If youre thinking about set up a cement factory (or cement plant), you must weigh the pros and cons of it many times. There is no doubt that youve considered all your musts, such as locations, cement plant design, cement plant layout, etc. But the most important thing is absolutely cement factory cost how much does it cost to build a cement factory? Maybe you also want to know the potential investment you dont see coming.
According to the data we know, the total cost of a cement plant is estimated to be US$ 75 to US$ 100 per ton. One thing to be clear, this is just an estimation, in the real cement plant building, the cement factory cost is affected by various factors, including the significant difference in cost of land, availability of limestone mines, etc.
The cement factory cost is based on changing factors like size, location, labor, raw materials, and current real estate trends, which make it impossible to nail down a perfectly accurate, one-size-fits-all answer. So lets list the cost item needed in building a cement factory, everyone can get your own plant according to these items.
As we all know, the cement production line is made up of various types of cement equipment, the cement factory cost depends on the cement factory machine you choose. For some buyer who has abundant funds, might choose high-quality equipment, which increases the cost of the cement production line. At the same time, high-quality cement plant also brings considerable economic benefits and market returns.
At present, the new-type cement plant has advantages of high profit, quick effect, high efficiency, energy saving, environmental protection, easy operation, and low cost. The hot-sale cement plant is composed of following cement factory machines:
If you are ready to buy a cement plant, it is suggested to choose a cement plant manufacturer with a large scale and strong strength, which will provide full cement equipment and service, also ensure the quality and performance. In general, for the customer who wants to buy the whole cement production line, the cement plant manufacturer will give more preferential policies. On the contrary, the strength of small-scale manufacturers is limited, cement equipment types are not complete enough, need to buy from different manufacturers, not only trouble but also increase the cost of investment.
Investors have different requirements for the daily output of the cement factory, so we can find a large capacity cement plant and mini cement plant in the real case, and the investment capital will also be different. Generally, the higher the output value, the higher the investment, because the model requirements for cement equipment will be higher, and the price of equipment will naturally rise, but the value of the benefits to customers will be greater.
Enterprise competition is a side factor that affects the cement plant price. The more intense the competition, the cheaper and more affordable cement equipment prices. On the contrary, if there are fewer cement plant manufacturers and the competitiveness is weak, there is no obvious threat between the companies. Cement plant prices will generally maintain a normal state or relatively increase, which is a manifestation of natural laws.
Except for above elements, there are some other factors involved in the cement factory cost, such as labors, raw materials cost, cement plant design and so on, labors cost is always related to the location and your scale of cement factory; as for the cost of the raw materials, the place where is near mineral resource will be recommended, which will reduce your transportation cost. For most large cement plant manufacturers, they can provide custom solutions to cement plants, also supply the EPC project for equipment or cement plant.
Shiroli M.I.D.C, Kolhapur Precast Infrastructures Plot No. C-10, \'Deepak Tiles\'. Plot No. C-10, \'Deepak Tiles\'. Plot No. C-10, 'Deepak Tiles'.,, Shiroli M.I.D.C, Kolhapur - 416122, Dist. Kolhapur, Maharashtra
Ghana: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) agents and police have raided China-based Empire Cements McCarthy Hills cement plant in Accra. The Ghana News Agency has reported that the facility had entered cement production without a licence. The authorities stopped operations at the site and dismissed the staff, including Chinese nationals. Previously, local residents had complained about potential environmental concerns at the site.
Ghana: Nelplast Eco Ghana has launched a moulded block produced from a paste of 70% sand and 30% recycled plastics. Xinhua Hello Africa News has reported that the producer sells the blocks as a cement-free alternative building material for building walls, in conjunction with a concrete base and columns. The cost is US$11,000 per house. Nelplast Eco Ghana hopes that the product will ease Ghanas 2m-unit housing shortage and prevent some of the 1Mt/yr plastic waste (over 95% nationally) going to landfill. It aims to expand its capacity from 1100t/yr in the near-term future.
Ghana: Residents of the McCarthy Hill district in Accra have launched a protest against China-based Empire Cements planned McCarthy Hill cement plant. The Daily Guide newspaper has reported that protestors allege that the proposed plant would contaminate water which flows through active salt mines. They have also complained about potential dust emissions from the site. So far the company has broken ground on the project and three silos are in place.
Ghana: Dzata Cement, a 1.2Mt/yr bagging plant based in Tema, plans to start commercial production by June 2021. The unit cost US$100m and includes a two line bagging and packaging equipment supplied by Germany-based Haver & Boecker, according to the Ghana News Agency. It will use imported cement. Proposed later phases at the site will see an upgrade in bagging operations to 2.4Mt/yr and the eventual installation of two 3Mt/yr vertical roller mills. As a safeguard against surges of cement imports the government has also introduced new export and import legislation requiring licenses for imports from outside the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) region.
The plants founder Ibrahim Mahama is the brother of former Ghanian president John Dramani Mahama. In November 2020 the Ghana News Agency reported that Kofi Amoabeng, the former chief executive officer of UT Bank, said that loans made to companies including Dzata Cement had contributed to the bank being declared insolvent in 2017.
