Deposit TypesThe Haib copper deposit is a rare example of a Precambrian porphyry copper. Porphyry copper deposits are a major world source of copper (also molybdenum, silver and gold) with the best known examples being concentrated around the Pacific rim, in North America, South America, and areas such as the Philippines. Most of these deposits are relatively young, of Tertiary or Cretaceous age. The Haib deposit, which has many characteristics in common with these porphyry coppers, is very much older, being formed within Proterozoic rocks.MiniralizationThe Haib deposit is in essence a very large volume of rock containing copper mineralisation. The grade is variable from higher grade in the three core zones (possibly averaging >0.4%) progressively dropping towards the margin of the deposit. The area in which mineralisation has been identified equates approximately to the outer ring of the GFM 22 year pit design. This gives a pit size of 2200x1250x400 metres equating to some 1300 million tons of mineralised rock. The deposit is still partially open to the west (at surface) and to the south at depth.Mineralisation is not confined to any specific units although the quartz feldspar porphyry tends to contain the three higher grade zones. Mineralisation is clearly secondary and post-dates the formation of the original volcanic pile. Mineralisation is widespread throughout although frequently associated with fractures and joints.The principal sulfides within the Haib body are pyrite and chalcopyrite with minor molybdenite. Bornite, digenite, chalcocite and covellite are also occasionally recorded. There is no major development of a supergene zone, probably due to high rates of erosion associated with the Orange River canyons. Near surface oxidation has led to the formation of malachite, azurite, chrysocolla, minor cuprite and chalcocite, generally along fracture. Oxide copper rarely extends to depths in excess of 30 metres on these fracture zones. While the oxide zone volumetrically represents a fairly minor proportion of the deposit, grades are significantly above average giving the potential for some leachable copper from the oxide material. These portions of the deposit have not been examined in detail and there is significant potential to improve their volume and grade. In addition, there is a variable thickness of transition zone generated over large parts of the deposit, between the surface and a pure sulfide (un-oxidised) zone of some 10-20 metres thickness. Sulfide minerals are disseminated within the rockmass and found concentrated in blebs and along veinlets and fractures. Significant mineralization commonly occurs along joint planes. Gold, silver and molybdenum are trace constituents associated with the copper mineralisation. Molybdenite is occasionally seen as disseminated flakes and veinlets associated with other sulfides and in minor shears and quartz veins. Assaying for gold, silver and molybdenum was not routinely conducted on drill samples but has been carried out on composite samples prepared for metallurgical testing, giving an approximate indication of the likely values. Values determined were: -0.02 g/t gold; 0.9 g/t silver; and 25 g/t molybdenum.
Considering the Haib copper deposit characteristics, the suitable mine design is based on an open pit method. As the deposit is basically composed by hard rock material, the mining operations will involve drill and blast of all excavated material, which will be segregated by cut-off grade. The mining fleet considered being suitable for the Haib project would most likely consist of between 80t and 120t sized hydraulic excavators, off highway dump trucks with a capacity of between 65t to 90t, supported by standard open-cut drilling and auxiliary equipment.Bench DesignThe height of the mining benches is usually determined according to physical characteristics of the mineralisation and its impact on selectivity and dilution control. Both mineralised material and waste could be drilled and blasted on standard 5m benches for primary crusher feed and possibly 10m benches for waste, and then mined by hydraulic excavators; nominally ranging from two 3m high faces to three 4m high faces, taking into account blast induced swell, into rear dump and off highway haul trucks. The number of flitches to mine a bench will be dependent on the selectivity required and the size of the excavator used.Load HaulThere is no estimative yet of the total material movement at the project. However, considering the amount of ROM to be processed it is most likely that the ore will be directly dipped into the ROM feed bin and likely to be proposed by contract miner using a combination of 220t and 360t off-highway dump trucks. The high grade ore will be transported by trucks to the rum-of-mine (ROM) stockpile, which will be nearby the primary crusher. The distance between the pit and the plant will be established considering further topographic studies and the final mine pit design.Stockpiling and ReclaimingIt is suggested that the material which does not match with the quality standard grade and is unable to be directly dumped into the crushing circuit be placed in an appropriate stockpile for processing at a later time if it is profitable. The ROM will be stockpiled directly adjacent to the primary crusher and rehandled with a wheel loader that will dump material into a ROM bin, which feeds the gyratory cone crusher.Pit Dewatering and DrainageIn the extreme south of Namibia, in summer the rainfall is associated with occasional thunder storms and is of short duration, but can be of very high intensity. Due of that, engineered surface water management structures are suggested to minimize effects of storm water run-on to critical mine facilities and to control the release of mine-impacted water to the environment.
