equipments iron ore to mine copper ore

reliable equipment for iron ore mines

reliable equipment for iron ore mines

Its all about volume. In the iron ore industry, you want the largest possible throughput of iron ore through your processing equipment. Thats why you need the most reliable and proven equipment that never lets you down, even though it handles large tonnages every day of the year.

Whether you need to sustain or increase your throughput, or you are looking to increase the grade, you want the most advanced beneficiation and processing equipment. For more than a century, we have helped advance the productivity of mineral processing operations, and we help you discover the optimal solution in every step from metallurgical testing to full plant design.

Just one hour of unplanned downtime can cost you millions of dollars in lost revenue. To avoid that, you need equipment designed to handle the heavy work combined with the latest technology that allows for remote monitoring and predictive and prescriptive maintenance.

For your bulk material handling, our hundreds of installations around the world has proven the reliability of our equipment. We provide you with a full flowsheet of equipment that has made us the global leader in high-efficiency process systems for iron ore and mineral beneficiation.

With control rooms often being hundreds and even thousands of miles away from the mines, the iron ore industry is leading the way for other commodities into the era of digitalization. And we are right next to you all the way in that journey.

To bring the advantages of digitalization to your mine, we are working with partners all across the world to fully utilise Internet of Things and bring all our equipment online. Among other benefits, this will let you monitor, control and benchmark operational performance remotely, as well as help you plan for maintenance well in advance of a breakdown.

FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.

iron ore mining | techniques | metal extraction

iron ore mining | techniques | metal extraction

Iron ores are rocks and mineral deposits from which clanging iron can be reasonably extracted. The ores are generally prosperous in iron oxides and fluctuate in color ranging from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to even rusty red. The iron by its own is usually found in the structure of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), goethite, limonite or siderite. Hematite is also identified as "natural ore". The nomenclature dates back to the early years of drawing out, when certain hematite ores comprised 66% iron and could be fed reliably into iron edifice blast furnaces. Iron ore is the unrefined substance utilized to formulate pig iron, which is one of the most important untreated materials to compose steel. 98% of the hauled out iron ore is used to produce steel.

Uncontaminated iron ore is almost nameless on the exterior of the Earth apart from the combination of Fe-Ni alloys from meteorites and very atypical forms of unfathomable mantle xenoliths. For that reason, all sources of iron ore are utilized by human diligence take benefit of iron oxide minerals, the chief form which is used in industry is known as hematite.

However, in a number of situations, more substandard iron ore sources have been utilized by manufacturing societies when right of entry to high-grade hematite ore was not obtainable. This has incorporated operation of taconite in the United States, predominantly during World War II, and goethite or bog ore utilized in the times of the American Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. Magnetite is often utilized for the reason that it is magnetic and hence effortlessly progressive from the gangue minerals.

Iron ore mining techniques differ by the type of ore that is being hauled out. There are 4 types of iron ore deposits that is being worked on at present, Based on the mineralogy and geology of the ore deposits.

Deposits of iron ore such as haematite containing iron oxide are found in sedimentary rocks from which the oxygen is removed from the iron oxide in a blast furnace to give iron as a result since iron ores consists of the element iron combined with other elements, mostly oxygen. Haematite and magnetite are the most commonly found iron ore minerals.

The smelting process allows the iron ore to be heated with carbon. The carbon combines with the oxygen and carries it away, leaving behind iron. Blast furnaces are so hot which is why they melt the iron, and drain it off to be poured into moulds to form bars, called ingots.

Iron ore mining can be broadly divided into two categories namely 1) manual mining which is employed in small mines and 2) mechanized mining is suitable for large iron ore mines. Manual mining method is normally limited to float ores and small mines. Mining of reef ore is also being done manually on a small scale. The float ore area is dug up manually with picks, crow bars, and spades, and then the material is manually screened and then stacked up. The waste is thrown back into the pits. The blasted broken ore is manually screened, stacked for the purpose of loading in dumpers for dispatch.

Mechanized mining is executed by the extraction of iron ore from surface deposits. The mining areas require all the operations to be mechanized and mining is exceptionally done through systematic formation of benches by drilling and blasting. The physical processes are followed which then remove impurities and the processed ore is stockpiled and blended to meet product quality requirements and then made available to the customers.

