is how China went from a minor manufacturer to the worlds factory in so short a time.