Crushing and Ore Handling - 8.5 MtaRun of Mine (ROM) ore is transported by truck from the mine to the ROM stockpile area near the crushing plant. The material is transferred to a ROM bin, which feeds to a primary crusher. The primary crusher is a gyratory crusher suited to higher crushing capacities. The closed side setting (CSS) of the gyratory crusher is expected to be set at 160 mm with an assumed P80 of 137 mm to be produced. The output of the gyratory crusher is discharged into a surge vault where it will be directed to a primary crusher discharge conveyor via an apron feeder. The gyratory crusher product is then transferred to a diverter chute which will distribute the material into two streams that feed two cone crushers feed bins in parallel. The cone crusher feed bins discharge will be withdrawn using cone crusher vibrating feeders (100-FE-02/03)into the cone crushers. The cone crushers have a CSS of 32 mm, with an expected product P80 of 40 mm. The cone crusher product will be fed to a screen in which the oversize is directed to the primary crusher discharge conveyor and recycled to cone crusher feed bins whilst the undersize is conveyed to a crushed ore stockpile via a screen undersize discharge conveyor. The crushed ore stockpile is reclaimed and conveyed to a HPGR feed stockpile locating at the processing plant by a long distance conveyor. The HPGR feed stockpile ore is reclaimed via apron feeders and stockpile discharge conveyors. The ore is then transferred via the HPGR feed conveyor and is discharged onto a diverter chute to feed the grinding circuit. The tertiary crushing circuit consists of two high pressure grinding rolls (HGPR) in parallel. The diverter chute will distribute the ore into two HPGR feed bins. The HPGRs will then be fed via vibrating feeders via a conveyor belt with a metal detection system to protect the roll surface from tramp metal damage. The HPGR target crush size is 5 mm. The product is in closed circuit with two double deck banana screens and produces two size fractions. The oversize material is recycled back to the HPGR feed conveyors and the undersize fraction stream reports to agglomeration through the screen undersize discharge conveyor. HPGR introduces micro-cracking that improves leach kinetics, allowing for maximum metal extraction during the heap leach process.Due to the unrealistically long project life, it was suggested to start at 8.5 Mtpa and operate at this throughput for approximately 3 years and then execute staged expansions to eventually ramp up to 20 Mtpa, ultimately shortening the project life. As the resource expands and the inferred data progresses towards measured, then additional expansion to possibly 40+ Mtpa should be assessed.Crushing and Ore Handling - 20 Mtpa Run of Mine (ROM) ore is transported by truck from the mine and is discharged into a ROM bin, which feeds to a primary crusher. The primary crusher is a gyratory crusher suited to higher crushing capacities. The closed side setting (CSS) of the gyratory crusher is expected to be set at 177 mm with an assumed P80 of 150 mm to be produced. The output of the gyratory crusher is discharged into a surge vault where it will be directed to a primary crusher discharge conveyor via an apron feeder. The gyratory crusher product is then transferred to a tripper feed conveyor which will distribute the material into five secondary crusher feed bins in parallel. The cone crusher feed bins discharge will be withdrawn using the cone crusher vibrating feeders feeding into the cone crushers. The cone crushers have a CSS of 25 mm, with an expected product P80 of 31 mm. The cone crusher product will be fed to three screens in which the oversize is directed to the primary crusher discharge conveyor and recycled to cone crusher feed bins whilst the undersize is conveyed to a crushed ore stockpile via a screen undersize discharge conveyor. The crushed ore stockpile is conveyed to a HPGR feed stockpile locating at the processing plant by a long distance conveyor. The HPGR feed stockpile ore is reclaimed via apron feeders and stockpile discharge conveyors. The ore is then transferred via the HPGR feed conveyor and is discharged onto a diverter chute to feed the grinding circuit. The grinding circuit is consisted of two HGPRs in parallel. The diverter chute will distribute the ore into two HPGR feed bins. The HPGRs will then be fed via vibrating feeders. The HPGR target crush size is 5 mm. The product is in closed circuit with four double deck banana screens and produces two size fractions. The oversize material is recycled back to the HPGR feed conveyors and the undersize fraction stream reports to agglomeration through the screen undersize discharge conveyor. HPGR introduces micro-cracking that improves leach kinetics, allowing for maximum metal extraction during the heap leach process.
In this updated PEA report, only whole ore heap leaching was considered for the recovery of copper from the Haib deposit. The primary reason for the selection of heap leaching is the low grade nature of the deposit and the vast scale of the ore body. The flowsheet development was based on the measured and indicated resource of 456.9 Mt at 0.31% copper. The throughputs of the project are based on 8.5 Mtpa and 20 Mtpa, which corresponded to a project life of 55 years and 24 years respectively. Each throughput scenario has considered two copper recoveries; 80% copper recovery and 85% copper recovery. The flowsheet and subsequent mass balance,equipment sizing and capital estimate calculations were performed based on the following cases:- Option 1: 8.5 Mtpa with 80%copper recovery with CuSO4(base case)- Option 2: 8.5 Mtpa with 85%copper recovery - Option 3: 8.5 Mtpa with 85%copper recovery with CuSO4- Option 4: 20 Mtpa with 80%copper recovery with CuSO4
Copper is a major metal and an essential element used by man. It is found in ore deposits around the world. It is also the oldest metal known to man and was first discovered and used about 10,000 years ago.
