economic quartz ball mill sell at a loss in southeast asia

tata steel share price live today - why tata steel share price is up by 4.40% today? tata steel share price analysis | etmarkets

tata steel share price live today - why tata steel share price is up by 4.40% today? tata steel share price analysis | etmarkets

Stock Score is the Average Score from Stock Reports Plus by Refinitiv which combines quantitative analysis of widely used investment decision making tools. This score is on a 10 point scale (1 is lowest and 10 being the highest, NR indicates No-rating is available)

Given the sharp increase in steel prices in last quarter of FY 21, the sharp jump in bottomline was expected line. The question is whether these bumper profits are used for reducing the debt or anything else. Utilisation of money made in good times will have impact on long term valuations

Having its captive mines for the key raw material, iron ore is the biggest advantage and helps the company manage through difficult times. In good times, it helps company in increasing margins, as happened in Q4 of FY 21.

China is the largest producer and consumer of steel. Any dip in Chinese demand pushes the global steel prices down sharply. Chinese macro numbers, especially PMI are an advance indicators of what might happen to steel stocks.

Given the sharp increase in steel prices in last quarter of FY 21, the sharp jump in bottomline was expected line. The question is whether these bumper profits are used for reducing the debt or anything else. Utilisation of money made in good times will have impact on long term valuations

Having its captive mines for the key raw material, iron ore is the biggest advantage and helps the company manage through difficult times. In good times, it helps company in increasing margins, as happened in Q4 of FY 21.

China is the largest producer and consumer of steel. Any dip in Chinese demand pushes the global steel prices down sharply. Chinese macro numbers, especially PMI are an advance indicators of what might happen to steel stocks.

This is a ratio arrived at by dividing the current market price of a stock by its latest (annual or annualized) earnings per share. Here we have taken the TTM (trailing twelve months) adjusted earnings per share.

Price to Book represents the ratio of current market price of a stock to its book value per share. The book value itself is arrived at by dividing the net worth of a company by the total number of shares outstanding of the company at that time.

Dividend Yield calculates the amount of full year dividend declared by a company as a percentage of the current market price of a stock. All other things being equal, higher the dividend yield of the stock, the better it is for investors.

This represents the 52 week high and low price of the security. It is also the 1 year high and low of the security. This represents the highest and lowest price touched by the security during the past 52 weeks or 1 year including today.

Book value represents the value arrived at by subtracting the total liabilities from the total assets of the company. On dividing this value with the total number of shares outstanding for the company, we can arrive at book value per share. Book value is also known as Net Asset Value of a company.

This is a ratio arrived at by dividing the current market price of a stock by its latest (annual or annualized) earnings per share. Here we have taken the TTM (trailing twelve months) adjusted earnings per share.

Price to Book represents the ratio of current market price of a stock to its book value per share. The book value itself is arrived at by dividing the net worth of a company by the total number of shares outstanding of the company at that time.

Dividend Yield calculates the amount of full year dividend declared by a company as a percentage of the current market price of a stock. All other things being equal, higher the dividend yield of the stock, the better it is for investors.

This represents the 52 week high and low price of the security. It is also the 1 year high and low of the security. This represents the highest and lowest price touched by the security during the past 52 weeks or 1 year including today.

Book value represents the value arrived at by subtracting the total liabilities from the total assets of the company. On dividing this value with the total number of shares outstanding for the company, we can arrive at book value per share. Book value is also known as Net Asset Value of a company.

This is a ratio arrived at by dividing the current market price of a stock by its latest (annual or annualized) earnings per share. Here we have taken the TTM (trailing twelve months) adjusted earnings per share.

Dividend Yield calculates the amount of full year dividend declared by a company as a percentage of the current market price of a stock. All other things being equal, higher the dividend yield of the stock, the better it is for investors.

Price to Book represents the ratio of current market price of a stock to its book value per share. The book value itself is arrived at by dividing the net worth of a company by the total number of shares outstanding of the company at that time.

Book value represents the value arrived at by subtracting the total liabilities from the total assets of the company. On dividing this value with the total number of shares outstanding for the company, we can arrive at book value per share. Book value is also known as Net Asset Value of a company.

This represents the 52 week high and low price of the security. It is also the 1 year high and low of the security. This represents the highest and lowest price touched by the security during the past 52 weeks or 1 year including today.

This is a ratio arrived at by dividing the current market price of a stock by its latest (annual or annualized) earnings per share. Here we have taken the TTM (trailing twelve months) adjusted earnings per share.

