In this article, we are going to take a deep dive into the types of crushed stone and gravel, how they are made, and their basic applications. You may not be a quarry expert at the end, but you will understand the basics for your next concrete or hardscaping project!
Most crushed stone is produced in quarries and is crushed when machinery breaks up and crushes larger rocks. Instead of being shaped or formed naturally, such as in a riverbed or canyon, crushed stone is produced with man-made machinery and processes.
It begins with using a rock crusher in a quarry or site with plenty of large rocks. There are many types of crushers, but their main job is the same: Crush larger rocks into smaller pieces to be used for construction material.
Crushed stone is then passed through different screeners to be organized and stored in different piles according to their size. The screening process starts by removing larger stones, then medium stones, and eventually goes all the way down to the stone dust.
This screening is important because contractors need very specific types of crushed stone to complete different types of projects. For example, you dont want large stones in ready mix concrete, and you dont want stone dust in drainage systems.
After being sorted into different piles depending on the size of the stone, the stone is ready to be shipped from the quarry. Quarries deliver directly to job sites, to concrete plants, or to wholesale distributors who sell the stone through retail to customers.
Because large stones and quarries are hard on tires and require heavy metal, crushed stone was hard to make and transport until heavy machinery with tracks was developed. WW2 expedited the development of this machinery, and crushed stone began to be widely used in construction projects in the 1940s and 1950s.
Large-scale building projects, particularly in infrastructure like the Eisenhower Interstate System, helped usher in an era where crushed stone was used in almost every part of construction. Foundations, concrete, drainage systems, and roads were all needing large quantities of crushed stone.
An example of this often occurs when a road is being replaced or resurfaced. Many road construction companies are beginning to grind and crush the existing road as they remove it. This crushed road, which is essentially crushed stone, then becomes the base for the new road.
The exact amount of crushed stone recycling is unknown due to a lack of reporting. Much of the crushed stone is also recycled right on the construction site, especially with road construction, and this makes it difficult to measure.
The most common use for recycled crushed stone is as a base for roadways, especially when the old road can be torn up, crushed, and reused. Concrete blocks and bricks can also be crushed and recycled as a base.
Crushed stone often has an angular and jagged edge that occurs during the crushing process. Gravel, on the other hand, typically has a very smooth texture and surface because of the natural weathering and wear of being exposed to the effects of running water.
Metamorphic: Metamorphic rocks become changed through intense heat or pressure. Similar to clay hardening in an oven, metamorphic rocks become very hard and crystallized by intense or heat or pressure.
If you go to a creek or river, you see all types of rocks, both large and small. These larger rocks can be used for foundations or other building projects, but typically gravel is screened and only the smaller pieces are used.
Pea gravel: Pea gravel is some of the smallest gravel - typically or smaller in size. Pea gravel is often used in places like fish tanks, walkways, swimming pools, or other places where foot traffic occurs or small gravel is needed.
When thinking of construction, it is important to know what kinds of rock are ideal for specific applications. After all, if a rock type crumbles easily under pressure, you dont want to use it as a component in ready mix concrete or pavement.
Granite: An igneous rock that is durable and is easily polished. Because of the color, grain, and polishing ability; they are often used inside homes for countertops or on the outside of monumental or civic buildings. However, they can also be used on bridge piers and river walls.
Limestone: A sedimentary rock that is the most commonly used to make crushed stone in the United States. One of the most versatile rocks for construction, limestone is able to be crushed easily making it a primary rock used in ready mix concrete, road construction, and railroads. It is widely available in quarries across the country.
Slate: A metamorphic rock typically found in layers. Because it is easily mined and cut in these natural layers, it works well in applications requiring thin rock layers. Common examples are roofing tiles, certain types of chalkboards, gravestones, and some pavement applications.
Laterite: A metamorphic rock with a highly porous and sponge structure. It is easily quarried in block form and used as a building stone. However, it is important to plaster the surface to eliminate the pores.
Stone dust: This is the very fine dust, similar to sand, that is created as the stone is crushed. Stone dust is useful when tamping or packing stone, but it causes problems for applications where water needs to drain, such as behind a retaining wall.
Clean stone: If crushed stone is clean, it has been screened so the majority of the stone dust has been removed, but some dust is still mixed in. This is useful for the top layer of a stone driveway or other places where some minor compaction is not harmful.
