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ball mills

ball mills

In all ore dressing and milling Operations, including flotation, cyanidation, gravity concentration, and amalgamation, the Working Principle is to crush and grind, often with rob mill & ball mills, the ore in order to liberate the minerals. In the chemical and process industries, grinding is an important step in preparing raw materials for subsequent treatment.In present day practice, ore is reduced to a size many times finer than can be obtained with crushers. Over a period of many years various fine grinding machines have been developed and used, but the ball mill has become standard due to its simplicity and low operating cost.

A ball millefficiently operated performs a wide variety of services. In small milling plants, where simplicity is most essential, it is not economical to use more than single stage crushing, because the Steel-Head Ball or Rod Mill will take up to 2 feed and grind it to the desired fineness. In larger plants where several stages of coarse and fine crushing are used, it is customary to crush from 1/2 to as fine as 8 mesh.

Many grinding circuits necessitate regrinding of concentrates or middling products to extremely fine sizes to liberate the closely associated minerals from each other. In these cases, the feed to the ball mill may be from 10 to 100 mesh or even finer.

Where the finished product does not have to be uniform, a ball mill may be operated in open circuit, but where the finished product must be uniform it is essential that the grinding mill be used in closed circuit with a screen, if a coarse product is desired, and with a classifier if a fine product is required. In most cases it is desirable to operate the grinding mill in closed circuit with a screen or classifier as higher efficiency and capacity are obtained. Often a mill using steel rods as the grinding medium is recommended, where the product must have the minimum amount of fines (rods give a more nearly uniform product).

Often a problem requires some study to determine the economic fineness to which a product can or should be ground. In this case the 911Equipment Company offers its complete testing service so that accurate grinding mill size may be determined.

Until recently many operators have believed that one particular type of grinding mill had greater efficiency and resulting capacity than some other type. However, it is now commonly agreed and accepted that the work done by any ballmill depends directly upon the power input; the maximum power input into any ball or rod mill depends upon weight of grinding charge, mill speed, and liner design.

The apparent difference in capacities between grinding mills (listed as being the same size) is due to the fact that there is no uniform method of designating the size of a mill, for example: a 5 x 5 Ball Mill has a working diameter of 5 inside the liners and has 20 per cent more capacity than all other ball mills designated as 5 x 5 where the shell is 5 inside diameter and the working diameter is only 48 with the liners in place.

Ball-Rod Mills, based on 4 liners and capacity varying as 2.6 power of mill diameter, on the 5 size give 20 per cent increased capacity; on the 4 size, 25 per cent; and on the 3 size, 28 per cent. This fact should be carefully kept in mind when determining the capacity of a Steel- Head Ball-Rod Mill, as this unit can carry a greater ball or rod charge and has potentially higher capacity in a given size when the full ball or rod charge is carried.

A mill shorter in length may be used if the grinding problem indicates a definite power input. This allows the alternative of greater capacity at a later date or a considerable saving in first cost with a shorter mill, if reserve capacity is not desired. The capacities of Ball-Rod Mills are considerably higher than many other types because the diameters are measured inside the liners.

The correct grinding mill depends so much upon the particular ore being treated and the product desired, that a mill must have maximum flexibility in length, type of grinding medium, type of discharge, and speed.With the Ball-Rod Mill it is possible to build this unit in exact accordance with your requirements, as illustrated.

To best serve your needs, the Trunnion can be furnished with small (standard), medium, or large diameter opening for each type of discharge. The sketch shows diagrammatic arrangements of the four different types of discharge for each size of trunnion opening, and peripheral discharge is described later.

Ball-Rod Mills of the grate discharge type are made by adding the improved type of grates to a standard Ball-Rod Mill. These grates are bolted to the discharge head in much the same manner as the standard headliners.

The grates are of alloy steel and are cast integral with the lifter bars which are essential to the efficient operation of this type of ball or rod mill. These lifter bars have a similar action to a pump:i. e., in lifting the product so as to discharge quickly through the mill trunnion.

These Discharge Grates also incorporate as an integral part, a liner between the lifters and steel head of the ball mill to prevent wear of the mill head. By combining these parts into a single casting, repairs and maintenance are greatly simplified. The center of the grate discharge end of this mill is open to permit adding of balls or for adding water to the mill through the discharge end.

Instead of being constructed of bars cast into a frame, Grates are cast entire and have cored holes which widen toward the outside of the mill similar to the taper in grizzly bars. The grate type discharge is illustrated.

The peripheral discharge type of Ball-Rod Mill is a modification of the grate type, and is recommended where a free gravity discharge is desired. It is particularly applicable when production of too many fine particles is detrimental and a quick pass through the mill is desired, and for dry grinding.