Extracting iron from its ore requires a series of steps to be followed and is considered as the penultimate process in metallurgy. The steps need the ore to be concentrated first, followed by the extraction of the metal from the concentrated ore after which the metal is purified.

How is iron extracted from its ore? Iron is concentrated by the process of calcinations. Once it is concentrated, the water and other volatile impurities such as sulfur and carbonates are removed. This concentrated ore is then mixed with limestone (CaCO3) and Coke and fed into the blast furnace from the top. It is in the blast furnace that extraction of iron occurs. The extraction of iron from its ore is a very long and forlorn process that separates the useful components from the waste materials such as slag. What happens in the Blast Furnace? A blast furnace is a gigantic, steel stack lined with refractory brick where the concentrated iron ore, coke, and limestone are dumped from the top, and a blast of hot air is blown into the bottom. The purpose of the Blast Furnace is to reduce the concentrated ore to its liquid metal state. The iron ore, coke and limestone are crushed into small round pieces and mixed and put on a hopper which controls the input. The most common ores of iron are hematite Fe2O3, and magnetite, Fe3O4. These ores can extract iron by heating them with the carbon present in the coke. Heating coal in the absence of air produces coke. Coke is cheap and acts as the heat source and is also the reducing agent for the reaction. Hot air is blown into the bottom of the furnace and heated using the hot waste gases from the top at a temperature of about 2200K. It is important to not waste any heat energy since it is valuable. The coke which is essentially impure carbon burns in the blast of hot air to form carbon dioxide and provides the majority of heat, thus producing a strong exothermic reaction, which is the main source of heat in the furnace. C + O2 ----------------> CO2 Due to high temperatures at the bottom of the furnace, carbon dioxide reacts with carbon to produce carbon monoxide. C + CO ----------------> 2CO This carbon monoxide is the main reducing agent in the furnace. Fe2O3 + 3CO -----------------> 2Fe + 3CO2 In the hotter parts of the furnace, the carbon acts as a reducing agent and thus reduces iron oxide to iron. At these temperatures the product of the reaction is carbon monoxide along with iron. Fe2O3 + 3C -----------------> 2Fe + 3CO The hot temperature of the furnace melts the iron which runs down to the bottom where it can be tapped off. Iron ore isn't pure iron oxide as it also contains some variety of rocky material. Such substances cannot melt at the temperature of the furnace and in due course would end up congesting it. As a solution, the limestone is added to the blast furnace to convert this into slag which shall melt and run to the bottom. The heat of the furnace causes the decomposition of the limestone for producing calcium oxide. CaCO3 ------------> CaO + CO2 Since this requires absorbing heat from the furnace, it is an endothermic reaction that takes place. Therefore it becomes essential to not add too much limestone as it can cause the furnace to cool rapidly. Calcium oxide obtained on decomposition reacts with acidic oxides such as silicon dioxide present in the rock. Being a basic oxide it reacts with silicon dioxide to produce calcium silicate. CaO + SiO2 -------------> CaSiO3 The calcium silicate produced melts and flows down the furnace to form a layer on top of the molten iron from where it can be tapped off every now and then as slag. This slag can be used in road making and as "slag cement" - a final ground slag which can be used in cement, often mixed with Portland cement. The molten iron from the bottom of the furnace can be used as cast iron. Cast iron is flowy in nature when it is in molten state and doesn't contract much when it solidifies and is the major reason why it is useful in making castings. Nevertheless, it is actually impure as it contains about 4% of carbon. The presence of carbon makes it very hard, but also very fragile. When hit hard, it tends to shatter rather than bend or deplete. This cast iron is used for things like manhole covers, cast iron pipes, valves and pump bodies in the water industry, guttering and drainpipes, cylinder blocks in car engines, Aga-type cookers, and very expensive and very heavy cookware. Larger amount of molten iron from the Blast Furnace is used to make varieties of steel. Steel isnt just one substance, but a family of alloys of iron with carbon and several other metals. TOP IRON PRODUCING COUNTRIES: IRON PRODUCTION IN THE WORLD : Studies reveal that Australia and China are known to contribute as the world's largest iron ore mine producers, producing 1.5 billion metric tons and 660 million metric tons, respectively, in the year 2014. In the recent years, Brazil has bagged the second position in major production of iron. Following are other countries like China, India and Russia among the five topmost countries known for contributing towards iron production. Rank Country Usable iron ore production (thousand tonnes) World 2,280,000 1 Australia 880,000 2 Brazil 440,000 3 China 340,000 4 India 190,000 5 Russia 100,000