Dividend Yield calculates the amount of full year dividend declared by a company as a percentage of the current market price of a stock. All other things being equal, higher the dividend yield of the stock, the better it is for investors.

Price to Book represents the ratio of current market price of a stock to its book value per share. The book value itself is arrived at by dividing the net worth of a company by the total number of shares outstanding of the company at that time.

Book value represents the value arrived at by subtracting the total liabilities from the total assets of the company. On dividing this value with the total number of shares outstanding for the company, we can arrive at book value per share. Book value is also known as Net Asset Value of a company.

This represents the 52 week high and low price of the security. It is also the 1 year high and low of the security. This represents the highest and lowest price touched by the security during the past 52 weeks or 1 year including today.

Net debt was lower by Rs 29,390 crore over previous year. Gross Debt at ?88,501 crore was lower by Rs 27,827 crore as compared to the previous year. Decrease in Gross Debt was mainly due to repayment / pre-payment of borrowings including lease liabilities. These decreases were partly offset by addition to leases (mainly at TSE) along with higher amortisation of loan issue expenses, primarily due to pre-payments and increase due to re-classification of SEA operations into continuing operations from held for sale. The decrease in Net Debt was in line with decrease in gross debt along with increase in current investments mainly at Tata Steel (Standalone) and at TSBSL, partly offset by decrease in cash and bank balances mainly at Tata Steel Global Holdings.

Steel demand is expected to be strong due to recovery in manufacturing businesses around the world and global fiscal stimulus supporting infrastructure projects. The outlook for 2021 is expected to be positive because of the unprecedented fiscal stimulus provided by the governments across Europe, the US, Japan, Korea, Russia and China. These stimulus packages are expected to spur growth in these nation?s respective infrastructure sectors, boosting steel demand. China is expected to grow by 5% in 2021 with continuation of healthy demand conditions especially in the first half of 2021. Steel demand in key emerging economies (like India, Turkey) and Europe is expected to witness double digit recovery while Asia and Middle-East are likely to grow by 5%. While it is expected that steel prices will consolidate closer to historical levels, prices are likely to remain high supported by (i) strong iron ore prices, (ii) rebound in coking coal prices, (iii) positive impact from stimulus plans, and (iv) improved business confidence from the roll-out of vaccines. Strong rebound of demand in 2021, in addition to supply-side reforms in China could lead to higher steel prices globally.

The turnover of TSG was at ?1,56,294 crore during FY 2020-21, an increase of 5% over the previous financial year due to increase in realisations across geographies, partly offset by marginal decline in deliveries. The EBITDA of TSG was ?30,892 crore during the FY 2020-21 as compared to ?18,103 crore in the previous year due to improvement in realisations along with lower cost and favourable exchange rate movement at other foreign entities. The impact of COVID-19 has been much more benign for the steel industry due to resurgent demand in China and better than expected post lockdown recovery globally in second half of 2020. China and Turkey were two key countries that saw an increase in finished steel demand of 9% and 13% respectively in 2020. North America and the European Union (?EU?) have experienced strong decline in steel demand owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. Both regions experienced demand decline of around 11%-16%. India also contributed to global decline, as steel consumption in India declined by 13.7% to 88.5 MnT in 2020 against 102.6 MnT in 2019.

Tata Steel Ltd., incorporated in the year 1907, is a Large Cap company (having a market cap of Rs 137,183.91 Crore) operating in Metals - Ferrous sector. Tata Steel Ltd. key Products/Revenue Segments include Steel & Steel Products, Power and Other Operating Revenue for the year ending 31-Mar-2020.For the quarter ended 31-03-2021, the company has reported a Consolidated Total Income of Rs 50,249.58 Crore, up 26.23 % from last quarter Total Income of Rs 39,809.05 Crore and up 43.22 % from last year same quarter Total Income of Rs 35,085.86 Crore. Company has reported net profit after tax of Rs 7,011.50 Crore in latest quarter.The companys top management includes Mr.Ratan N Tata, Ms.Mallika Srinivasan, Mr.O P Bhatt, Mr.Deepak Kapoor, Mr.Aman Mehta, Mr.Saurabh Agrawal, Mr.V K Sharma, Mr.Koushik Chatterjee, Mr.T V Narendran, Mr.N Chandrasekaran, Dr.Peter Blauwhoff. Company has Price Waterhouse & Co Chartered Accountants LLP as its auditors. As on 15-05-2021, the company has a total of 120.41 Crore shares outstanding. Show More

