Brazil is located in southeastern South America. Brazil is rich in mineral resources, with the features of variety, large reserves, high grade, etc.And Brazil has advanced production and development technologies. So it can meet the needs of the domestic national product, at the same time, a large number of mining products can export to other countries. Brazil has becomeone of the large mineral resources and products exporting countries of the world.Simultaneously, Brazilianmining industry has become an important growth point of national economic development. Among them, Brazilian nickel reserves are very rich. There were about 8.3 million tons of nickel ore reserves have proven in Brazil, mainly distributed in Para Sate and GoiasState. In recent years, Brazil's nickel ore and nickel production showed overall growth trend. In 2011, 11.33 million tons of nickel oreswere mined in Brazil, of which nickel production reached 110,960 tons.
Nickel is a kind of silvery-white metal.Because it has good mechanical strength and ductility, high temperature refractory and high chemical stability, and other features, it is a very important non-ferrous metals raw material. Nickelis used to manufacture stainless steel, high nickel alloy and alloy steel. And it is widely used in aircraft, radar, missiles, tanks, ships, spacecraft, nuclear reactors and other military industry. In the civilian industry, it is often used to makenickel steel, acid-resistant steel, heat-resistant steel. It can be used extensively for a variety of mechanical manufacturing. Nickel can be made of ceramic pigments and anticorrosive coating. In the chemical industry, the nickel is used as hydrogenation catalyst.
In the nickel ore processing line, we always need jaw crusher, cone crusher, vibrating screen and some beneficiation equipment. First, large nickel ores need to be sent to jaw crusher evenly for primary crushing by vibrating screen. And then, the crushed nickel ores need to be transported to cone crusher for medium and fine crushing. Then, vibrating screen is used to separate the crushed ores into different sizes. The nickel particles which meet the requirement will be sent to beneficiation equipment. While the ores dont reach the required size will be returned to cone crusher for re-crushing.
Nickel ores can mainly divided into copper-nickel sulfide ore and nickel oxide ore. The ore beneficiation and processing methods of them are completely different. The beneficiation methodof copper-nickel sulfide ore isflotation, and magnetic separation and gravityseparation are usually auxiliary dressing methods. The beneficiation method of nickel oxide oreis as following. We need crushing, screening and other processes to remove the large bedrockwith low degree of nickel in advance. Since the nickel element of nickel oxide is often dispersed in the gangue minerals, and the particle size is very small, and therefore nickel oxide cant be enriched by mechanical processing method. We alwayssmelt it directly.
Customers should choose the right processing method according to the nickel mineral type. If you have any question, please contact with us, our experienced engineers will give you the best and the most professional suggestion. They can also design an efficient nickel processing line for you according to customers requirement. And all of the machines which used in the Brazil nickel mining plant we can provide. Both of our products and service will make you feel satisfied. We look forward to cooperating with you.
Its fully-enclosed layout features high integration. It integrates the functions of high-efficiency sand making, particle shape optimization, filler content control, gradation control, water content control, and environmental protection into a single syst
Zambia is the world's fourth largest copper producing country and the second largest cobalt producing country.From the early 1990s, Zambiagovernment began the privatization of copper mine.After 10 years, the privatizationprocess had been completed. In recent years, due to the international market prices have continued to rise, the domestic and foreign enterprises have increased the copper mining investment. As the world's fourth largest copper producing country, copper industry has a great impact on the national economy of Zambia. With the increase of Zambia copper mine to complete privatization and foreign investment, Zambia copper industry achieved remarkable development. In 2005 the international market copper prices broke through the $3000 / MT, which greatly stimulated the Zambia copper production. Zambia annual copper volume reached 410000 tons in 2008, which up from 16.2% in 2005. Zambia copper production is expected in 2005 500000 tons in 2014.Zambia copper mine has a great market development in the future.
At first, Zambia copper mine exploration has a major progress. In 2000 the Zambia territory has been proven copper reserves of 12 tons, the average grade is 2.5%. In the northwestern province of Tulum Lumwana found in the area of new copper reserves of 4.8 tons, it is one of the world's largest untapped copper. The data show that, Zambia's copper reserves of 20 tons in 2013, which needs further exploration. Zambia copper mining has two bright spots, the second is Zambia copper mine deep mining have new breakthrough. After a long period of mining for dozens of years, Zambia copper mine exhausted the shallow. Copper deep mining need more invest and unique equipment. Zambia copper mining need to have efficient equipment to promote the development of the national economy.