The drawings show the arrangement of the peripheral discharge. The discharge consists of openings in the shell into which bushings with holes of the desired size are inserted. On the outside of the mill, flanges are used to attach a stationary discharge hopper to prevent pulp splash or too much dust.

The mill may be operated either as a peripheral discharge or a combination or peripheral and trunnion discharge unit, depending on the desired operating conditions. If at any time the peripheral discharge is undesirable, plugs inserted into the bushings will convert the mill to a trunnion discharge type mill.

Unless otherwise specified, a hard iron liner is furnished. This liner is made of the best grade white iron and is most serviceable for the smaller size mills where large balls are not used. Hard iron liners have a much lower first cost.

Electric steel, although more expensive than hard iron, has advantage of minimum breakage and allows final wear to thinner section. Steel liners are recommended when the mills are for export or where the source of liner replacement is at a considerable distance.

Molychrome steel has longer wearing qualities and greater strength than hard iron. Breakage is not so apt to occur during shipment, and any size ball can be charged into a mill equipped with molychrome liners.

Manganese liners for Ball-Rod Mills are the world famous AMSCO Brand, and are the best obtainable. The first cost is the highest, but in most cases the cost per ton of ore ground is the lowest. These liners contain 12 to 14% manganese.

The feed and discharge trunnions are provided with cast iron or white iron throat liners. As these parts are not subjected to impact and must only withstand abrasion, alloys are not commonly used but can be supplied.

Gears for Ball-Rod Mills drives are furnished as standard on the discharge end of the mill where they are out of the way of the classifier return, scoop feeder, or original feed. Due to convertible type construction the mills can be furnished with gears on the feed end. Gear drives are available in two alternative combinations, which are:

All pinions are properly bored, key-seated, and pressed onto the steel countershaft, which is oversize and properly keyseated for the pinion and drive pulleys or sheaves. The countershaft operates on high grade, heavy duty, nickel babbitt bearings.

Any type of drive can be furnished for Ball-Rod Mills in accordance with your requirements. Belt drives are available with pulleys either plain or equipped with friction clutch. Various V- Rope combinations can also be supplied.

The most economical drive to use up to 50 H. P., is a high starting torque motor connected to the pinion shaft by means of a flat or V-Rope drive. For larger size motors the wound rotor (slip ring) is recommended due to its low current requirement in starting up the ball mill.

Should you be operating your own power plant or have D. C. current, please specify so that there will be no confusion as to motor characteristics. If switches are to be supplied, exact voltage to be used should be given.

Even though many ores require fine grinding for maximum recovery, most ores liberate a large percentage of the minerals during the first pass through the grinding unit. Thus, if the free minerals can be immediately removed from the ball mill classifier circuit, there is little chance for overgrinding.

This is actually what has happened wherever Mineral Jigs or Unit Flotation Cells have been installed in the ball mill classifier circuit. With the installation of one or both of these machines between the ball mill and classifier, as high as 70 per cent of the free gold and sulphide minerals can be immediately removed, thus reducing grinding costs and improving over-all recovery. The advantage of this method lies in the fact that heavy and usually valuable minerals, which otherwise would be ground finer because of their faster settling in the classifier and consequent return to the grinding mill, are removed from the circuit as soon as freed. This applies particularly to gold and lead ores.

Ball-Rod Mills have heavy rolled steel plate shells which are arc welded inside and outside to the steel heads or to rolled steel flanges, depending upon the type of mill. The double welding not only gives increased structural strength, but eliminates any possibility of leakage.

Where a single or double flanged shell is used, the faces are accurately machined and drilled to template to insure perfect fit and alignment with the holes in the head. These flanges are machined with male and female joints which take the shearing stresses off the bolts.

The Ball-Rod Mill Heads are oversize in section, heavily ribbed and are cast from electric furnace steel which has a strength of approximately four times that of cast iron. The head and trunnion bearings are designed to support a mill with length double its diameter. This extra strength, besides eliminating the possibility of head breakage or other structural failure (either while in transit or while in service), imparts to Ball-Rod Mills a flexibility heretofore lacking in grinding mills. Also, for instance, if you have a 5 x 5 mill, you can add another 5 shell length and thus get double the original capacity; or any length required up to a maximum of 12 total length.

On Type A mills the steel heads are double welded to the rolled steel shell. On type B and other flanged type mills the heads are machined with male and female joints to match the shell flanges, thus taking the shearing stresses from the heavy machine bolts which connect the shell flanges to the heads.

The manhole cover is protected from wear by heavy liners. An extended lip is provided for loosening the door with a crow-bar, and lifting handles are also provided. The manhole door is furnished with suitable gaskets to prevent leakage.