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social implications of palm oil production through social life cycle perspectives in johor, malaysia | springerlink

social implications of palm oil production through social life cycle perspectives in johor, malaysia | springerlink

Palm oil is considered as the primary source of income for many farmers in Southeast Asia and become a very important agricultural commodity for the Malaysian economy in recent years. Besides its main usage as cooking oil, it is also exported to be used in many commercial foods and personal care products, as well as biofuels productions (Wong et al. Pertanika Journal of Scholarly Research Reviews 1:3339, 2015). Over the years, the agricultural sector, especially the livestock and dairy sectors in particular, has been increasingly criticized for their environmental as well as social impacts (Revret et al. 2015). However, while the products of the agricultural sector contributed significantly to the economic mainstay, the social aspects of it especially those associated with the workers, communities, and environment are equally important and often neglected. The purpose of this research is to identify potential social impacts (implications on workers and local community) throughout the whole life cycle of palm oil production using the Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) methodology.

The methodology of this study consisted of several steps in the framework of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study. The steps involved were goal and scope definition, Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) analysis, Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), and interpretation. Descriptive analyses that involved the social impact associated with the operation of palm oil mill, local community, and workers were used. In order to acquire information from these stakeholders, two sets of questionnaires were constructed based on the subcategories proposed by UNEP (2009).

The results on social aspects showed that the workers exhibited high value of satisfaction regarding social benefits conferred upon them such as annual leave, panel clinic, Employees Provident Fund (EPF), Social Security Organization (SOCSO) scheme, and public holidays. Meanwhile, the satisfaction level of the local community is different according to specific categories. For instance, a small percentage of satisfaction exists among the local community regarding the palm oil industry especially in heritage and cultural conservation.

Findings from the S-LCA analysis are positive as palm oil production still met the required criteria in terms of social significance to those who are in direct contact with this operation especially the workers and local community.

Adnan N, Nordin SM, Bakar ZB (2017a) Understanding and facilitating sustainable agricultural practice: a comprehensive analysis of adoption behaviour among Malaysian paddy farmers. Land Use Policy 68:372382

Adnan N, Nordin S, Noor A (2017c) Segmenting paddy farmers attitude and behavior. In: Driving agribusiness with technology innovations. IGI Global book series Advance in Business Strategy and Competitive Advanve (ABSCA), p. 165190

International Organization Standardisation (2000) Environmental management- life cycle assessment- life cycle impact assessment. ISO 14042. International Organization for Standardisation, Geneva, Switzerland

Mahat SA (2012) The palm oil industry from the perspective of sustainable development: a case study of Malaysian Palm Oil Industry. Graduate School of Asia Pacific Studies Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University Japan

Malaysian Palm Oil Board (2016a) Economic & Industry Development Division. Von Monthly Export of Oil Palm Products: http://bepi.mpob.gov.my/index.php/en/statistics/export/171-export-2016/763-monthly-export-of-oil-palm-products-2016.html abgerufen

Malaysian Palm Oil Board. (2016c) Economics & Industry Development Division. Von Production of Crude Palm Oil: http://bepi.mpob.gov.my/index.php/en/statistics/production/168-production-2016/746-production-of-crude-oil-palm-2016.html abgerufen

Mweshi MM, Amosun SL, Shilalukey-Ngoma MP, Munalula-Nkandu E, Kafaar Z (2017) The development and evaluation of content validity of the Zambia spina bifida functional measure: preliminary studies. African Journal of Disability 6:264

Norwana AA, Kunjappan R, Chin M, Schoneveld G, Potter L, Andriani R (2011) The local impacts of oil palm expansion in Malaysia: an assessment based on a case study in Sabah State. Center for International Forestry Research

Revret J-P, Couture J-M, Parent J (2015) Socioeconomic LCA of milk production in Canada. In: Muthu SS (ed) Social life cycle assessment, environmental footprints and eco-design of products and processes. https://doi.org/10.1007/978

Sustainability Reports (2015) Global agribusiness: smallholders at heart. Felda Global Ventures Holdings Berhad . Von http://www.feldaglobal.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/CD-FGV-SR2014-2015.pdf abgerufen

Wild Asia (2016) Verification assessment of social management and practices. Felda Global Ventures Plantations (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd. Von http://www.feldaglobal.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/FGV-Group-Review-and-Field-Report_04032016.pdf abgerufen