With different ore types you need choose a different processing method. A multi metal sulfide ore, the ore composition characteristics were selected to mixed flotation, hybrid priority flotation, flotation and gravity separation, flotation separation method and combined magnetic and flotation hydrometallurgical method. Oxidized ore, generally with the flotation and hydrometallurgical treatment or with flotation maceration combined treatment with combined type copper oxide ore. Mixed ore, usually by flotation method, it can be processed separately, or together with sulfide ore processing; can also be used in flotation and hydrometallurgical treatment, namely, first select the copper concentrate by flotation method, then the hydrometallurgical processing of tailings after flotation.In Zambia successful project, copper mining method need make the combination of physical and chemical methods.
With the development of the scale of the rapid expansion of copper production, the consumption of resources is to further accelerate the pace; the copper mineral resources for the use are increasingly scarce. By mining equipment upgrades and technological progress, domestic and foreign copper mine has further expand the scale of production, which has strengthen the comprehensive utilization of mineral resources. Zambia copper mining is to form scale, which not only can improve the copper production but also reduce production cost.
The mining process of copper ore is very simple, which mainly include grinding and flotation.It is important for choosing flotation equipment on the copper mining plant. As a professional manufacturer of flotation machine, SBM can tailor for you the copper production line. With the development of economy, the copper beneficiation process is continuous changing and the copper mining technology continues to improve.According to different types of copper we can choose different mining method, from which you can get more economic benefit in Zambia.
Base on decades of years R&D experience and thousands of clients production experience, SBM updated our tranditional vibrating feeder and developped the TSW series feeder, which can greatly improve the whole production line capacity.
The geological conditions create new challenges in your copper mine. Declining ore grades mean less metal production for each ton processed. And as you have to dig deeper and into harder rock you face longer haulage distances and increased wear of your equipment which translates into higher operational costs.
To remain productive, you need endurable and reliable equipment that increases your productivity. As a full flowsheet provider, we have proven ourselves as a supplier of premium equipment in every step of the process from comminution to filtration. Your solution will be based on our more than 130 years of experience with processing equipment combined with more than 40 years in the copper industry.
This experience gives you bigger and more efficient equipment capable of increasing production at reduced costs. Examples are larger grinding equipment, large capacity high density thickeners, and new flotation cells that help brownfield mines gain a higher throughput in order to maintain production. Our energy efficient equipment also helps you keep operational costs at a minimum and reduce your environmental impact.
How you manage water has a direct impact on your license to operate in the copper mining industry. Governments across the world are enforcing new water regulations, and tensions with local communities about the right to use the water can be time consuming and costly.
Together with Goldcorp, we have developed EcoTailsthat blends filtered tailings with waste rock creating a high-density geotechnically stable product called GeoWaste. This makes dry-stacking possible even for large scale operations, and even in areas with high seismic activities. Furthermore, EcoTails enables recirculation of 90-95 per cent of your process water.
Not only does this save you operational costs on your copper mine, it also reduces closure costs and makes it easier to obtain your social license to operate, as it reduces the risk of water contamination. EcoTailsTM can bring an end to tailings dam and thus eliminate the risk of tailings dam failures as well as lessen your projects environmental impact.
Rapid Oxidative Leach (ROL) is another of our innovative about to rock your world. This mechano-chemical process can leach 97-99% copper directly on site, from concentrates as low as 5% copper in less than six hours. This makes it feasible for you to produce cathode copper from concentrate directly at the site rather than to sell the concentrate to a smelter. The ROL process can even leach copper from arsenic-ladden concentrates.
FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.
The 3+2-year extension of the Life-Cycle Services agreement covers the supply of mill lining, chute lining solutions, preventive maintenance of the grinding circuit and recycling of used wear parts, the mining OEM said. The first part of the contract has been booked in Metso Outotecs orders received in the September quarter of 2020.
The contract is a performance-based cost-per-tonne agreement, in which Metso Outotec gets paid according to the output of the customers process. The goal is to ensure the availability of the grinding circuit and to maximise valuable production time, striving for a common goal that benefits both parties, the company said.
Metso Outotec and Boliden have cooperated since the 1960s. Throughout the decades, the collaboration has evolved to meet new emerging needs, while continuing to improve uptime and annual production, Metso Outotec said.
Safety is Bolidens top priority and enhancing it is also embedded in the scope of the new contract, the OEM said. Metso Outotec will provide solutions that simultaneously cut maintenance time and increase the wear life of parts even further.