The mill trunnions are carried on heavy babbitt bearings which provide ample surface to insure low bearing pressure. If at any time the normal length is doubled to obtain increased capacity, these large trunnion bearings will easily support the additional load. Trunnion bearings are of the rigid type, as the perfect alignment of the trunnion surface on Ball-Rod Mills eliminates any need for the more expensive self-aligning type of bearing.

The cap on the upper half of the trunnion bearing is provided with a shroud which extends over the drip flange of the trunnion and effectively prevents the entrance of dirt or grit. The bearing has a large space for wool waste and lubricant and this is easily accessible through a large opening which is covered to prevent dirt from getting into the bearing.Ball and socket bearings can be furnished.

Scoop Feeders for Ball-Rod Mills are made in various radius sizes. Standard scoops are made of cast iron and for the 3 size a 13 or 19 feeder is supplied, for the 4 size a 30 or 36, for the 5 a 36 or 42, and for the 6 a 42 or 48 feeder. Welded steel scoop feeders can, however, be supplied in any radius.

The correct size of feeder depends upon the size of the classifier, and the smallest feeder should be used which will permit gravity flow for closed circuit grinding between classifier and the ball or rod mill. All feeders are built with a removable wearing lip which can be easily replaced and are designed to give minimum scoop wear.

A combination drum and scoop feeder can be supplied if necessary. This feeder is made of heavy steel plate and strongly welded. These drum-scoop feeders are available in the same sizes as the cast iron feeders but can be built in any radius. Scoop liners can be furnished.

The trunnions on Ball-Rod Mills are flanged and carefully machined so that scoops are held in place by large machine bolts and not cap screws or stud bolts. The feed trunnion flange is machined with a shoulder for insuring a proper fit for the feed scoop, and the weight of the scoop is carried on this shoulder so that all strain is removed from the bolts which hold the scoop.

High carbon steel rods are recommended, hot rolled, hot sawed or sheared, to a length of 2 less than actual length of mill taken inside the liners. The initial rod charge is generally a mixture ranging from 1.5 to 3 in diameter. During operation, rod make-up is generally the maximum size. The weights per lineal foot of rods of various diameters are approximately: 1.5 to 6 lbs.; 2-10.7 lbs.; 2.5-16.7 lbs.; and 3-24 lbs.

Forged from the best high carbon manganese steel, they are of the finest quality which can be produced and give long, satisfactory service. Data on ball charges for Ball-Rod Mills are listed in Table 5. Further information regarding grinding balls is included in Table 6.

Rod Mills has a very define and narrow discharge product size range. Feeding a Rod Mill finer rocks will greatly impact its tonnage while not significantly affect its discharge product sizes. The 3.5 diameter rod of a mill, can only grind so fine.

Crushers are well understood by most. Rod and Ball Mills not so much however as their size reduction actions are hidden in the tube (mill). As for Rod Mills, the image above best expresses what is going on inside. As rocks is feed into the mill, they are crushed (pinched) by the weight of its 3.5 x 16 rods at one end while the smaller particles migrate towards the discharge end and get slightly abraded (as in a Ball Mill) on the way there.

We haveSmall Ball Mills for sale coming in at very good prices. These ball mills are relatively small, bearing mounted on a steel frame. All ball mills are sold with motor, gears, steel liners and optional grinding media charge/load.

Ball Mills or Rod Mills in a complete range of sizes up to 10 diameter x20 long, offer features of operation and convertibility to meet your exactneeds. They may be used for pulverizing and either wet or dry grindingsystems. Mills are available in both light-duty and heavy-duty constructionto meet your specific requirements.

All Mills feature electric cast steel heads and heavy rolled steelplate shells. Self-aligning main trunnion bearings on large mills are sealedand internally flood-lubricated. Replaceable mill trunnions. Pinion shaftbearings are self-aligning, roller bearing type, enclosed in dust-tightcarrier. Adjustable, single-unit soleplate under trunnion and drive pinionsfor perfect, permanent gear alignment.

Ball Mills can be supplied with either ceramic or rubber linings for wet or dry grinding, for continuous or batch type operation, in sizes from 15 x 21 to 8 x 12. High density ceramic linings of uniform hardness male possible thinner linings and greater and more effective grinding volume. Mills are shipped with liners installed.

Complete laboratory testing service, mill and air classifier engineering and proven equipment make possible a single source for your complete dry-grinding mill installation. Units available with air swept design and centrifugal classifiers or with elevators and mechanical type air classifiers. All sizes and capacities of units. Laboratory-size air classifier also available.

A special purpose batch mill designed especially for grinding and mixing involving acids and corrosive materials. No corners mean easy cleaning and choice of rubber or ceramic linings make it corrosion resistant. Shape of mill and ball segregation gives preferential grinding action for grinding and mixing of pigments and catalysts. Made in 2, 3 and 4 diameter grinding drums.