Muhammad, K.I., Sharaai, A.H., Ismail, M.M. et al. Social implications of palm oil production through social life cycle perspectives in Johor, Malaysia. Int J Life Cycle Assess 24, 935944 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-018-1540-y

dry milling - an overview | sciencedirect topics

dry milling - an overview | sciencedirect topics

the yield of dry mills decreases very quickly when the outputs moisture exceeds 1%. Wet output agglomerates, balls and granules are covered in a layer of adhesive and plastic fines that cushions and lowers the force exerted on the output. In addition, the product circulates poorly in the mill. For these reasons, a hot air scan is often performed which requires an efficient dust removal facility;

wet, the concentration of solid pulp must be such that the pulps viscosity reaches 0.2Pa.s. A surfactant allows for a higher solid content without increasing the fracture limit of the pseudo-plastic pulp. Production is hence increased;

with a wet path, grains circulate well and do not re-agglomerate. In addition, it seems that resistance to fragmentation decreases in water. The result is that the energy consumption is greater with dry milling than with wet milling. It is on average 30% greater;

Corn dry milling operations are specially designed to manufacture fuel-grade ethanol in a one-shot process directly from the whole corn kernels. For this purpose, shelled corn arrives at the dry-mill processing facility and through processing via a hammer mill the entire corn kernel is ground into a medium-coarse to fine flour, which is referred to in the industry as meal and processed without separating out the various component parts of the grain. The meal is slurried with water in cookers to form a mash. In the cooking system, the action of heat liquefies the starch in the corn and sacccharifying enzymes are added to the mash to convert the starch to fermentable sugars. Dry milling is the most common process used today for bioethanol production because of low capital costs required to build and operate these plants. Besides ethanol, the major by-products of the corn dry milling process are dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and carbon dioxide.39

Dry milling (Fig. 7.1) involves grinding the incoming grain, then processing it through a series of steps to liquefy the flour and generate fermentable sugars. Amylases are added at two points in the processthe initial slurry step, and the liquefaction step, which follows a jet cooking operation that uses high-temperature steam to swell the starch. Following liquefaction, the slurry is fed to a batch fermentation system, where glucoamylase and yeast are also added. The typical fermentation time is 4255h. Multiple fermenters are used to facilitate batch operation of this step, with the fermentation cycle time including a clean-in-place step prior to the addition of fresh mash that commences the start of the fermentation process. Final ethanol titers between 14 and 18wt% are typical. Once the fermentation is complete, the ethanol-laden mash is transferred to a beer well that ultimately feeds the first stage of a two-stage distillation system. The first distillation stage includes all of the unconverted solids, which are recovered at the bottom of the column, while the overhead, typically containing about 3040% ethanol, is fed to a second distillation column that purifies the ethanol to a concentration near its azeotrope (about 190 proof). The hydrous ethanol is then dehydrated using a set of molecular sieves, producing a 99.5% ethanol product. This product is then denatured to meet government regulations.

The wet solids recovered at the bottom of the first distillation column are centrifuged, with the liquid sent to a set of multiple effect evaporators to recover water for reuse in the process (typically added to the first slurry reactor), while the solubles (mainly sugars) are typically blended with the wet distillers grains to produce wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS). The WDGS may be sold as is to nearby feedlots due to the limited shelf life of the wet product, or optionally dried to produce DDGS, a stable, protein-rich product that can be shipped worldwide as animal feed.

Beer is produced mainly from barley, and the annual beer production in the European Union in 2014 was about 42.5 million tonnes (FAO). Brewing (Fig. 9.2) can be divided into the stages detailed in Sections 9.2.2.19.2.2.5 (Bamforth, 2007):

illing is crucial as it should achieve optimal material extraction and endosperm grinding with minimal husk damage. Dry milling is carried out using a roller, disk, or hammer mills. Roller mills are used when wort separation is carried out with a lauter tun, while hammer (or disk) mills are used when mash filtration is applied. Wet milling may also be applied as it has been established by the corn starch industry.

Mashing aims to produce wort with the optimal composition, leading to the production of the desired beer quality during fermentation. The milled grist is suspended in hot water to facilitate the gelatinization of starch achieved at 55C65C. The action of the indigenous amylolytic enzymes on the production of fermentable sugars can be manipulated at different temperatures during mashing. For instance, dry beers are produced at low temperatures (63C) and sweet and more full-bodied beers are produced at higher temperatures (77C).