Copper mineral is widespread all over the world, large copper deposits are found in Chile, United States, Mexico, Indonesia, Peru, Sweden etc. According to globally developing trends, copper is a main and prominent source of energy.
Currently, most of the available copper appears to be distributed over large areas, mixed with mineralizedmaterials and rock.There are a great number of compounds that contain copper, which are mainly classified in two groups: These are the porphyry deposits, which could only be exploited when metallurgical skills to separate and recover the metal were developed.
Due to its importance in human life, copper production technology has been highly developed. There are several different technics involved in copper production process. Mainly copper goes through different stages and degrees of refinement, to a lesser extent the byproducts such as molybdenum, sulfuric acid and precious metals that come with copper in the ore. Following are main stages in copper production process, after these processing operations, copper concentrates will be obtained.
Crushing is the first size reduction stage in copper production operation; it aims to reduce the large lumps of raw materials into small particles preparing for further operation. Large raw copper ore are fed to the jaw crusher evenly and gradually by vibrating feeder through a hopper for primary crushing. After primary crushing, the material will transferred to cone crusher by belt conveyor for secondary crushing; the crushed copper ore stone will then transferred to vibrating screen for separating.
After separating, the parts that can meet standard will be transferred away as final products, while the other parts will be returned to cone crusher, thus forming a closed circuit. Size of final products can be combined and graded according to your specific requirement. SBM is specialized in manufacture crushing machine. We provide various types of quarry and processing crushing plant for sale.
With this degree of hardness, it was necessary to restructure the crushing stage to reduce the top size of feed material to the grinding process, and increase the treatment flow of the plant. Two alternatives copper ore crushing production line were proposed and tested on the plant site. These were:
Primary gyratory crusher, secondary impact crusher, tertiary cone crusher, vibrating screen etc. Primary jaw crusher, secondary cone crusher, tertiary VSI crusher, belt conveyor, vibrating screen etc.
In copper processing operation, many copper crushing processes are operated by mobile crusher machine. The innovative design of mobile copper crusher machine offers owners the highest possible fatigue strength, truly mobility and flexibility, excellent reliability and numerous mounting possibilities.
Due to its hardness, the copper ore may require as much as a tertiary crushing.Jaw crusher, impact crusher, or gyratory crushers are usually used for initial reduction. The primary crushed stone that is too large to pass through the top deck of the vibrating screen is processed in the secondary crusher, such as impact crusher or cone crusher. Tertiary crushing is usually performed using cone crushers or other types of impact crushers.Copper crushing requires high quality crusher machine for producing even particle size. Some crushing operation will apply VSI crusher for copper processing.
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Thirdly, the stones which meet requirement of finished products will be transferred to finished products pile, while the others will be sent back to cone crusher or impact crusher by belt conveyor for crushing again.
Main characteristic of this plan is that it adopts advanced muti-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher. This makes fine products take a bigger proportion. 80% of the finals can be smaller than the size of discharge opening. It will obviously increase processing capacity and decrease general energy cost. Add reshaping equipment to the secondary crusher can assure the quality and shape of the final products on one hand; on the other, some sands can be chose for other usage. The efficiency of the whole line is very high. Working life of easy-worn parts is long. Continuous operating time of the equipment is longer, and it is easy maintenance. Its general economic profits are higher than the traditional plan.
This plan adopts high efficiency DL cone crusher and it makes fine products take a bigger proportion. It reduces secondary crushing and gets much more final products. Add reshaping equipment to the secondary crusher can assure the quality and shape of the final products on one hand; on the other, some sands can be chose for other usage. Working life of easy-worn parts of the whole production line is long. It has the feature of easy maintenance, less investment at one time, smaller operating cost and higher general economic profits.
This plan is mainly suitable for processing hard material, like granite. Since the secondary crusher is hydraulic equipment, it has the feature of easy maintenance, less investment at one time, simple flow process, easy to operate. It is widely used in the industry which produces mixed materials or there is lower requirement to shape of the materials. This line has the features of combining with few types of equipment, easy maintenance, and in-discrete structure. It is suitable for any scale of investment due to smaller floor space requirement.
This plan is suitable for processing hard materials, like granite. Comparing with the same scale plans, the obvious feature of this plan is smaller investment at one time, simple flow process, easy operating and maintenance. The easy-worn parts using is fewer. Its economic profits are higher while manufacturing cost is lower.
This crusher plant is mainly suitable for processing soft materials, like limestone. Comparing with the same scale plans, the obvious feature of this plan is smaller investment at one time, simple flow process, easy operating and maintenance. This line can produce good final products with nice shape materials. It is widely used as a traditional economic plan.
Jaw crushers, cone crushers, horizontal impact crushers, vertical shaft impact crushers, vibrating screens, vibrating feeders, Rod mills and Ball Mills are our typical crushing equipment. Mobile crusher such as Mobile Jaw Crusher, Portable Rock Crusher (Mobile crawler type, track mounted and wheel mounted) are available for various mining quarry businesses.