Nowadays grinding mills are almost extensively used for comminution of materials ranging from 5 mm to 40 mm (3/161 5/8) down to varying product sizes. They have vast applications within different branches of industry such as for example the ore dressing, cement, lime, porcelain and chemical industries and can be designed for continuous as well as batch grinding.

Ball mills can be used for coarse grinding as described for the rod mill. They will, however, in that application produce more fines and tramp oversize and will in any case necessitate installation of effective classification.If finer grinding is wanted two or three stage grinding is advisable as for instant primary rod mill with 75100 mm (34) rods, secondary ball mill with 2540 mm(11) balls and possibly tertiary ball mill with 20 mm () balls or cylpebs.To obtain a close size distribution in the fine range the specific surface of the grinding media should be as high as possible. Thus as small balls as possible should be used in each stage.

The principal field of rod mill usage is the preparation of products in the 5 mm0.4 mm (4 mesh to 35 mesh) range. It may sometimes be recommended also for finer grinding. Within these limits a rod mill is usually superior to and more efficient than a ball mill. The basic principle for rod grinding is reduction by line contact between rods extending the full length of the mill, resulting in selective grinding carried out on the largest particle sizes. This results in a minimum production of extreme fines or slimes and more effective grinding work as compared with a ball mill. One stage rod mill grinding is therefore suitable for preparation of feed to gravimetric ore dressing methods, certain flotation processes with slime problems and magnetic cobbing. Rod mills are frequently used as primary mills to produce suitable feed to the second grinding stage. Rod mills have usually a length/diameter ratio of at least 1.4.

Tube mills are in principle to be considered as ball mills, the basic difference being that the length/diameter ratio is greater (35). They are commonly used for surface cleaning or scrubbing action and fine grinding in open circuit.

In some cases it is suitable to use screened fractions of the material as grinding media. Such mills are usually called pebble mills, but the working principle is the same as for ball mills. As the power input is approximately directly proportional to the volume weight of the grinding media, the power input for pebble mills is correspondingly smaller than for a ball mill.

A dry process requires usually dry grinding. If the feed is wet and sticky, it is often necessary to lower the moisture content below 1 %. Grinding in front of wet processes can be done wet or dry. In dry grinding the energy consumption is higher, but the wear of linings and charge is less than for wet grinding, especially when treating highly abrasive and corrosive material. When comparing the economy of wet and dry grinding, the different costs for the entire process must be considered.

An increase in the mill speed will give a directly proportional increase in mill power but there seems to be a square proportional increase in the wear. Rod mills generally operate within the range of 6075 % of critical speed in order to avoid excessive wear and tangled rods. Ball and pebble mills are usually operated at 7085 % of critical speed. For dry grinding the speed is usually somewhat lower.

The mill lining can be made of rubber or different types of steel (manganese or Ni-hard) with liner types according to the customers requirements. For special applications we can also supply porcelain, basalt and other linings.

The mill power is approximately directly proportional to the charge volume within the normal range. When calculating a mill 40 % charge volume is generally used. In pebble and ball mills quite often charge volumes close to 50 % are used. In a pebble mill the pebble consumption ranges from 315 % and the charge has to be controlled automatically to maintain uniform power consumption.

In all cases the net energy consumption per ton (kWh/ton) must be known either from previous experience or laboratory tests before mill size can be determined. The required mill net power P kW ( = ton/hX kWh/ton) is obtained from

Trunnions of S.G. iron or steel castings with machined flange and bearing seat incl. device for dismantling the bearings. For smaller mills the heads and trunnions are sometimes made in grey cast iron.

The mills can be used either for dry or wet, rod or ball grinding. By using a separate attachment the discharge end can be changed so that the mills can be used for peripheral instead of overflow discharge.

grinding ball_tangshan fengrun shougang metallurgy and building materials co., ltd

grinding ball_tangshan fengrun shougang metallurgy and building materials co., ltd

Can also called grinding media steel ball, grinding ball, its a common type of grinding media. The physical media to crush materials (metal ores, cement, coal powder, silicon sand) by self-weight impact force and grinding force, always was called grinding media. The normal grinding media are steel ball, steel cylpebs and steel bar, particularly processed cast alloy, alloy round steel bars are as raw materials to produce those grinding media. It can be divided into cast iron balls and forged steel balls according to the production technics.

Shougang Steel Ball can provide: Cr 1%-28%, hardness: HRC40-66, Dia.10mm-150mm alloy cast steel balls. The balls have a lot of excellent properties, such as higher hardness, good abrasive resistance, together with a good surface finish and small dimensional allowance after scientific heating treatment, as one type of grinding media, it can be widely used in ball mill grinding systems of mines, cement, building materials and chemical industries,etc.