Ghana: Italy-based Bedeschi has been awarded a contract to supply and install cargo handling equipment for the Port of Takoradi. The project includes the supply of handling equipment and services for importing clinker and exporting bauxite and manganese. Bedeschi will supply five conveyor belts with a total length of 3km, two type 50/1400 A frame shiploaders and one eco-hopper. The shiploaders and the eco-hopper will be delivered fully erected from the suppliers shipyard directly to the client jetty with a dedicated heavy lift vessel.
The project will adhere to state of the art environmental standards with the use of dust collection and de-dusting system specifically designed for this application. All the conveyors will be closed, included the section where tippers and eco hoppers are in operation. Bedeschi will also provide the computerised control system too. No value for the contract or date of commissioned has been released.
Nigeria: Dangote Cement says that the price of cement from its plants in Nigeria is the same as from plants in other countries in Africa or cheaper. The cement producer made the announcement in response to local media reports that its prices were allegedly lower in Ghana or Zambia, according to the Vanguard newspaper. It added that it had control over its ex-factory prices but that it could not set the end market price.
Dangote Group Executive Director, Strategy, Portfolio Development and Capital Projects Devakumar Edwin explained that Dangote Cement has a 60% share of the local cement market at present. Demand for cement has risen following the coronavirus pandemic and the company has had to suspend exports from its recently commissioned export terminals in order to meet local demand. He added that it has also reactivated its 4.5Mt/yr Gboko plant in Benue State, which was closed in 2018, to cope with the situation.
Ghana: CBI Ghana has said that its costs have increased because it has had to import clinker during an on-going local shortage. The Ghana News Agency newspaper has reported that the Supacem cement producer attributes a rise in its cement prices to the cost increase.
Commercial manager Kobby Adams said, The rising cost of cements is due to the unavailability of some products and these materials are imported in large quantities at exorbitant charges coupled with the unstable and high import charges. He warned customers against accepting counterfeit products to circumvent the rising prices. CBI Ghana pledges to continue with the expansion to be able to reach and serve more customers, he added.
Ghana/Nigeria: LafargeHolcim subsidiary Lafarge Africa plans to sell its 35% subsidiary Continental Blue Investment (CBI) Ghana. CBI Ghana runs the Supacem brand from the Tema Free Zone near Accra. It reportedly started building a cement grinding plant at the site in 2017 for a cost of US$55m.
Nigeria: Dangote Cement recorded a net profit of US$422m in the first half of 2020, up by 5.8% year-on-year from US$308m in the first half of 2019. Net sales were US$1.23bn, up by 2% from US$1.21bn. Nigerian sales made up 70% of the total at US$861m, up by 1.2% from US$850m.
The company said, Most Covid-19 lockdown measures started at the end of March 2020 and peaked in April 2020. The response by the authorities varied in nature from specific temporary restrictions in some countries to a complete temporary lockdown for non-essential businesses. Our operations in South Africa, Congo and Ghana were shut down due to full or partial lockdown in most of April 2020. By early May 2020, lockdown had eased, and all our businesses were operational.
Regarding its Nigerian operations, it said, Lagos, Abuja and Ogun states locked down from 31 March 2020 to 4 May 2020. As a result, April 2020 volumes were heavily impacted and 28% lower than in April 2019. Other states joined with complete or partial lockdown during the month. It estimated that a recession would strike the economy before 31 December 2020, compounded by the Covid-19 outbreak and a first-half global oil price slump.
Ghana: Diamond Cement Group has donated 250t of cement and US$17,500 to the government to support its efforts to curb the spread of coronavirus in Ghana. The Ghanaian Times newspaper has reported that the cement will be used for hospital repairs. Diamond Cement Group chair Mukesh Patel said, It is crucial that we all work together to minimise the negative impact of the pandemic on economic activities.
Georgia: Georgian Cement Company (GCC) has warned of cement dumping by Iran and Turkey. The subsidiary of LafargeHolcim is lobbying the government for protective legislation, according to Prime News. GCC operates a 0.3Mt/yr cement grinding plant at Poti. The country consumes 2.5Mt/yr and 1.5Mt/yr of this comprises imports. HeidelbergCement and Eurocement also operate plants locally.
The latest piece of China-based Huaxin Cements global ambitions slotted into place this week with the news that it is preparing to buy plants in Zambia and Malawi. Its board of directors has approved plans to spend US$150m towards acquiring a 75% stake in Lafarge Zambia and US$10m on a 100% stake in Lafarge Cement Malawi. The move will gain it two integrated plants with a combined production capacity of 1.5Mt/yr in Zambia, and a 0.25Mt/yr grinding plant in Malawi.