The produced wort should be rich in nutrients and relatively free of insoluble particles. The permeability of the bed of solids (e.g., sand, clay, etc.,) used in the process, the fineness of the original milling and the husks integrity, and the temperature used affect the process efficiency and wort quality characteristics. Wort separation is achieved by lauter tuns or mash filters. A lauter tun consists of a straight-sided round vessel with a slotted or wedged wire base and run-off pipes, through which wort recovery is achieved. Arms bearing vertical knives rotating around a central axis are found within the vessel. Mash filters contain plates of polypropylene for filtering the liquid wort from the residual grains. This system allows the use of high pressures for grain crashing, overcoming the reduced permeability due to smaller particle sizes. Mass filters are used by modern breweries.

Wort boiling is subsequently applied for wort sterilization, the initiation of chemical reactions (e.g., isomerization of hop resins), wort concentration, the removal of unwanted volatile compounds, and the precipitation of protein/polyphenol complexes. The wort is finally cooled before fermentation using water or glycerol as a cooling agent, leading to the precipitation of solids, which is called cold break.

The fermentation process can be divided into the primary fermentation where the wort is fermented into alcohol and various flavors, and the secondary fermentation that involves beer conditioning, considering carbon dioxide concentration, and the removal of undesirable flavors. Subsequently, the temperature is reduced to 1C or 2C, promoting the precipitation of compounds that cause a haze in the beer.

After a minimum of 3 days in cold conditioning, plate and frame filters are mainly used for beer filtration with porous materials as filter aids (e.g., kieselguhr, perlite, etc.). The shelf life of beers is increased via the removal of certain proteins and polyphenols by the precipitation of such complexes. The level of gases in the beer is also regulated. Pasteurization (e.g., tunnel pasteurization of beer cans or bottles) or sterile filtration (with pores of 0.450.8m) is finally applied.

Corn ethanol is produced by dry or wet milling [13,14]. Ethanol is the main product of the dry milling process while wet milling is more efficiently designed to separate various products and parts of corn for food and industrial uses including corn starch and corn oil, as well as ethanol. In the dry milling process the kernel is ground into flour (meal) and water is added together with enzymes to convert the starch to dextrose. Ammonia is added, the mixture is heated for sterilisation and yeast is added to ferment. After (40 to 50)h, the mixture is distilled to purify the ethanol from the stillage and the ethanol is dehydrated to about 99.3vol.% using a molecular sieve system. The remaining stillage is converted to livestock feed. The process of wet milling involves adding sulphuric acid and water to the corn grain, and after treatment for (24 to 48)h, the components are separated. Grinders separate the corn germ from the mixture. Corn oil is extracted in a process that also separates the fibre, gluten and starch using screen, hydroclonic and centrifugal separators. The gluten protein and the liquor dried with the fibre co-products are feed ingredients for the poultry and livestock industry. The corn starch is converted into ethanol through fermentation as described for dry milling.

For sucrose feedstock, biomass is crushed to extract sugar juice. The corn (65%76% starch) is processed through dry milling in which the powder form of grains is heated with water at 358K. Starch is then liquefied using -amylase that converts starch into short-chain dextrins. Saccharification (pH 4.5 and 338K) is carried out using the gluco-amylase enzyme. In contrast, the rigid lignin cell wall protects carbohydrates in lignocellulose biomass. The cellulosic biomass is thus processed through milling, followed by pretreatment. The pretreatment breaks the lignin barrier, reduces cellulose crystallinity, and enhances the accessibility of carbohydrates for hydrolysis. The pretreatment is, however, very expensive, and has an enormous influence on the overall yield of ethanol. For example, pretreatment improves the hydrolysis yield to 90% from merely 20% (without pretreatment) [25]. The polysaccharides are then hydrolyzed to fermentable sugar. Hydrolysis is accomplished using either enzyme or dilute acid. The enzymatic hydrolysis is, however, commonly used (pH 4.8 and 318K323K) [26]. Cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes are used for hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively.

The sugar, starch, and cellulose are composed of hexose sugars, while both hexose and pentose sugars exist in hemicellulose. The hexose sugars are traditionally fermented by Bakers yeast. Saccharomyces cereviseae is the most common organism (at 306K and pH 44.8). The maximum yield of ethanol is 0.48g per g glucose [25]. Pichia stipitis, P. segobiensis, Candida shehatae, Pachysolen tannophilus, and Hansenula polymorpha are some of the organisms for fermentation of pentose sugars. These organisms, however, suffer from the drawback of the slow fermentation rate. The genetic modification of the microorganisms is thus done to ferment both hexose and pentose sugars. Metabolically engineered strain recombinant Escherichia coli (KO11), Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1400 (pLNH33), Zymomonas mobilis are some examples of these. The high sugar and ethanol concentration and inhibitory fermentation products are toxic to the organism. Less than 10% ethanol concentration (typically 4%4.5%) is thus maintained in fermentation broth to reduce the stress on the enzyme.