It can be divided into medium carbon, high carbon steel ball based on Carbon percentage, it related to 5 products, Carbon percentage is from 0.38% to 1.05%, Hardness is from HRC 48-65. The products property will be high in hardness, good in wear-resistance, low in breakage rate after isothermal quenching treatment. As one kind of grinding media, forged steel ball was widely used in ball mill and semi-auto grinding mill system of mines, building materials and chemical industries.

impact crusher|impact breaker_xingyang ju xin machinery co., ltd

impact crusher|impact breaker_xingyang ju xin machinery co., ltd

Xingyang Ju Xin Machinery Co., Ltd. is a machines factory specialized in mining and metallurgy equipment,such as cement production plant, active lime production plant,ceramic sand plant,sand and gravel production plant,etc.

grinding balls & rods

grinding balls & rods

General statements can be made and are worthy of consideration when selecting grinding media. For the best results it has been found that the smallest diameter ball or rod which will break down the particular material to be ground is desirable since greatest surface area is obtained. From the standpoint of economy, the larger the media the higher will be the liner consumption and media consumption. The minimum size of grinding balls should be selected with caution since there will be a tendency for such balls to float out of the mill in a dense pulp (this is minimised by the use of a grate discharge mill). Also the smaller the media the quicker it will reach its reject size.

For the first stage of grinding, media will generally be in the 4 to 2 size (in some cases as high as 5). In secondary finer grinding the initial charge will begin at around 3 and in the case of balls will grade down to about . Extremely fine grinding will dictate the use of 1 and smaller balls.

Grinding media is the working part of a mill. It will consume power whether it is doing grinding work or not. The amount of work which it does depends upon its size, its material, its construction and the quantity involved. It is, therefore, advantageous to select the type of grinding media which will prove most economical, the size of media which will give the best grinding results, and the quantity of media which will just produce the grind required.

One of the economic factors of grinding is the wear of the grinding media. This is dependent upon the material used in its manufacture, method of manufacture, size of media, diameter of mill, speed of mill, pulp level maintained in the mill, rate of feed, density of pulp maintained, shape of the liner surface, nature of the feed, and the problem of corrosion.

Many shapes of grinding media have been tried over the past years, but essentially there are only two efficient types of media used. These are the spherical ball and the cylindrical rod. Other shapes are relatively expensive to manufacture and they have shown no appreciable improvement in grinding characteristics.

It will be found that a seasoned charge will provide a better grind than a new mill charge. This, of course, is impossible to determine at the offset, but after continuous operation the media charge should be checked for size and weight, and maintained at that optimum point. After the charge has been selected, replacement media should be made at the maximum size used. In some cases it has been found advantageous to add replacement media of two or more sizes, so as to maintain more closely the seasoned ratio.

As a general figure rod mills will have a void space within the charge of around 20% to 22% for new rods. In ball mills the theoretical void space is around 42% to 43%. It has been found that as grinding rods wear a 4 or 4 rod will generally break up at about 1 diameter. The smaller diameter new rods do not break up as easily and will generally wear down to about 1. In many applications it has been found, that grinding efficiency will increase if rods are removed when they reach the 1 size, and also if broken pieces of rods are removed. The Open End Rod Mill has the advantage of allowing the quick and easy removal of such rods.

It is difficult to give figures on media consumption since there are so many variables. Rods will be consumed at the rate of 0.2# per ton on soft easily ground material up to 2# per ton on harder material. Steel consumption of balls is spread out over an even greater range. Some indication as to media consumption can be obtained from power consumed in grinding. For example, balls or rods will generally wear at a rate of about 1# for each 6 or 7 kilowatt hours consumed per ton of ore. Liner consumption is generally about one-fifth of the media consumption.

We areprepared to furnish alltypes and sizes of steel rods as shown in table. Standard sizes of these rods are finest quality, high carbon, hot rolled, machine straightened steel and meet low cost, long wear requirements for use in operation of all types of rod mills.

Steel Grinding Rods are made of a special steel which breaks up without twisting when final wear occurs. This is extremely important in maintaining full grinding capacity and eliminating the difficulty of removing wire-like, worn rods which twist and bend into an inseparable and space filling mass of interlaced wires if breaking does not occur. Rods are shipped in lengths cut to suit the length of each particular customers rod mill.

Rods are to be hot rolled, hot sawed or sheared, with standard tolerance and machine straightened. We have found that a good grade of forged steel grinding balls is generally most efficient for use with our grate discharge ball mills.

Steel balls ranging from to 5 in. in diameter are used. Rods range from 1 to 4 in. in diameter and should be 3 to 4 in. shorter than the inside mill length. Tube mills are usually fed balls smaller than 2 in., whereas 4- or 5-in. balls are more commonly used for ball-mill grinding. A much higher grinding capacity is obtained in tube mills by using steel media instead of pebbles, but in making such a conversion serious consideration must be given to the ability of the steel shell to withstand the greater loading.