This latest proposed acquisition represents the next step for Huaxin Cement in Africa following its purchase of African Tanzanian Maweni Limestone from ARM Cement in mid-2020. The company has also been busy along the more traditional Belt and Road Initiative land routes in Asia. It started up the kiln at its new 2Mt/yr Jizzakh cement plant in mid-2020. Elsewhere in Central Asia it runs two plants in Tajikistan and one plant in Kyrgyzstan via various indirectly-owned subsidiaries. While in South Asia it runs a plant in Nepal and in South-East Asia it runs one in Cambodia. If the plans in Zambia and Malawi pay off then it will give the Chinese producer a growing presence in East Africa, with plants in three countries.
The China Cement Association ranked Huaxin Cement as the countrys fifth largest clinker producer in 2021 with an integrated capacity base of just under 63Mt/yr. Domestically, the company operates 57 cement plants and most of these are based in the Yangtze River Economic Belt region. In 2020 it reported cement and clinker sales of 76Mt, a small decrease from 2019. Its operating income fell by 6.6% year-on-year to US$4.58bn and profit dropped by 12% to US$1.2bn. This performance was blamed on the emergence of Covid-19 at the start of 2020 and then floods later in the year.
Compared to the other larger Chinese cement producers, Huaxin Cement roughly appears to be holding rank with its overseas expansions. The leaders, CNBM and Anhui Conch, hold subsidiaries with plants in South-East and Central Asia and CNBMs engineering wing, Sinoma, has a far bigger reach, building plants all over the place. Information has been scarce since mid-2020 on the long heralded 7Mt/yr plant in Tanzania due to be built by Sinoma and local subsidiary Hengya Cement. At that time local residents in Mtimbwani, Mkinga District were reportedly being compensated for their land. Other than this, one of the other big players internationally is Taiwan Cement. In 2018 it invested around US$1.1bn for a 40% stake in Turkey-based Oyak Cement. As well as a presence in Turkey this also gave it a share of plants in Portugal in 2019 when Oyak completed its acquisition of Cimpor.
Elsewhere this week, carrying some of the themes above with expansion in Central Asia, two new integrated cement plant projects were announced in Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan respectively. Meanwhile, Italcementi said it will invest Euro5.0m to restart clinker production at its Trentino cement plant in Sarche di Madruzzo, Italy. The unit has been operating as a grinding plant since 2015. This might be viewed as an unexpected decision considering the high local CO2 price but it shows some level of confidence in the local market by Italcementi and its parent company, HeidelbergCement. The next step will be when or if a European producer decides to build a brand new integrated plant in Italy or elsewhere.
Brazil/Turkey: Brazil-based Votorantim Cimentos has implemented artificial intelligence techniques for cement strength testing across 27 of its laboratories in Brazil and Turkey. The producer says that the technology gives precise cement strength readings after just three days, compared to 28 days without the technology. It also uses a new metric, technical efficiency, to measure cements performance in concrete from the customers point of view. The implementation has increased available test results by 200% and eliminated 119 hours of testing time in Brazil alone for the company. It says that this has increased its agility in dealing with quality control and customer satisfaction.
The company said, We at Votorantim Cimentos want to pave the way for the future of civil construction in a simple, agile and sustainable way, strengthening our role at the construction site, working to be the first choice of retailers and consolidating ourselves as a reference in sustainability in the value chain. Therefore, we look at our research and development projects as short, medium and long-term initiatives to leverage innovations in the sector. Many initiatives are aimed at optimising internal processes that impact the performance of our products, such as those involving the use of artificial intelligence to develop applications and predictive models. In addition, based on models for predicting the properties of cements, we have already created others for use in our mortars and concretes."
Spain: Turkey-based imsa imento intends to complete its acquisition of Cemexs Buol white cement plant in June 2021. Local government says that the purchase agreement has been in place since 2019 but has delayed by the international nature of the deal and competition concerns, according to Agencia EFE. imsa imento agreed to buy Cemexs white cement business in Spain, including its Buol plant, for around US$180m in March 2019. It was originally scheduled for completion in the second half of 2019.
Taiwan: Taiwan Cements revenue rose by 11.3% year-on-year to US$788m in the first quarter of 2021. Its income increased by 11% to US$119m. It attributed this to profit growth in its cement businesses in Taiwan and Europe despite weak sales prices in China.
Chairman Nelson Chang said, To reduce carbon emissions, using alternative fuel and material for cement production, adopting renewable energy, and expanding energy storage usage are crucial and Taiwan Cement aims to play our role in helping society achieving the goal of a low carbon environment. In 2020 the group processed over 9Mt of alternative fuels in its Greater China business.
Poland: The Polish Cement Association (SPC) has forecast a 2% year-on-year drop in cement sales to 18.5Mt in 2021. President Krzysztof Kieres attributed the fall to growing imports and reduced construction due to a cold start to the year. He predicts that sales will rise again, by 4% to 19.3Mt, in 2022.
The SPC has warned that the industry faces large costs in meeting the European Green Deals required 40% CO2 emissions reduction by 2030 and achieving carbon neutrality by 2050. In particular, the local industry noted that the rising European Union (EU) CO2 price has caused a direct increase in electricity prices. It has called on the government and the EU to compensate it for this rise.