The fermentation broth is sent to the beer stripper and rectification column to obtain 95% ethanolwater azeotrope mixture. The ethanol is further purified to fuel-grade ethanol by azeotropic distillation using benzene or ethylene glycol as entrainer followed by dehydration using the molecular sieve [27]. There are several process alternatives for bio-ethanol production: (1) simultaneous saccharification and fermentation that perform enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation in the same reactor; (2) cofermentation, in which hexose and pentose sugars are fermented by single microorganism; (3) simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation; and (4) consolidated bioprocessing, in which cellulose production, cellulose hydrolysis, and fermentation happens in a single step [28]. These process variations aim to reduce the investment cost and have a lower risk of inhibition and contamination [25].

First generation bioethanol uses feedstock containing sugar (sugarcane, sugar beet, sweet sorghum) and containing starch (corn, wheat, cassava). Wet and dry milling routes are used to produce bioethanol from corn. Dry milling requires less investment and produces dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) beside bioethanol, while the wet milling produces oil and animal feed beside the bioethanol. Corn-grain is used to coproduce bioethanol and wet or DDGS as animal feed. Fig. 5 shows the basic steps of converting starch into bioethanol by biochemical process using 6-carbon sugar sources. Most corn is ground to a meal, and then the starch from the grain is hydrolyzed by enzymes to glucose (dry mill). The 6-carbon sugars are then fermented to ethanol by natural yeast and bacteria. The fermented mash is separated into ethanol and residue by distillation. Hydrated ethanol forms an azeotropic mixture; fuel grade ethanol (0.4 vol% water) can be achieved by azeotropic distillation, by means of molecular sieves, or by extractive distillation [34].

The average yield of converting corn starch to ethanol is around 100 gallons bioethanol per dry ton corn [35]. About one-third of every kilogram of corn grain is converted to ethanol, one-third to DDGS, and one-third to CO2. Ethanol is produced at ASTM D4806 standards and shipped to the refiner or distributor for blending with conventional fossil gasoline into finished gasoline.

Surplus corn in the United States and sugarcane in Brazil are used to produce bioethanol. Fermentation of a bushel of corn (approximately 25.4 kg) using the dry-mill process yields about 10.2 l of ethanol and approximately 7.9 kg of DDGS that contains 10% moisture. This coproduct is richer in protein, fat, minerals, and fiber relative to corn and hence is a valuable feed [14]. Bioethanol producers have adopted various technologies such as high-tolerance yeasts, continuous ethanol fermentation, cogeneration of steam and electricity, and molecular sieve driers to reduce ethanol production costs [35,36].

Various studies have been published of the food industry from an economic and consumer point of view (McCorkle, 1988; Connor, 1988). While these references are old, they are still accurate in an industry that does not change very quickly. The food industry is the largest by economic impact in the USA, with annual sales of over $500 billion. The industry is very diverse, but major segments include those that process raw commodities into ingredients and foods; those that preserve and modify ingredients into foods and ingredients; and those that produce consumer food products.

Corresponding to the wide range of products are the many processes involved, ranging from the relatively simple size reduction and physical separation of flour milling to the sophisticated biochemical process of fermentation and aging involved in making wine. In between are combinations of culinary and engineering art and science to reproduce on a large, commercial scale the flavor, texture and nutrition of home-prepared dishes and meals.

Food companies can be very large, with sales approaching $25 billion per year, and relatively small, with sales that might not exceed $1 million per year. (See the August issue of Food Processing (Putnam Media, Itasca, IL) each year for a list of the top 100 food companies.) In the list for 2007, the top five companies, by food sales in 2006 were:

Consolidation among large companies has made the largest multinational firms very large indeed, with operations all over the world. In the context of designing and operating facilities, one consequence is that such firms need to be cognizant of customs, regulations and cultures very different from those of their home country. As one small example, it is common in many countries to provide one or more hot meals each day to the workforce. Sometimes, dormitories are also provided for a work force that may have moved a long distance to get a job. This means that a food facility may need to have a full kitchen and extensive living quarters on site. These are not commonly found in US food facilities.