Approximate ball loads can be estimated by assuming 300 lb. per cu. ft. of ball volume and a total load equivalent to 40 to 45 per cent of the mill volume. Rod loads average about 40 per cent of mill volume, and a figure of 400 to 425 lb. per cu. ft. of rod volume should be taken.

Experience indicates that rods are superior to balls for feeds in the range from to 1 in. maximum when the mill is not called upon to finish at sizes finer than 14 mesh. Balls are superior at coarser feed sizes or for finishing 1-in. feeds to 28 mesh of grind or finer because the mill can be run cataracting and the large lumps broken by hammering.

In an operating mill a seasoned charge, containing media of all sizes from that of the renewal or replacement size down to that which discharges automatic ally, normally produces better grinding than a new charge. It is inferred from this that a charge should be rationed to the mill feed, i.e., that it should contain media of sizes best suited to each of the particle sizes to be ground. Usual practice is, however, to charge a new mill with a range of sizes, based on an assumed seasoned load; thereupon to make periodic renewals, at various sizes dependent upon the character of the circulating load, until optimum grinding is obtained; and thereafter to make required renewals at the optimum size.

A coarse feed requires larger (grinding) media than a finer feed. The smaller the mesh of grind the smaller the optimum diameter of the medium. This relationship is attributed to the fact that fine product is produced most effectively by rubbing, whence maximum capacity to fine sizes is attained by maximum rubbing surface, i.e., with small balls. A practical limitation is imposed by the tendency for balls that are too small to float* out of the mill and by the high percentage of rejects when renewals are too small.

The usual materials for balls are chilled cast iron and forged steel, for rods, high- carbon steel, (0.8 to 1.0 per cent carbon) all more or less alloyed. Mild steel rods are unsuitable for the reason that they bend and kink after wearing down to a certain minimum diameter and snarl up the whole rod load. The hardened steel rods break up when they wear down and are removed at about 1 in. or left in an eventually discharge in small pieces.

If you know the price of a 3 grinding ball or what the cost of a 75mm piece of grinding ballis, you can estimate, in a relative way, the price of larger and smaller grinding media. It will serve you well when creating an operating budget.

These balls are cast alloy steel, and are made by the newly developed Payne Hot Top principle. This principle employs a rotating casting machine. This machine rotates and the molds move under the pouring spout and hot metal runs down a trough on top of the molds. Four or five molds are either filling or cooling under this stream of hot steel. By this means the heads are kept liquid, eliminating the need for risers and allowing all of the gasses to escape. For this reason the balls are solid, free from gas cavities, and show wear resistance equal to the best forged steel balls. These balls may be had in two types: a soft ball Brinnell 450+ for large diameter ball mills, and a hard ball Brinnell 600+ for small ball mills. The addition of molybdenum, chromium and manganese provides an excellent microstructure for these grinding balls. Balls are available in 4, 3, 3, 2, and 2 sizes.

five barite mining processes and common barite mining equipment - xinhai

five barite mining processes and common barite mining equipment - xinhai

Barite is a common mineral of barium, and the elements of barite are barium sulfate, the BaO accounts for 65.7% and SO3 accounts for 34.3%. It is an important industrial raw mineral material for making barium and barium compounds.

Taking the barite deposit in China as an example, it can be divided into four types: sedimentary deposit, volcano-sedimentary deposit, hydrothermal deposit, and residual deposit. According to ore types, raw ore properties, mine scale and application, the common barite mining processes mainly include handpicking, gravity separation, flotation, magnetic separation and combined barite mining process.

In general, the residual barite ore can be separated by the gravity separation method. The sedimentary barite ore and hydrothermal barite ore associated with sulfide ore and fluorite can be extracted by the gravity separation and flotation method. Below, we will explain to you one by one each barite mining process and barite mining equipment.

After the raw ore is extracted, simple handpicking is a common barite mining process for many small barite mines. Some barite mines have a high geological grade and stable quality, so the qualified barite products can be selected by handpicking according to the difference in the color and density between barite and associated minerals. For the rich barite ore selected by hand, the grain size shall be 30-150mm, and the BaSO4 shall be larger than 95%, generally larger than 92%. In general, the simple handpicking process is easy to operate and can be carried out without barite mining equipment. This barite mining process is suitable for the small-scale barite mining plant, but it also has the disadvantages of low productivity, high ore grade requirements and serious resource waste.

This barite mining process is mainly based on the density difference between barite and associated minerals, including ore washing, screening, desliming, jigging, shaking table, which is mostly used to treat residual barite ore.