Imports of cement also present a key challenge. In 2020, imports of Belarusian cement increased by 80% to 440,000t and imports of Ukrainian cement increased by 50% to 32,000t. The association expressed strong support for the European Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) as a means of protecting the industry against imports both from neighbouring countries outside the EU and via polluting shipping from cement exporters further afield such as Turkey.
Turkey: The Turkish competition authority Rekabat Kurumu has launched a probe into alleged collusion by nine cement producers. The authority said that it is investigating AS imento, Bastas Baskent imento, imsa, Golas Goller Bolgesi imento, Konya imento, Kupeliler Endustri, Limak imento, Oyak imento and Brazil-based Votorantim Cimentos.
Ycelik has worked as a senior executive in the construction sector. He currently works as the vice chairman of the board of directors and chairman of the executive board of Erimsan Holding. He holds a number of positions with non-governmental organisations, including that of Eastern Anatolian Honorary Consul to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, deputy chairman of the board of directors of Cement Industry Employers' Union (ES) and as a board member of Foreign Economic Relations Board (DEK).
Turkey: Trkimento, the Turkish Cement Manufacturers Association, says that it has held the sectors first virtual cement conference and exhibition with the conclusion of Digitalcem on 21 April 2021. The event focused on the need to pioneer in the sector through innovative thinking. Topics included circular economy, sustainable and competitive products, green energy transformation, digital cement anddeveloping technologies. 22 companies hosted booths and over 360 participants took part in the two-day event.
Chair Tamer Saka said, We keep close track of the European Union climate and environmental policies and the harmonisation process of Turkeys cement sector, through the target of being a pioneer in our sectors work performed within the framework of sustainability. In this scope, we started the Turkish Cement Sector Carbon Roadmap project at the end of 2020. We will present Turkey with the sector's roadmap by scrutinising the data on greenhouse gas emissions of almost all cement plants in Turkey.
A great question was asked at yesterdays Virtual Global CemTrans Seminar: what impact did the recent blockage of the Suez Canal cause to the cement industry? Luckily, Rahul Sharan from Drewry was on hand discussing freight costs following the start of the coronavirus pandemic.
As most readers will know, the Suez Canal was blocked in late March 2021 when the 200,000dwt Ever Given ran aground, at around six nautical miles from the southern entry of the canal. The ultra large container vessel was subsequently refloated and towed away just under a week later. While this was happening the fate of the ship became a global news story with business analysts totting up the cost of the obstruction. 40 bulk carriers were reported as waiting to transit the waterway the day after the blockage started and some of these were carrying cement. Reporting by the BBC noted that 369 ships were stuck waiting on either side of the blockage on the day before the ship was finally freed. The Suez Canal Authority (SCA) estimated their loss of revenue from the incident at US$14 15m/day. Analysts like Allianz placed the cost to the global economy at US$6 - 10bn/day.
In Sharans view the blockage of the Suez Canal happened at a potentially risky moment for cement and clinker shipping because there was already congestion in shipping lanes built up on the east coast of South America and around Australia. However, a delay of a week around the canal, followed by the resulting congestion dispersing quickly over the following days, does not seem to have had any major impact so far.
Sharans presentation at Global CemTrans also included a summary of cement shipping. The key takeaways were that clinker shipping overtook cement shipping in 2019 with a connected increase in fleets investing in handymax-sized vessels. He also pointed out the key cement and clinker importing countries in 2019, before the coronavirus pandemic started causing market disruption. For cement: the US, the Philippines and Singapore. For clinker: China, Bangladesh and the Philippines. Turkey and Vietnam were the biggest exporters for both in that year.
The Ever Given incident has highlighted the continued importance of the Suez Canal for global trade for commodities. Goods still need to be physically moved around, however much stuff we digitise. It also contrasts with the issues that the Egyptian cement sector has faced in recent years such as production overcapacity. While domestic cement plants have struggled to maintain their profits, plenty of cement carriers have been transiting through the Isthmus of Suez. Local producers may well have gazed at them and wondered where they were going.
One of them, Al-Arish Cement Company, took action in this direction this week with its first export shipment of clinker. The Clipper Isadora ship disembarked East Port Said port for Ivory Coast. Future shipments are planned for West Africa, Canada, the US and Europe. Ship tracking reveals that the Clipper Isadora has not taken the Suez Canal on this occasion.
The evaluated cement plants with carbon capture based on reactive gas-liquid and gas-solid systems were modeled and simulated using ChemCAD software package. The developed models for CO2 capture were validated by comparison to the experimental / industrial data. A cement plant without carbon capture was considered as a benchmark case but it was not modelled, the main techno-economic and environmental indicators for the benchmark case were based on key references in the field (IEA-GHG, 2008).
The mass and energy balances for the cement plant concepts with carbon capture were used furthermore to evaluate the key plant performances. The designs were optimized by performing a heat integration analysis (using pinch technique) for maximization of the overall energy efficiency (Smith, 2005). As an illustrative example, Figure1 presents the hot and cold composite curves for the calcium looping cycle (Case 3).