The most common ores of iron are hematite Fe2O3, and magnetite, Fe3O4. These ores can extract iron by heating them with the carbon present in the coke. Heating coal in the absence of air produces coke. Coke is cheap and acts as the heat source and is also the reducing agent for the reaction. Hot air is blown into the bottom of the furnace and heated using the hot waste gases from the top at a temperature of about 2200K. It is important to not waste any heat energy since it is valuable. The coke which is essentially impure carbon burns in the blast of hot air to form carbon dioxide and provides the majority of heat, thus producing a strong exothermic reaction, which is the main source of heat in the furnace.

In the hotter parts of the furnace, the carbon acts as a reducing agent and thus reduces iron oxide to iron. At these temperatures the product of the reaction is carbon monoxide along with iron.

The hot temperature of the furnace melts the iron which runs down to the bottom where it can be tapped off. Iron ore isn't pure iron oxide as it also contains some variety of rocky material. Such substances cannot melt at the temperature of the furnace and in due course would end up congesting it. As a solution, the limestone is added to the blast furnace to convert this into slag which shall melt and run to the bottom. The heat of the furnace causes the decomposition of the limestone for producing calcium oxide.

Since this requires absorbing heat from the furnace, it is an endothermic reaction that takes place. Therefore it becomes essential to not add too much limestone as it can cause the furnace to cool rapidly. Calcium oxide obtained on decomposition reacts with acidic oxides such as silicon dioxide present in the rock. Being a basic oxide it reacts with silicon dioxide to produce calcium silicate.

The calcium silicate produced melts and flows down the furnace to form a layer on top of the molten iron from where it can be tapped off every now and then as slag. This slag can be used in road making and as "slag cement" - a final ground slag which can be used in cement, often mixed with Portland cement.

The molten iron from the bottom of the furnace can be used as cast iron. Cast iron is flowy in nature when it is in molten state and doesn't contract much when it solidifies and is the major reason why it is useful in making castings. Nevertheless, it is actually impure as it contains about 4% of carbon. The presence of carbon makes it very hard, but also very fragile. When hit hard, it tends to shatter rather than bend or deplete.

This cast iron is used for things like manhole covers, cast iron pipes, valves and pump bodies in the water industry, guttering and drainpipes, cylinder blocks in car engines, Aga-type cookers, and very expensive and very heavy cookware. Larger amount of molten iron from the Blast Furnace is used to make varieties of steel. Steel isnt just one substance, but a family of alloys of iron with carbon and several other metals.

Studies reveal that Australia and China are known to contribute as the world's largest iron ore mine producers, producing 1.5 billion metric tons and 660 million metric tons, respectively, in the year 2014. In the recent years, Brazil has bagged the second position in major production of iron. Following are other countries like China, India and Russia among the five topmost countries known for contributing towards iron production.

Looking at what the nature has to offer, it conveys a lot of information when it comes to things that it holds in it, within it and on it. With need for minerals and its wide spread application getting widened each day, the stint of its very existence is getting blink and its depreciation in its source which is its over usage is on the high.

literally means extraction .Our Mother Earth has lots of resources deep within her and mining is the method of extracting all these valuable resources from the earth through different means.There are different methods to extract these resources which are found in different forms beneath the earth's surface.

The metal mining was one of the traditions that have been passed on meritoriously over the past years so that we meet our day-to-day needs of the desired material usage starting from the equipments that are ornamental as well as purposeful coordination of information's.

Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral and is one of the two types of pure jade. The other is known as nephrite jade. Jadeite is the rarer of the two jades, and as a result, it is considered to be more precious and valuable. Due to its striking and emerald green color it is also known as "imperial jadeite".

Surface mining is basically employed when deposits of commercially viable minerals or rock are found closer to the surface; that is, where overstrain (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively very less or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for heavy handling or tunneling.

Underground mining is carried out when the rocks, minerals, or precious stones are located at a distance far beneath the ground to be extracted with surface mining. To facilitate the minerals to be taken out of the mine, the miners construct underground rooms to work in.