After the raw ore is treated with washing, screening, crushing, classification and desliming, the high-quality barite concentrate can be obtained by jigging and shake table. The crushing stage adopts the jaw crusher and impact crusher, the fine crushing stage adopts the double roll crusher. The separation stage adopts a heavy medium rotary drum separator, cone classifier, jig or shake table. The heavy medium separation and jigging separation can be used when the particle size of barite is larger than 2mm, but the upper limit of particle size of heavy medium separation is 50mm, and the upper limit of wet and dry jigging separation is about 20mm. The shake table can be used for separation when the particle size of the barite is less than 2mm, but he hydrocyclone must be used to remove the mud before the separation, so as to improve the separation effect.

The specific gravity of the barite is large, generally 4-4.6, and it also has a good floatability. The barite flotation process is mainly used to separate the sedimentary barite and hydrothermal barite ore associated with sulfide ore and fluorite based on the difference of surface physical and chemical properties between barite and associated minerals.

Taking the barite ore in China as an example, the barite deposits are featured with more lean ore and less rich ore. More than 80% of the proven reserves are associated with other minerals. The flotation method must be used for the separation of fine barite ore and gravity separation tailings. The main barite flotation processes are positive flotation process and reverse flotation process, in which the purpose of the reverse flotation process is to remove the alkali sulfide.

As a common salt mineral, the barite flotation process can be divided into two types according to the form of adsorption: one is to use fatty acid alkyl sulfate, alkyl sulfonate and other anion collectors to adsorb on the surface of barite mineral in the form of chemical adsorption, so as to separate from the other associated minerals. Another is to use an amine collector to float barite in the form of physical adsorption. The amines collector has low efficiency and is very sensitive to the influence of slime, so it is suggested to adopt the anionic collector in this barite mining process. In general, add the NaOH to the ball mill, adjust the pH value to 8-10, and add the sodium silicate to the slurry as the regulator, then use the oleic acid collector in the barite flotation process under the condition of 40%-50% solid concentration.

The barite magnetic separation process is mainly based on the surface magnetic difference between barite and iron oxide minerals, which is widely used to separate the iron-containing barite. The magnetic separation process is often used as the combined process with gravity separation, which can produce the barite a material of barium-based drugs requiring very low iron content.

The combined barite mining process of gravity separation and flotation is often used for the barite associated with sulfide ores. For the flotation-gravity separation process used to treat the barite-quartz-calcite ore, add the sodium silicate and collector into the flotation tank of flotation machine for removing the quartz, and obtain the barite-calcite mixed ore, and adopt jig, shake table to obtain the barite concentrate based on the density difference between gangue minerals (such as calcite) and barite.

The early mining barite ore is mostly high-grade ore, which is usually separated by the low-cost and low technical handpicking or gravity separation process. However, with the low grade of barite ore and the complex ore properties, magnetic separation, flotation and combined barite mining processes have been widely used in barite mining. It is suggested that each mine owner should make a scientific and reasonable barite mining process according to the beneficiation test report, avoiding unnecessary economic losses.

ball mill - infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core

ball mill - infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core

A ball mill consists of a hollow cylindrical shell rotating about its axis. The axis of the shell may be either horizontal or at a small angle to the horizontal. It is partially filled with balls. The grinding media is the balls, which may be made of steel (chrome steel), stainless steel or rubber. The inner surface of the cylindrical shell is usually lined with an abrasion-resistant material such as manganese steel or rubber. Less wear takes place in rubber lined mills, such as the Sepro tyre drive Grinding Mill. The length of the mill is approximately equal to its diameter.

In case of continuously operated ball mill, the material to be ground is fed from the left through 60 cone and the product is discharged through a 30 cone to the right. As the shell rotates, the balls are lifted up on the rising side of the shell and then they cascade down (or drop down on to the feed), from near the top of the shell. In doing so, the solid particles in between the balls are ground and reduced in size by impact.

The ball mill is used for grinding materials such as coal, pigments, and felspar for pottery. Grinding can be carried out either wet or dry but the former is performed at low speed. Blending of explosives is an example of an application for rubber balls.[1]

A ball mill, a type of grinder, is a cylindrical device used in grinding (or mixing) materials like ores, chemicals, ceramic raw materials and paints. Ball mills rotate around a horizontal axis, partially filled with the material to be ground plus the grinding medium. Different materials are used as media, including ceramic balls, flint pebbles and stainless steel balls. An internal cascading effect reduces the material to a fine powder. Industrial ball mills can operate continuously, fed at one end and discharged at the other end. Large to medium-sized ball mills are mechanically rotated on their axis, but small ones normally consist of a cylindrical capped container that sits on two drive shafts (pulleys and belts are used to transmit rotary motion). A rock tumbler functions on the same principle. Ball mills are also used in pyrotechnics and the manufacture of black powder, but cannot be used in the preparation of some pyrotechnic mixtures such as flash powder because of their sensitivity to impact. High-quality ball mills are potentially expensive and can grind mixture particles to as small as 5 nm, enormously increasing surface area and reaction rates. The grinding works on the principle of critical speed. The critical speed can be understood as that speed after which the steel balls (which are responsible for the grinding of particles) start rotating along the direction of the cylindrical device; thus causing no further grinding.