In both investigated cases, an additional coal-based combined heat and power (CHP) unit is required to cover the ancillary energy consumption of the cement plant with carbon capture. As main energy consumptions of the carbon capture designs one can mention: thermal regeneration of the chemical solvent (Case 2) and calcium-based sorbent (Case 3) as well as CO2 conditioning (drying and compressing). The main technical and environmental indicators of the two investigated carbon capture technologies to be used in conjunction with a cement plant are presented in Table2.
As can be noticed from Table2, both cases have a small surplus of electricity (after ancillary plant consumptions were covered) to be sent to the grid. The carbon capture rate is 90% for both designs but the quantity of captured CO2 per ton of cement is significant better for Case 3 (calcium looping). Another important aspect which reflects better performances of calcium looping design in comparison to gas-liquid absorption is the fuel ancillary consumption which is about 52% lower (154MWth vs. 234MWth).
The next evaluation targeted the economic performances of the cement plant with carbon capture. For estimation of the capital expenditure (CAPEX) as well as the specific investment costs (reported as Euro per ton of cement), the cost correlation method was used (Smith, 2005). The key mass and energy flows processed through each main plant systems (e.g. cement plant, carbon capture unit, CO2 conditioning, air separation unit, power plant etc.) were considered as scaling parameters e.g. captured CO2 flow and heat provided to the looping reactors (as well as their volumes) were consideredas scaling parameters for gas-liquid absorption and calcium looping cases (Romano et al., 2013). The complete methodology of capital cost estimation using the cost correlation method is presented by Cormos (2016b). Table3 presents the specific capital investment for the main plant components as well as the total value.
As presented in Table3, the specific capital investment costs for cement plants with carbon capture are higher than for the cement plant without carbon capture (benchmark case) by about 112% for Case 2 and about 75% for Case 3. The calcium looping technology shows significantly lower investment costs than the gas-liquid absorption design due to higher energy efficiency and lower energy penalty for carbon capture.
The operating expenditure (OPEX) was estimated using a commonly used methodology (Peters and Timmerhaus, 1991). The OPEX costs can be broken in two main components: fixed and variable costs depending on their variations with plant output. Figure2 presents the fixed and variable OPEX costs for the investigated cement plants. The carbon capture designs have higher OPEX costs compared to benchmark case with about 90% for gas-liquid absorption case and about 60% for calcium looping case.
The cement production cost significantly increases when CO2 capture is applied (95% for gas-liquid absorption and 63% for calcium looping) as well as CO2 avoided cost. However, calcium looping method shows far better values than gas-liquid absorption.
The audited cement plant contains nearly 94 Mots whose power is greater than 18 kW and that are not equipped with VFD. These Mots belong to the IE1 energy class (according to the classification of IEC 60034-30). Table 11 presents the main operating characteristics of these Mots.
From Table 11, it can be observed that several Mots operate at low charge levels (e.g., Mot 12, 33, 41, and 52). Therefore, installation of VFD for these electric Mots could be considered as a potential solution to reduce energy consumption.
The Ramla cement plant (see Fig. 1 for an aerial photo of the plant) has been in operation for 46 years. The original process at the Ramla cement plant to produce cement from limestone, which is the base material of cement, was a so-called wet line process. The original wet line had a capacity of 1,800 TPD (Tons Per Day). The first new production line producing cement through a so-called dry line process was commissioned in 1994. This line has a capacity of 5,000 TPD and is very successful. Building on its success, Nesher decided to build a second dry line. On the 10th of August 1997, Benjamin Netanyahu, Israel's former Prime Minister, laid the cornerstone at the Ramla plant for the second 5,000 TPD dry line. The new dry line, which is currently in the running-in stage, will join its 5,000 TPD sister dry line and the older 1,800 TPD wet line. The wet line will be phased out soon and thus the anticipated new total plant capacity will be 10,000 TPD. To save costs, Nesher decided to use the existing limestone handling and transport facilities to handle the increase in transport loads. This was made possible by relatively minor modifications to the existing infrastructure. in particular to the belt conveyor system. The raw materials needed to supply all three plants are now transported from a quarry 3.5 km away from the plant via the existing (upgraded) conveyor belt system.
Cement plants have been conserving water in their plants from the beginning as most cement plants have had to make their own arrangements to obtain water required for the plant and for drinking and household purposes.3.1.1.Cement plants procure water from the nearest perennial sources of water like rivers and streams by digging wells in their beds and pumping it and storing it in the plant/quarries/housing colony.3.1.2.Plenty of water is required even in dry process cement plants to cool bearings, compressors, after-coolers, gearboxes and for conditioning towers preceding ESPs. All water used for cooling is invariably collected and taken to a cooling pond and recirculated in the system. Only 10-15% water is added to allow for loss by evaporation.3.1.3.Process water is not required in a dry process cement plant. However if an ESP is used to clean preheater exhaust gases, a cooling tower is necessarily installed to bring down the temperature to about 140C. Gases are cooled by spraying water on the gases in the cooling tower. Water evaporates and is consequently lost. This is a significant quantity.3.1.4.This loss of water can be avoided if the ESP is replaced by a bag filter. However penalty there is a penalty for the higher pressure drop in the bag filter and the necessity of cooling gases to ~120140C by admitting ambient air to suit the materials of bags. If glass bags which can stand a temperature of ~275C are used this dilution can be avoided. Generally speaking the ESP can be avoided at the design stage itself if the plant is located in an area of scanty rains and water scarcity.Performance of the ESP is uncertain during startup and closing down periods. Presently the trend is to avoid an ESP for this reason also.