The new contract also focuses more on the management of worn wear parts, with Metso Outotec developing capabilities to recycle and dispose of them more sustainably. The AG mills in Aitik will continue to use Metso Outotecs innovative Megaliner mill lining.
Megaliner helps to maximise the availability of large mills by using an innovative design that speeds up liner replacement. The larger-than-average liners mean fewer individual pieces are needed. Megaliner also has fewer attachment points compared with conventional liners, further improving installation and removal time, Metso Outotec says. It also improves worker safety during maintenance as the liners are bolted into position from outside the mill.
Metso has once again flexed its R&D muscles, launching a new and innovative product that, it says, can speed up and improve the safety of one of the trickiest and riskiest processes mill personnel carry out.
The Discharge End Megaliner builds on the Metso Megaliner concept the company introduced in 2012. Designed to reduce downtime by minimising the number of parts and people inside the mill during a relining process, the Megaliner has so far been installed in over 30 mills around the world.
A Megaliner element integrates multiple lifter and plate rows and has a minimum number of attachment points. Covering an area several times larger than conventional liners, these liners are light weight in relation to their size and, with threaded bushings, enable safer and faster relining processes to be conducted.
The initial 2012 Megaliner launch saw these lightweight liner parts developed for the mill shell. In 2015, Metso expanded the lining concept to the feed end of grinding mills. The company is now ready to tackle the tricky mill discharge end to complete the hat-trick.
The shell represents the largest number of components to install so the potential for time savings for customers was large, hence why the Megaliner started there, he told IM. We have since extended to the feed end of the mill and now to the discharge end.
Even though the discharge section of the mill lining process is not as big from a volume perspective, the need for long bolts and a complex fixing arrangement in conventional installations makes it one of the most time-consuming and risky processes to carry out, he said. The Discharge End Megaliner is a highly valued addition to our Megaliner range as many of our customers struggle with the process.
With grate discharge mills typically SAG, AG and ball mills the conventional relining process at the discharge end usually involves removing the dischargers and grates, replacing with new lined versions and hammering in large, long bolts through the layers to secure the liner components.
Even if modern recoilless hammers are used, it is still a challenge, Poutanen said. When the bolts become loose, they are hazardous and can potentially injure personnel. In this process, personnel are also inside the mill one of the most dangerous sections of the whole process plant.
On top of the large, long bolts, nuts are also required to fix the panels in place with conventional lining processes, adding up to multiple individual pieces and attachment points that must be fixed securely from inside the mill, Poutanen explained.
The Discharge End Megaliner, meanwhile, sees dischargers, grates and segments preassembled into one large unit. These are equipped with threaded bushings that are secured with short bolts from very importantly outside of the mill, he said.
Poutanen says the new Discharge End Megaliner can be applied to any type of grate discharge mill there is no prerequisite for Megaliner liners in the shell and feed end, for example as long as there is a wide enough trunnion opening to remove and replace the liners, and a liner handler of sufficient capacity.
Metso is targeting the large end of the grinding mill market with this new development. The larger the mill, the greater the throughput, which has a direct impact on the costs associated with potential downtime caused by the relining process, Poutanen explained.
The base metal mine already has Megaliner mill liners on the shell and feed end of both of its primary AG mills and has tested the new Discharge End Megaliner over nine months at one of these 38 ft (11.6 m) mills.
Similar to LHD operators being removed from the cab in order to remotely operate loaders in potentially unstable areas of underground mines, the ability to carry out the relining process from outside of the mill danger zone could be considered an initial stage towards a fully automated relining process.
He said the combination of the Megaliner and Metsos camera-based liner positioning system which is offered to all Megaliner customers as an add on to the liner handling equipment could help make the process more autonomous.
In order to be able to develop this kind of fully autonomous package, a close collaboration with customers and liner handler suppliers is required, he said. I think we are still a few years away from having the process move to fully autonomous mode.
Metso, as part of its Minerals Consumables business area review of manufacturing capabilities in the EMEA region, says it is starting personnel negotiations to review the implications at rubber and poly-met wear part production units in Ersmark and Trelleborg, Sweden.
The negotiations concern the potential closure of the factory in Ersmark and the restructuring of the manufacturing operation in Trelleborg, according to the company, and could affect manufacturing related functions and some 150 positions.
The Ersmark and Trelleborg units produce rubber and poly-met wear parts used in the mining industry. Today, Metso is a leading player in the rubber and poly-met mill lining business, with a strong service network in all the main mining markets, it said. In addition to Ersmark and Trelleborg, Metso operates nine factories manufacturing synthetic solutions globally.
