For its extensive practical experience, 911 Metallurgisthas a clear understanding of what successful mineral processing engineering is and how to go about achieving it. Your goal is the production of a material that is marketable and returns you and your investors sustainable revenues.
Although improvements to the metallurgical processes have been made over the years the fact is that the unit operations, the machines, those too often called black boxes involved have not evolved or changed much since inception. Ore is reduced in size, chemicals are added and minerals separated and upgraded to produce a marketable product. Much of this process is mechanical and generally mistaken for some dark alchemy.We are the Anti-Alchemists.
Our vast experience has been gained through operation and start-up of both small and large scale mining/metallurgical operations in a range of commodities in thebase metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) and theprecious metals (Au, Ag,)
A solid metallurgist understands, the most important aspect of an operating process is its stability. Simple to say, but generally the most ignored in mineral processing. Linked unit operations require each to be stable, and each contains a different set of variables that have to be contended with. Thanks to some degree of stability: operating changes can be made and evaluated; increases in throughput can be made; and equipment performance improved. The more complicated the processes become, the more difficult it is to achieve and maintain stability. In mineral processing, unlike most processing operations, we have limited control of the main input, the feed ore. In most cases this inherently is variable and usually outside of the processors control.
Because you are too close to your own story, you might not see the forest for the trees and have chaos mistaken for stability. We, you, and your group have been battling plant problems for weeks, you start to accept chaos as a daily state of affair and consider it your new stability.
Each mineral processing plant is different: with varied ore types, mining equipment, and management (operating) philosophy. The evaluation and prioritisation of variables that affect the plant performance is the primary function. Implementing changes within the constraints imposed can be difficult, as resources may be limited.
Invariably the ability to solve problems can be confusing due the large numbers of variables that may impact the processes. In most cases problems are not metallurgical in nature but rather operational and mechanical. Problem solving is a process and in many operations this ability is absent. All too often many changes are made together without a solution resulting, on more confusion. Most plants learn to live or survive their problems, not to solve them.
Our engineering team has a global experience in the mining industry across all facets of the mine life-cycle. Our focus is to add value to your project and company by understanding your needs, employing innovative ideas and applying sound engineering while maintaining an economically driven approach. We have a combination of senior level professionals, experienced project managers, and technical staff to execute projects efficiently. We work in a partnership with our clients to achieve their company goals and operational milestones in a timely and cost effective manner.
Low grown orthodox tea is most efficient in terms of labour use, energy use and carbon emissions.Energy use is highest in the use phase (45.25 MJ/kg of tea) due to the amount of energy needed to heat water. CO2 emissions are highest for packaging (4447%) due to the complex materials used for packaging tea bags.Labour use is highest in the labour intensive cultivation stage.Costs are also highest in the cultivation/purchase of tea leaves stage due to the high labour use.
This evidence based study uses combined lifecycle and value/supply chain analysis to examine the sustainability (environmental, social and economic impacts) of tea manufacturing in Sri Lanka, a major export earner and employment creating product. Environmental indicators assessed include carbon emissions and energy use, social indicators include labour use and gender, and the economic indicator is cost. These indicators are assessed at all stages of production, processing, export, use and disposal. A cross-section of Low, Medium and High grown tea factories producing Crush, Tear, Curl (CTC) and Orthodox and Green tea (where available) were investigated. The study uncovered many issues including energy efficiency of the industry, Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, and occupational health hazards. One key result is that at the cultivation and processing stage, low grown orthodox tea is the most efficient in terms of labour use, energy use and carbon emissions. Energy use is highest in the use phase due to the high amounts of energy needed to heat water for a 2.5g tea bag. CO2 emissions are highest in the packaging stage due to the large amount of materials such as cardboard needed to package tea bags. Labour use is highest in the labour intensive cultivation stage. Costs are also highest in the cultivation stage/purchase of tea leaves, due to the high labour use.