Plenty of water is required even in dry process cement plants to cool bearings, compressors, after-coolers, gearboxes and for conditioning towers preceding ESPs. All water used for cooling is invariably collected and taken to a cooling pond and recirculated in the system. Only 10-15% water is added to allow for loss by evaporation.
Process water is not required in a dry process cement plant. However if an ESP is used to clean preheater exhaust gases, a cooling tower is necessarily installed to bring down the temperature to about 140C. Gases are cooled by spraying water on the gases in the cooling tower. Water evaporates and is consequently lost. This is a significant quantity.
This loss of water can be avoided if the ESP is replaced by a bag filter. However penalty there is a penalty for the higher pressure drop in the bag filter and the necessity of cooling gases to ~120140C by admitting ambient air to suit the materials of bags. If glass bags which can stand a temperature of ~275C are used this dilution can be avoided. Generally speaking the ESP can be avoided at the design stage itself if the plant is located in an area of scanty rains and water scarcity.
The steam is condensed in condensers and returned to the circuit. Water used to condense steam is itself cooled in cooling towers operating in a closed circuit; that water is used again by recirculation. Therefore, only makeup water is required. The same is true of waste heat recovery boilers. Even where DG sets are used to generate power, diesel engines are cooled by water which in turn is cooled in cooling towers and returned to the circuit.
This water is generally wasted after use, though sewage water can be used after treatment for nondrinking purposes like gardening. As a matter of fact authorities who sanction a cement plant project stipulate that a sewage treatment plant has to be installed in the plant. There should be zero effluent discharge from the plant.
Often, as mines get developed, underground resources of water become available and actually supplement the main source of water. Pits in excavated/exhausted mines can be used to serve as reservoirs of water. These are available year round for mining machinery and crushing plant when located in mines.
Often, currently, used mines are consciously developed and landscaped to serve as recreation or picnic spots. Reservoirs in mines thus serve a dual purpose, as a source of water and as lakes. When treated the water can also be used in swimming pools.
Presently there is great emphasis on greening of the plant and its surroundings, including the housing colony. Green belts are created around the plant and colony to serve as dust and sound barriers. It is mandatory to create such belts between the plant and the highway/township.
In the context of cement plants, rainwater harvesting (RWH) has many dimensions.1.Rainwater is collected and stored in natural/artificial ponds or lakes to counter the salination of groundwater in coastal areas.For this purpose check dams are constructed across streams and rivulets.2.A system called garland canals is constructed to collect the groundwater and lead it to reservoirs in quarries or reservoirs created by check dams.This water can be used in the cement plant for manufacturing, in captive power plants, and for domestic use in colony.As a matter of fact many cement companies are supplying water for drinking purposes and for agricultural purposes to neighboring communities on an increasing scale. Some have installed desalination plants also.The authorities sometimes stipulate that the cement company should not draw water from an adjoining river/stream.3.RWH is used to recharge bore wells within the plant's own area and colony.Water is collected from rooftops and led through pipes to collection pits near the bore wells to recharge them. Water is then available year round, even in summer months.
As a matter of fact many cement companies are supplying water for drinking purposes and for agricultural purposes to neighboring communities on an increasing scale. Some have installed desalination plants also.
Extracts from a typical letter of consent for a cement plant project at a green field site or for an expansion show the emphasis the authorities are putting on water conservation. Cement plants of the future will have to be green. See Annexure 1.
Waste oil is a unique hazardous waste with a long history of utilization. Typical sources of waste oil include automotive oils, machinery cutting and cooling oils, and other sources of lubricants. The opportunities to use this material as an opportunity fuel are worldwide. U.S. waste oil production and consumption exceeds 4.2 109 l/yr (1.1 109 gal/yr), of which 67% is burned as fuel and another 4% is rerefined . A significant quantity is generated in Canada annually as well. Blundell  reports that 200 106 250 106 l/yr (53 66 106 gal/yr) of waste oil is generated in the Ontario province alone; of this 15% is burned in cement kilns, 7% is burned in small furnaces, and 27% is refined again.
In the United Kingdom, 447,000 tonnes of waste oil are generated annually, of which 380,000 tonnes are usedlargely as fuel . Significant attention has been given to this waste disposal problem/energy resource opportunity in such other locations as Bulgaria , New Zealand , Spain , and throughout the European Union. States from California  to Vermont  are paying particular attention to waste oil, its use as a blending fuel, and its proper disposal.
The general fuel characteristics of waste oils are shown in Table 5.21. Note the differences between mineral oil and synthetic automotive oil. Note also the broad range in properties, particularly as associated with mineral oil.