Gold is a chemical component with the symbol Au that springs up from the Latin derivative aurum that means shining dawn and with the atomic number 79. It is a very sought-after valuable metal which, for many centuries, has been utilized as wealth. The metal resembles as nuggets or grain like structures in rocks, subversive "veins" and in alluvial deposits. It is one of the currency metals.

Platinum, is a heavy, malleable,ductile, highly inactive, silverish-white transition metal. Platinum is a member of group 10 elements of the periodic table.It is one among the scarce elements found in Earth's crust and has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is also achemical element.

Diamonds and supplementary valuable and semi-precious gemstones are excavated from the earth level via 4 main types on mining. These diamond withdrawal methods vary depending on how the minerals are situated within the earth, the steadiness of the material neighboring the preferred mineral, and the nonessential damage done to the surrounding environment.

mine revivals under way in iron ore, zinc and copper | global africa network

mine revivals under way in iron ore, zinc and copper | global africa network

Mining contributes 23.4% to the Northern Cape economy and makes up nearly 7% of South Africas total mining value. Whatever cyclical ups and downs affect the sector, it remains a most important component of the provincial economy.

Aggeneys, in the Namaqualand region of the Northern Cape, is responsible for approximately 93% of South Africas lead production, and 12% of all world lead exports. Zinc is less abundant, but the province is still responsible for about 43% of South Africas overall zinc production.

Afrimat, a listed construction materials supplier and industrial minerals group, has added open-pit mining to its portfolio with the R322-million acquisition of the Diro mine, which had been in business rescue.

Production was on track for the target of one-million tons per year, but a problem on the railway line that delivers iron ore to the port of Saldanha led to production being scaled down. Afrimat had a transport deal with Transnet and is selling iron ore in China. The Diro mine has proven run-of-mine reserves of 10-million tons.

The Black Mountain mine run by Vedanta can produce 30 000 tons of concentrate annually, 7 000 tons of copper, 50 tons of silver and 40 000 tons of lead. Almost a third of the mines concentrate output is exported through Saldanha on the West Coast.

Vedanta Zinc Internationals nearby Gamsberg zinc and lead project is the biggest current mining project in South Africa. The mine, on the road between Springbok and Pofadder, has resources and reserves of 214-million tons. The mine is already having a significant impact on employment for nearby communities. Construction is ramping up in expectation of production beginning in the course of 2018. In the first phase, 4-million tpa of ore will be mined, producing 250 000 tpa of zinc concentrate. The mines tailing thickener is shownabove in this May 2018 photograph.

The site is a diversity hotspot (one of seven in South Africa) so a lot of work has to be done. Vedanta is working with International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and a biodiversity offset agreement has been signed.

South African government officials, including the Deputy Minister of Mineral Resources, have visited Vedantas Indian headquarters and there are hopes of partnership in fields such as copper smelting zinc beneficiation and captive power generation. Local engineers are expected to travel to India for training as part of the Vedanta global leadership programme.

Australian miner Orion is putting considerable resources into investigating the possible revival of the Prieska Zinc-Copper Project. A maiden mineral resource estimate was published in February 2018 and 14 drill rigs (above and below ground) are at work looking in to the sites prospects. The Prieska Copper Mine was active from 1971 to 1991.

Several large wind and solar projects are operational in the area. There is a connection to power and water supplies, good roads, a landing strip and a railway siding on the Sishen-Saldanha railway line is less than 50 km away.

The Northern Cape Provincial Government is working on helping historically disadvantaged individuals (HDIs) get access to the mining sector. Grants from the Cooperative Incentive Scheme are being given to co-operatives to help them buy mining equipment.

The Office of the Premier, in partnership with the National Department of Mineral Resources, has held a workshop for artisanal mine workers on how to conduct legal mining operations. The Swedish International Housing Company is another partner in identifying possible land on which artisanal miners can legally start sustainable mining operations. Land owned by municipalities at Prieska, Niekerkshoop, Marydale and Griekwastad is the focus of these initiatives.

Most of the areas mineral riches are processed outside the province so there are good prospects for investors interested in establishing value-adding beneficiation plants in a wide range of minerals, from iron ore and manganese to copper and limestone.

The National YouthDevelopment Agency (NYDA), the provincial government and Mintek are collaborating on the Prieska Loxion Hub (PLH), which beneficiates tigers eye for jewellery and stone cutting products.