Sami Takaluoma, President, Minerals Consumables business area, said: Our target is to utilise the full potential of the most efficient manufacturing methods and optimise sourcing opportunities and logistics. By developing our supply capabilities at the regional and global levels, we are actively responding to changes in the competitive environment, as well as improving our flexibility in fulfilling customers needs.
The Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining Southern Africa (IOM3) has acknowledged Spike Taylor, Managing Directorof Multotec Rubber, for the significant role he has played in the industrial rubber industry since 2002, Multotec says.
Taylor, who has a BSc inEngineering Metallurgy, began his career at De Beers and, in 1985, joined Multotec as a Sales Engineer. He progressed through the organisation and, in 2009, was appointed as the MD of Multotec Rubber.
Multotec Rubber is primarily focused on the local manufacture of rubber and rubber composite grinding mill liners. It establishedits local manufacturing plant in Spartan, in 2000. The company can point to more than 400 successful mill and scrubber liner installations across Africa, it said.
Referencing recent installations, Taylor said these include an AGmill lining on a diamond mine in East Africa, a lining in a secondary ball mill on a platinum mine on the South Africa western Limb, two scrubber linings on a phosphate mine in North Africa and a SAG mill lining for a Zambia copper mine.
In addition to these, Multotec Rubber has significantly increased its footprint in West Africa with the installation of three ball mill linings and a SAG mill lining at gold plants in this region, he said.
In all instances, the Multotec product replaced competitor lining, according to the company.Taylor attributes this to the focused approach of the Multotec Rubber team to leverage mill liner technology to ensure customersreceive the benefit of the companys extensive knowledge,facilitating optimum recoveries.
By maintaining the high road when it comes to product quality and product consistency, we have been able to prove to customers that those who accept inferior product because of lower pricing do inevitably pay for this over the long run with production issues, Taylor concluded.
Norilsk Nickel has recently switched out the chrome and molybdenum alloy lining of a SAG mill at its Talnakh concentrator in Russia as the company looked to increase the life of these all-important wear parts.
Sever Minerals and Norilsknikelremont (a subsidiary of Norilsk) were contracted to complete the mill relining project, using liners supplied by Metsos global team, which also used the OEMs Megaliner concept.
A Norilsk spokesperson told IM that the mill lining was replaced with two elements, the Metso Poly-Met; a rubber-steel combination installed on the front-facing part of the mill; and the Metso Megaliner, which has large shell or head liners used to protect the drum.
The spokesperson added: The cladding manufacturers guarantee that the mill can work for 5,600 hours uninterrupted (that is about eight months non-stop). The previous version required the SAG mill to be stopped for replacement every six months.
The Megaliner is, according to Metso, a new, innovative mill liner concept, dramatically improving worker safety and maximising mill availability. Each shell or head liner covers a large area, has few attachment components and an attachment system which gives a safer working environment for the installation crew, it said.
The new mill liner weighs close to 130 t, which is 120 t less than the old mill liner. The average weight of one mill liner element is 1.8 t (elements have different configurations and respective mass), the spokesperson said.
In 2019, the Chuquicamata mine one of the largest copper mines in the world was converted from an open-pit mine to an underground operation. In 2015, TAKRAF was contracted to supply the principal ore transportation system moving crushed copper ore from underground storage bins to the surface processing site.
The Chuquicamata mine, situated in Chiles north, has been in operation since 1915 and is owned by Codelco, Chiles state-owned copper mining company. Codelco is the worlds largest producer of copper and second largest producer of molybdenum. Over 100years of open-pit mining have resulted in a mine that is some 1,000m deep, 5,000m long and 3,000m wide. Once the rock had been mined by drilling and blasting, the ore and waste material were transported to the surface by trucks for processing or for disposal. However, it was becoming no longer economically viable to mine deeper ore bodies using this extraction and transport process. Moreover, longer truck routes combined with a larger number of vehicles resulted in higher costs for vehicle maintenance and fuel, not to mention greater environmental pollution and safety concerns.
In 2015, TAKRAF was awarded the contract to supply the principal ore transportation system moving crushed copper ore from underground storage bins to the surface processing site. The system called for no redundancies, which means that for this project, high system availability, minimal system wear and easy maintenance of components were all decisive factors.