Typical trace metal concentrations have also been measured in waste oils, as shown in Table 5.22. Note that there are significant differences between typical concentrations in the United States and in New Zealand.
There are three basic uses of waste oil as a blending fuel: in small space heaters and boilers, in larger boilers, and in cement kilns. Of these, cement kilns are the most prominent due to their continued search for low-cost alternatives to coal, oil, and traditional energy sources. In New Zealand, for example, two cement kilns dominate the use of all waste oil in that country. Typical emissions from the combustion of waste oil in various applications are shown in Table 5.23. Note that SO2 is not shown in this table because of its dependency on the sulfur content of the incoming fuel.
Given the typical emissions associated with firing waste oils, it is useful to consider case studies of firing waste oils in cement kilns . Therefore, an example of cofiring waste oils in cement kilns in Germany is presented.
A study utilizing data from cement plants in Germany was done to estimate the emissions of various metals as a function of waste material . There are 76 cement kilns in operation, of which 40 are permitted to use alternate fuels such as tires, waste oil, waste wood, and so forth. A typical cement kiln consisting of a raw mill section, a preheater-rotary kiln section, and a cement mill section was used to describe cement production in Germany. Using partitioning factors based on information from operating kilns, a mass balance model was developed for this typical kiln. Using this information, elemental distributions were calculated for cadmium, lead, and zinc when using waste oils at the maximum allowable rate of 30%. The results are shown in Table 5.24. The results show that nearly all the trace metals exit with the clinker, and destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) numbers for the three metals are estimated to be 99.96% for lead, 99.95% for zinc, and 99.94% for cadmium.
A green cement plant is one that is designed to conserve natural resources of all kinds and that contributes to the release of the greenhouse gases (GHG) to the atmosphere to the least possible extent consistent with the quality of cement produced.
Release of CO2, a greenhouse gas, is inherent in the process of the manufacture of cement, as CO2 is released from limestone, the basic raw material of cement during the process of calcining. One kilogram of calcium carbonate releases 0.44kg of CO2. Therefore, in making 1kg of clinker, approximately 0.51kg CO2 gets released into the atmosphere.
A vital component of total carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere is the CO2 released in the process of combustion of fuel fired in the kiln and calciner in the clinkerization process. The quantum released is directly related to the quantum of fuel fired and the quantum of carbon in it.
Again, by the same logic, the obvious way to reduce emissions is to reduce the heat requirement, or what is called specific fuel consumption, and/or to use fuels with less carbon or those that are carbon neutral.
Alternate fuels have been successfully used in many countries in kilns and calciners. In Europe the cement industry is progressing toward zero fuel costs. Great possibilities exist for using wastes of industry and agriculture that have heat value as secondary fuels in kilns and calciners.
Production of cement also requires a supply of electrical energy, expressed as kwh/ton of cement. Electrical energy is presently produced mostly by burning fossil fuels like coal and oil. Thus reduction of electrical energy by making cement indirectly means a reduction in electrical energy produced and thereby in GHG released to the atmosphere. If 1 kwh is used in a cement plant, the generating station has to produce much more to allow for transmission losses and for its own inputs. In some countries transmission losses are small, say 10%, but in some countries (India for one) they are more than 30%.
Cement plants can further contribute significantly to reducing GHG emissions by converting waste heat in the exhaust gases from the kiln and cooler into electricity using waste heat recovery systems (WHRS). There is plenty of scope in existing dry process cement plants to produce power from waste heat.
Due to recent developments in technology it is now possible to generate power even from waste gases in modern cement plants with low heat contents by using the organic Rankine cycle and the Kalina process. It is estimated that between 20 to 30% of the energy required by a cement plant can be generated by installing WHRS. Energy so generated can be used in the plant or fed to the grid.
All fossil fuels emit CO2. Biomass fuels are carbon neutral. Sources of energy like wind, solar and hydraulic are not only totally free of carbon but on top are renewable, and also inexhaustible. Increasing attention is being paid to making them viable sources of energy.
Thus, making or designing a green cement plant in effect means:1.providing facilities for making blended cements in an adequate measure2.designing components like calciners to reduce obnoxious gases like NOx, SO2, etc.3.provide providing for processing and firing alternative fuels which will reduce the quantum of CO2 released4.designing burners and firing systems for available alternative fuels5.if required, providing for bypass of kiln gases which can contain excessive alkalis and chlorides as a result of firing certain alternative or waste fuels6.providing for waste heat recovery systems to generate power or for other applications7.consideration of making composite cements, which are a form of blended cements1.8.1.To this list will soon be added:1.using/making substitute cements2.using renewable energy
There are developments which aim at reducing the GHG emissions by physically collecting CO2 emitted and storing it and making it available to other industries that have use for it, and even for making cements of new types.
Apart from the two major aspects described regarding sustainability and GHG emissions there is more to making a cement plant green:1.keeping the environment green by planting trees and taking up schemes for afforestation2.adopting more scientific mining methods that cause minimum damage to the environment by minimizing mining footprints3.reclaiming used mines for landscaping, creating water reservoirs, etc.4.creating green belts in and around plant and colony5.installing water conservation schemes like rainwater harvesting, water treatment for recycling6.designing and constructing green buildings in the cement plant wherever possible to make maximum use of natural light, ventilation, etc.