Religious and cultural practices often affect what foods are popular. Muslim and Jewish adherents do not eat pork; Hindus do not eat beef; Muslims avoid alcohol; and Chinese apparently like corn chowder, among other preferences. Such cultural practices affect what food products are likely to sell well in a given market and thus what a given facility is intended to do.

The distribution systems in developing countries may be relatively primitive due to poor roads, lack of refrigeration in homes and stores, and the lack of a commercial infrastructure. These conditions mean that the scale of operation may need to be smaller than it would be in the USA. Products that are shelf stable, as compared with frozen or refrigerated, are better suited for developing countries. Food manufacturers may need to establish their own system of distribution centers and wholesalers, whereas third parties in the USA often handle these functions.

Some facilities may be located to take advantage of local raw materials. Thus, for example, sugar mills are in tropical areas because sugar cane is a tropical crop. Sugar mills produce raw sugar, which is about 97% pure sucrose, and is shipped closer to markets in temperate areas for further refining. Tropical oils, such as palm oil and palm nut oil are harvested and the raw oil produced close to the palm plantations, with refining taking place closer to shipping points on the coasts of Southeast Asia.

Another factor in facility location is the relative density of the raw material and finished product. For instance, potato chip snacks, which have a low bulk density, are commonly made near population centers, while frozen and dehydrated potato products are usually made near potato producing areas.

Wheat flour mills in the USA tend to be located near wheat producing areas and near water ports on rivers, lakes or oceans. Flour users, such as bread bakers are closer to markets. Cookie and cracker bakers may have larger and fewer plants because cookies and crackers are denser than bread and have a longer shelf life.

The customers of food manufacturers are not usually consumers but the stores and food service institutions that serve consumers. About 50% of food consumed in the USA is consumed outside of the home, so the manufacture and distribution of products for food service are increasingly important. These products are different in many ways from those intended for use in the home or factory. Food service products are often refrigerated or frozen, are usually portion controlled, and may be heavily influenced by culinary concepts. This means they are conceived and developed by chefs or people with some culinary training and are meant to be used by kitchen personnel in restaurants, colleges, hospitals and prisons. Consumer food products, in contrast, are often developed by food scientists and food technologists.

Consumer food products tend to be sold in supermarkets, convenience stores and, increasingly, in mass merchandisers. Often these customers have their own distribution systems and centers (DC). Usually, food manufacturers have distribution centers as well, so there can be some redundant handling as a product moves from factory to distribution center to another distribution center and then to the store. Rationalizing the food distribution system is a major cost reduction opportunity, but the ideal solution has not emerged yet.

Some products require direct store delivery (DSD), usually because they are perishable or have such high sales volume that they need frequent deliveries. Bread, milk, soft drinks and salty snacks are examples of foods delivered daily to most stores. DSD is an expensive distribution system because it is labor intensive and because fuel costs have been increasing. DSD driver/salespeople are often paid a commission on sales, which provides a substantial incentive, but adds to costs. Some are company employees while others may be independent contractors who own their equipment. Independent contractors often service vending machines for snacks, soft drinks and confections. DSD once was largely a cash business, with store owners paying on the spot. This is less common now. Managing and controlling a widely dispersed sales and delivery force can be a challenge.

Mass merchandisers have been influencing the food industry because they demand low prices, very good service and, often, special packaging (especially in club stores). They also move very large amounts of product, so accommodating them is a major objective. Food manufacturers often open dedicated sales offices near the headquarters of mass merchandisers so as to service them better.

The case study set up is solved using CPLEX solver in GAMS modeling tool. It is then plotted into Microsoft Excel 2010 for further verification. As predicted, the result shows conflict between the environmental and the economic objectives understudy.

As emission credit is only given to C+TDM, the overall GHG impact is lowered, and the environmental cost for C+TDM is reduced. Thus the total cost for C+TDM is lower than LCEP. This is shown in Fig2.

In terms of environmental impact, stages bp, bpt, bt and ft are assumed to have the same GHG emission factor for both technologies, thus the impact for these four stages look identicial. However, without considering the emission credit, life cycle stage fp for C+TDM immediately rises to more than 160 million kg CO2-eq, which is about 2.5 times the amount for LCEP.

At the same time, the emission credit ec for C+TDM is high as well (almost 100 million kg CO2-eq), which effectively helps to lower the total GHG emission for the conversion technology, as well as increase the profit. This is shown in Fig3.

This section is fundamental to guarantee the final quality of the product, especially as regards parameters such as ash content, ash fusibility, and the occurrence of Cl, N, and other alkali metals, which are elements that directly influence the probability of occurrence of phenomena of slagging, fouling, and corrosion in combustion equipment.