The conveying system supplied by TAKRAF starts at the underground storage bin discharge. Two material stores in the form of vertical cylindrical openings with a diameter of 6m and a height of 60m separate the flow of mined material from transport to ore processing. The use of conventional belt feeders was originally planned for controlled material discharge. With this conveying method, material is transported from the discharge area along a 30m conveyor route to a transfer point by using a flat belt with vertical chute sidewalls.
However, optimizations made to the system after the contract was awarded led to a change in the system. By employing a feeder conveyor, the conveyor belt now has a 45 degree trough angle along the entire conveyor route, with the only chutes being in the storage bin discharge area. As with a belt feeder, the contour of the material to be conveyed is specified by a shear gate and the flow of discharged material is defined by varying the conveying speed. The elimination of vertical sidewalls along the conveyor path means less wear and thus reduced maintenance costs, combined with energy savings of around 25 %.
Two conventional trough conveyors connect the material discharge of the feeder conveyors with the loading point of the inclined conveyor, around 900m away. Installed in a tunnel that extends some 6,400m to the surface, the inclined conveyors overcome a not insignificant difference in elevation of 950m. Each underground transfer point along the tunnel requires an underground chamber with a crane for maintenance work, power supply, transformers, and electrical and mechanical drive technologies, with adapted ventilation and suitable access paths.
In order to minimize the number of transfer points, the inclined conveyor section was successfully developed employing just two conveyors. In order to achieve this feat, it was necessary to use newly developed components that redefine the performance limits of belt conveyor technology. St10,000 quality conveyor belts were used for the first time. Operating belt safety ratings of S=5.0 required belt connections with a reference fatigue strength of over 50 %. This value was proven on the belt test rig at the University of Hanover in Germany. Once again, new dimensions were achieved this time in terms of installed drive power with 10,000kW of installed drive power per drive pulley and 20,000kW per conveyor.
Maintenance of the air gap between the rotor and stator is a crucial requirement for the operation of the motors. The air gap, which is 14mm, must only be allowed to deviate from the setpoint within small tolerances. Deviations in the air gap reduce the efficiency of the motor, and if rotor and stator were to make contact with each other, this would result in damage to the motor. The air gap itself is continuously monitored during operation. If deformations and/or subsidence in the steel structure or in the motor foundations lead to a deviation in the air gap setpoint, the stator has to be realigned. To simplify this process, the spacing between the rotor and stator at the non-driven end of the motor was fixed by a support bearing.
A membrane coupling compensates for the deformation of the pulley shaft caused by belt tension. The adjustable motor frame facilitates alignment of the motor during installation and ensures simple realignment if necessary. Eccentrics and spindles allow the stator to be adjusted in all directions. Should a motor fail, it can be quickly moved into a disabled position by opening the membrane coupling and adjusting the spindles. The system can then continue to operate only with reduced power.
The landscape surrounding the processing plants has been shaped by over 100 years of mining at Chuquicamata. In addition to the various processing systems, waste heaps, train tracks, roads, pipelines, and buildings scar the landscape. The challenge for the new conveyor system was to design a system that took into consideration this landscape for its entire length from the end of the underground tunnel (blue building in photo 8) to the processing plant more than 5 km away.
The conveyor design again revolved around ensuring high system availability, minimal system wear and easy maintenance of components. All loading points along the conveyor route were optimized in order to reduce conveyor belt wear. The arrangement of the rock boxes and grizzly fingers was verified with simulations using the Discrete Element Method (DEM).
Newly designed transfer chutes allow wear plates to be replaced quickly and easily. To replace idlers, a specially designed TAKRAF maintenance vehicle is able to travel along the conveyor path, enabling the conveyor belt to be lifted and worn idlers to be safely and efficiently replaced. At the material discharge point, a bunker building performs a limited material storage function. Two feeder conveyors remove the material and feed it to the processing plants.
Three 5,000kW direct drive motors drive this conveyor, with a St6,800 conveyor belt with a belt safety of S=5.1 being used. Vibration behaviour of the belt during start up and braking was analyzed across all operating conditions using dynamic belt calculations.
System parameters such as a St 10,000 conveyor belt and 20,000 kW drive power per conveyor redefine the limits of belt conveyor technology. This made it possible to achieve the goal of reducing the number of underground transfer points, thereby justifying the use of these components.
High system availability, minimal system wear and easy maintenance of components were essential criteria when designing this system. Numerous innovations that resulted in six patents were implemented for the first time, resulting in a modern, powerful and environmentally friendly conveyor system. Highly efficient electric drive motors replace diesel truck engines and as a result, CO2 emissions produced by transporting the material have been reduced by more than two thirds.