The cement industry is consciously making efforts in various areas (listed in section 1.8) and is very much interested in making existing plants green and in designing new plants as green plants.1.11.1.Blended cementsPresently almost all cement plants the world over are making blended cements. In India itself ~ 74% of cement made is blended cement. Slag adding up to 60% has been used up. Fly ash is available but further increase in the quantum of Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) is limited unless the ceiling to which fly ash can be added is raised. This change can only be sanctioned by national entities that govern standards of cement, like the Bureau of Indian Standards in India.1.11.2.Alternate fuelsThe main problem is the selection of a fuel that is steadily available in required quantities over a long period of time and which would have reasonably uniform physical and chemical properties, such as calorific value.1.11.3.Waste heat recoveryIntroducing waste heat recovery systems requires heavy capital investment and therefore requires careful planning and engineering.In the subsequent sections and chapters all these aspects have been covered in detail so as to present a comprehensive picture of what it takes to make a green cement plant.
Presently almost all cement plants the world over are making blended cements. In India itself ~ 74% of cement made is blended cement. Slag adding up to 60% has been used up. Fly ash is available but further increase in the quantum of Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) is limited unless the ceiling to which fly ash can be added is raised. This change can only be sanctioned by national entities that govern standards of cement, like the Bureau of Indian Standards in India.
The main problem is the selection of a fuel that is steadily available in required quantities over a long period of time and which would have reasonably uniform physical and chemical properties, such as calorific value.
All over the world, sizes of cement plants have increased both as single production units and also in terms of total capacity in one place. Basic processes and, hence. stages of manufacture in green cement plants are the same as those in conventional cement plants. When making blended cements, both the requirements of limestone for a given capacity of the plant and also the area for mining lease reduce drastically.
With the size of the plant capacities of individual machinery, units like crushers, mills, and kilns also increase correspondingly. Therefore, increases in the size of a plant should be accompanied by growth and developments in cement making machinery so as to maintain, and even improve, efficiency and productivity of cement plants.
It is economical to have a single production unit for a given capacity. This would have been difficult without developments like low pressure drop cyclones for preheaters, vertical roller mills with multi drives, high efficiency separators, roller presses, and a number of ways these can be integrated in circuits. Various developments in designs of clinker coolers with+70% efficiencies, developments in designs of low nox calciners, and two support kilns are just some of the developments that have made large green cement plants a reality. Features like co-processing alternate fuels and waste heat recovery systems are also integral parts of large green plants.
With the size of the plant, the quantities of bulk materials to be handled and stored increase correspondingly. A balance has to be struck between economy and continuity of operation in planning layouts of large cement plants. Multiple units are installed to maintain continuity of operation in the event of breakdowns.
New, large plants make at least two types, sometimes more, of cements. Hence, sections of cement grinding, storage, and dispatches have to be planned carefully to cater for the market in the best possible manner. Dispatches can be by road, rail, (even by sea in case of exports), and in bagged or bulk cement. The plant has to plan its facilities carefully, taking these factors into account. Split location has become common.
Operating efficiencies of large plants are highsp. fuel consumption is around 650 - 700kcal/kg clinker; sp. power consumption is between 65-80kwh/ton; and man hours required per ton of cement are as low as 0.15.
Because of their size, it is possible for large plants to invest in renewable energy, such as solar or wind power. Automation and process control are of an advanced nature. New concepts using key performance indicators (KPI ) and dashboard control are coming in vogue. Large plants have to integrate and manage three or more power systems like grid power, captive thermal power, waste heat recovery power, and also solar or wind power. This, itself, is a challenging job.
Future scenarios and assessment studies used to prepare for long-term energy transitions and develop robust strategies to address climate change are highly dependent on the assessment of technology characteristics and availability.
The electric power sector in the United States recently experienced a significant cost escalation: e.g., construction costs for large plants such as nuclear and coal-fired power plants doubled between 2003 and 2007. We assess the main drivers of this escalation. While many factors have affected costs, some of the most significant include cost of materials, particularly the price of metals and to a lesser extent cement, possible increases in labor quantity requirements, the aggressive worldwide competition for power plant design and construction resources, driven by high demand in Asia, market and regulatory changes, and general uncertainty about future regulations and climate policies.
We recalibrate power sector technology costs in the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) based on an extensive literature review of recent (post-2010) studies and in the process develop a coherent and updated set of current cost and performance assumptions for all major electricity-generating technologies.
While current cost and performance assumptions of electricity-generating technologies are key drivers of short-term technology deployment and technology mix in the electricity sector, medium- and long-term deployment pathways are significantly affected by assumed efficiency improvement rates and cost reductions. We develop and demonstrate a method to project efficiency and construction cost of power plants and report a sensitivity analysis to explore the importance of such assumptions in future scenarios generated by GCAM.