The ball mill is a key piece of equipment for grinding crushed materials, and it is widely used in production lines for powders such as cement, silicates, refractory material, fertilizer, glass ceramics, etc. as well as for ore dressing of both ferrous and non-ferrous metals. The ball mill can grind various ores and other materials either wet or dry. There are two kinds of ball mill, grate type and overfall type due to different ways of discharging material. There are many types of grinding media suitable for use in a ball mill, each material having its own specific properties and advantages. Key properties of grinding media are size, density, hardness, and composition.

The grinding chamber can also be filled with an inert shield gas that does not react with the material being ground, to prevent oxidation or explosive reactions that could occur with ambient air inside the mill.

Ball milling boasts several advantages over other systems: the cost of installation and grinding medium is low; it is suitable for both batch and continuous operation, similarly it is suitable for open as well as closed circuit grinding and is applicable for materials of all degrees of hardness.

Aside from common ball mills there is a second type of ball mill called a planetary ball mill. Planetary ball mills are smaller than common ball mills and mainly used in laboratories for grinding sample material down to very small sizes. A planetary ball mill consists of at least one grinding jar which is arranged eccentrically on a so-called sun wheel. The direction of movement of the sun wheel is opposite to that of the grinding jars (ratio: 1:-2 or 1:-1 or else). The grinding balls in the grinding jars are subjected to superimposed rotational movements, the so-called Coriolis forces. The difference in speeds between the balls and grinding jars produces an interaction between frictional and impact forces, which releases high dynamic energies. The interplay between these forces produces the high and very effective degree of size reduction of the planetary ball mill.

The general idea behind the ball mill is an ancient one, but it was not until the industrial revolution and the invention of steam power that an effective ball milling machine could be built. It is reported to have been used for grinding flint for pottery in 1870.[4]

metallurgist & mineral processing engineer

metallurgist & mineral processing engineer

For its extensive practical experience, 911 Metallurgisthas a clear understanding of what successful mineral processing engineering is and how to go about achieving it. Your goal is the production of a material that is marketable and returns you and your investors sustainable revenues.

Although improvements to the metallurgical processes have been made over the years the fact is that the unit operations, the machines, those too often called black boxes involved have not evolved or changed much since inception. Ore is reduced in size, chemicals are added and minerals separated and upgraded to produce a marketable product. Much of this process is mechanical and generally mistaken for some dark alchemy.We are the Anti-Alchemists.

Our vast experience has been gained through operation and start-up of both small and large scale mining/metallurgical operations in a range of commodities in thebase metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) and theprecious metals (Au, Ag,)

A solid metallurgist understands, the most important aspect of an operating process is its stability. Simple to say, but generally the most ignored in mineral processing. Linked unit operations require each to be stable, and each contains a different set of variables that have to be contended with. Thanks to some degree of stability: operating changes can be made and evaluated; increases in throughput can be made; and equipment performance improved. The more complicated the processes become, the more difficult it is to achieve and maintain stability. In mineral processing, unlike most processing operations, we have limited control of the main input, the feed ore. In most cases this inherently is variable and usually outside of the processors control.

Because you are too close to your own story, you might not see the forest for the trees and have chaos mistaken for stability. We, you, and your group have been battling plant problems for weeks, you start to accept chaos as a daily state of affair and consider it your new stability.

Each mineral processing plant is different: with varied ore types, mining equipment, and management (operating) philosophy. The evaluation and prioritisation of variables that affect the plant performance is the primary function. Implementing changes within the constraints imposed can be difficult, as resources may be limited.

Invariably the ability to solve problems can be confusing due the large numbers of variables that may impact the processes. In most cases problems are not metallurgical in nature but rather operational and mechanical. Problem solving is a process and in many operations this ability is absent. All too often many changes are made together without a solution resulting, on more confusion. Most plants learn to live or survive their problems, not to solve them.

Our engineering team has a global experience in the mining industry across all facets of the mine life-cycle. Our focus is to add value to your project and company by understanding your needs, employing innovative ideas and applying sound engineering while maintaining an economically driven approach. We have a combination of senior level professionals, experienced project managers, and technical staff to execute projects efficiently. We work in a partnership with our clients to achieve their company goals and operational milestones in a timely and cost effective manner.

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