Usually, after the debarking section, the shredding unit follows. These two sections can be connected by different types of equipment, the most common of which are chain draggers (Fig.5.3), which help to eliminate the inerts that are still attached to the trunks, and the metal detection unit (Fig.5.4). Which serves to detect and enable the disposal of ferrous metal parts. It is very common to find remains of saws metal sheets used in the processes of resination.

The purpose of the shredding unit is to reduce the size of the logs to a size that allows them to be admitted to the drying system. This section is usually associated with a sieving system (Fig.5.5) and also an auxiliary grinding system, referred to as green milling, because this milling occurs before the feedstock is dried. As will be seen later, In the case of the production of torrential biomass products, this step is not necessary, one of the advantages presented for this process being compared to conventional.

The feed of raw material to the drying system can be done in several ways, provided that a buffer is created that ensures a sufficient quantity of product to maintain the continuity of the process in case of failure or stop upstream, until the resolution of the situation. One of the ways to make this feed and to guarantee the intermediate storage of raw material is through mobile-floor systems (Fig.5.6). This system allows the storage of product in very significant quantities because the material can be stored and added on the floor. It also allows that in the case of the acquisition of raw material already processed, it is added to the process at this point.

Drying is one of the most determinant processes for the quality of the finished product and even for the fluidity of the production process. There are several types of dryers, but the most used are rotary drum dryers (Fig.5.7). The sizing of the dryer is based on several assumptions for the process to take place as efficiently as possible:

Drying is also one of the processes that consumes the most energy in a biomass pellet production unit. For this reason, it is essential that the process occurs as efficiently as possible, optimizing the energy use, and subsequently the associated energy costs.

The drying units can use different forms of energy, the most common being biomass and natural gas. It is very common for large biomass pellet plants to resort to biomass combustion systems (Fig.5.8), which provide heat to the drying process. This option is essentially due to two factors. First because of the economic option, because it is an energy intensive consumer, the energy costs are very high and biomass, in the form of residual forest biomass or even in the form of wastes from the peeler, always has a low cost and usually in abundance. Second, because of the location chosen for the plants to be closer to the sources of raw material, they are far from the natural gas networks, not allowing their use.

It is also common to have an intermediate storage after milling of dry product. This storage feeds the pelletizing units and must ensure that the system remains under load and with a constant supply. This intermediate storage system is also very useful for any stoppages that may occur, caused by faults or preventive maintenance needs that may occur downstream, particularly in densification systems. The feeding of pelletizers can be done in different ways, being very common The existence of a mixer where the moisture in the sawmill can be corrected and where additives can also be added to improve the qualities and properties of the materials. An example of a mixer is shown in Fig.5.10. Inside is a shaft with a propeller that allows the material to already blend and advance. This ensures homogenization of the sawmill properties, while ensuring a sufficient residence time for the same homogenization.

There are different types of pelletizers, the most common types being called vertical axis or flat matrix, and horizontal or annular array. It will be the configuration of the matrices combined with the type of layers used in the rolls that will contribute to the greater or lesser compression rate of the pellets. The most used pelletizers are those of horizontal axis, having therefore more manufacturers of this type than of pelletizers of flat matrix (Fig.5.11). The horizontal axis pelletizers always have a conditioner at their upper part, which guarantees the constant flow of material falling into the compression chamber (Fig.5.12).

The pellets produced are cut by a set of blades that will allow them to be less than a certain length, usually smaller than 35mm (Fig.5.13). The pellets after cutting fall into a conveyor system, which may be a redler or conveyor belt, which will lead them to the cooler.

The most common coolers are countercurrent, in which the pellets will enter from the top, in the opposite direction to a current of cold air, which contributes to their cooling. After the cooling system, there is very often a sieve, which can be circular or vibrating, which will clean the powder and the fine particles not pelletized, usually of a size of 5mm or less. An example of a countercurrent cooler equipped with a vibrating screen is shown in Fig.5.14.

After sieving, the pellets are ready to be stored and/or packaged, depending on their type and destination. In the case of pellets designated as industrial, with a diameter of 8mm, the most frequent is to be stored in silos or bulk containers, from which they are later shipped (Fig.5.15). In domestic pellets with a diameter of 6mm, the most frequent is to be bagged in 10 and 15kg packages (Fig.5.16), intended for trade and distribution by private customers, who consume them in boilers and domestic greenhouses, such as which are exemplified in Fig.5.17.

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