The Northern Cape provincial government has estimated that procurement by the large mining houses exceeds R18-billion annually. Mining companies have corporate social investment plans but recent engagements such as a Provincial Mining Summit and a meeting between provincial government and mine managers aim to see more benefits accruing to communities. This would involve an increase in the percentage of localised procurement (parts, consumables and services), directing work to companies owned by black people and women, and investment in skills training.

Petra Diamonds has recently been reporting increases in production and revenue. Expansion continues at the firms Northern Cape property at Finsch and at the Cullinan mine in Gauteng province. Full-year rough diamond production in 2017 reached 4-million carats (an 8% increase) and the company has a stated goal of getting to about 5.3-million carats by FY 2019.

Petra also recently entered into a joint venture, Kimberley Ekapa Mining Joint Venture. KEM JV comprises Petra, Ekapa Mining (jointly owned by Petra and Ekapa Mining) and a third party, Super Stone Mining.

Rockwell Diamonds is listed on the TSX and JSE. The companys assets in the Northern Cape lie between Prieska and Douglas, south-west of Kimberley: Wouterspan, Nieuwejaarskraal, Remhoogte and Saxendrift.

Away from the underground kimberlite pipes and fissures, river and coastal deposits are also present in the Northern Cape. Diamonds have been recovered along the Orange, Buffels, Spoeg, Horees, Groen, Doom and Swart rivers in the province, while coastal deposits have been found from the mouth of the Orange River to Lamberts Bay.

Diamond mining company West Coast Resources (WCR) completed its production plant at Mitchells Bay at the end of 2016 and started mining in 2016. Trans Hex, with a 40% shareholding in WCR, will manage the mine and market the diamonds produced from it. The National Department of Trade and Industry (dti) owns 20% of WCR. By 2020 the project intends creating 686 jobs. By May 2016 there were 166 permanent employees and 24 part-timers working at Mitchells Bay.

Mining contributes 23.4% to the Northern Cape economy and makes up nearly 7% of South Africas total mining value. Whatever cyclical ups and downs affect the sector, it remains a most important component of the provincial economy. The mineral resource of the province is wide-ranging and impressive with significant deposits of iron ore, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, titanium, pig iron, zircon and gypsum.

The overwhelming majority of the worlds manganese comes from the Postmasburg and Kalahari regions of the Northern Cape. The province is responsible for 25% of the worlds exports of the mineral. Assmang has two manganese mines in the province: Nchwaning and Gloria.

The Northern Cape produces more than 84% of South Africas iron ore. The province has two major iron belts, from Postmasburg to Hotazel, and running through Sishen and Kathu. Sishen is the most important iron-ore mine in South Africa, where operations include extraction and four beneficiation plants. The availability of natural resources, labour and infrastructure (including the Sishen-Saldanha railway line) make Sishen the ideal location.

After initially saying that it wanted to get rid of everything outside its core assets (copper, platinum group metals and diamonds), Anglo American has backtracked somewhat in the light of the recovery of iron ore and other mineral prices. (Anglo does not have diamond assets in the Northern Cape.)

South32 is very active in the Northern Cape. Hotazel Manganese Mines is made up of two mines, Wessels (underground) and Mamatwan (open cut), and the Metalloys manganese smelter. The company has 30% of the product from its mines processed at the smelter where a managese alloy is made.

Hotazel is also the site of a relatively new manganese mine, Tshipi Borwa. Tshipi e Ntle Manganese Mining (Tshipi) is a joint venture between Pallinghurst Co-Investors (led by Brian Gilbertson) and a black empowerment company representing several groups called Ntsimbintle Mining. A number of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as the Black Sash have a 2.2% stake in the mine through Ditikeni Investment Company. Indications are that Tshipi can produce about 2.2-million tons of ore per year, for about 60 years.

The Northern Cape is responsible for around 18% of South Africas total copper production, with the two most prominent mines located in Nababeep and Aggeneys. The Carolusberg Mining Complex has copper reserves of 37.5-million tons, while the Nigramoep deposit has 15-million tons. Galileos initial tests at their Concordia Copper project near Okiep suggest that prospects are good what it calls large-scale copper targets. Tungsten has also been found in the area.

In 2016 Horomela Investments received prospecting rights for its property near Aggeneys. The only 100% black-owned and black-managed base metals mining company in South Africa, Horomela will be mining for lead, silver, copper and zinc.

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