Washed clean stone: This is stone that has been screened like clean stone, but then also washed to ensure there is no stone dust on the finished product. This is often used for drainage purposes, for ready mix concrete, or places that need aesthetic appeal, such as curbing or decorative stone.
Crushed stone: If you hear the generic crushed stone term, it usually refers to stone that has a mixture of stone dust in it. This type of stone is best used for a base when heavy compaction is needed. As a result, it is typically used for the base of concrete and paving projects, foundations of structures, and driveway bases.
Or, if we were putting the base down for a patio, we want stone that compacts well and makes a strong base. Therefore, we want our stone to have stone dust, so we would call the quarry and order 2 crushed stone.
When putting down gravel in a flowerbed, make sure you start by laying down a quality landscape fabric, securely stake the fabric in place, and then layer the gravel on top of the fabric, usually 2-3 thick.
Stone dust compacts and hardens, especially when it becomes wet. Since drains need to always be open, it is important to keep stone dust out of drains. Therefore, construction projects needing drainage systems make sure they use only stone that has been cleaned and washed.
Crushed stone and gravel will continue to be a staple in construction, decoration, and industry for years to come. As recycling picks up, mining and quarries may slow down, but we will always need crushed stone in general construction and industry.
If you want to learn more about ready mix concrete and preparing for it, read our blog post on the Beginner's guide to concrete and the complete guide to pouring concrete in different types of weather.
Crushed stone is one of the most common and accessible natural resources on the planet. The crushed stone is a little bit small and without a regular but sharp edge because it belongs to rocks and crushed by the crushing machine. It is one of the most popular materials for residential products like driveways and landscaping.
Its a man-made product and usually contains a combination of natural stone, like limestone, granite, and trap-rocks. These stones are crushed to create the jagged edges we associate with gravel. Many homeowners prefer crushed stone because its available in a variety of sizes and colors, so they can achieve their desired aesthetic. The primary difference between crushed stone and gravel is that gravel is not man-made. It forms naturally from large rocks, whicherode over time, creating smaller rocks. As a result, crushed gravel is typically rounder and has a smoother shape than crushed stone.
The differences between the crushed and the gravel mostly in the field of the construction.The gravel is kind of smooth and has no edges but after a long time eroded by the river, its hardness is not as good as that of crushed stone, which also determines that it is a low-strength stone in the building and driveway paving. Besides, it will show the poor construction stability when being mixed with the cement to enhance the strength dut to the smooth edge and the weak hardness. For example, if there is a higher requirement for strength and load-bearing for the driveway, crushed stone is needed. As for the crushed stones, there are many classifications, but the size of the stone will determine how it should be used. It could be used as the foundation of pavers and roads, fence drainage and concrete blocks. And the materials of the crushed stone can be easily found and crushed into any shapes and sizes according to customers demands.
Basically, the materials of the crushed stone are limestone, traprock, granite, argillite, quartzite. Although they are huge blocks at first, after the processing of different crushing machines at a different level, itll be crushed to the desired size. In general, the crushed stone has to get through the two or three levels of crusher which means it should be reduced by the primary crusher like PE jaw crusher then the secondary crushers like cone crushers or impact rock crushers and finally the tertiary crusher.
The following list gives a rundown of crushed stone grades and their best uses. While there may be slight variances in the naming convention of crushed stone the following are the most common names and sizes:
The final layer of a gravel driveway consists of smaller gravel blended with coarse rock dust, known as fines. Crushed stone #411, which is a mixture of #57 stone and coarse rock dust, is a good option for road top layer. This blend of small stones and rock dust will fit tightly together as the stones settle, forming a stable, solid surface that can stand up to heavy vehicles.
1) Style Versatility Although people may connect the crushed stone with the rural driveway which is so beautiful and full of the aesthetic, the fact of the matter is that it also contributes a lot to the driveway of the city and makes the road a large carrying capacity so that whether modern and funky or classic and elegant, crushed stone will fit the bill. 2) Design Flexibility Without any limitation is the most attraction s of the crushed stones.The crushed stone can be poured into any shape no matter how irregular so that your driveway can be just as unique as you are. 3) Affordability Many people want their selections of the materials for driveway are affordable and high- quality. Of all of the surfacing options for residential driveways,crushed stone is perhaps the cheapest.
According to theUnited States Geological Survey, 1.72billion tonnes of crushed stone worth $13.8billion was sold or used in 2006, of which 1.44billion tonnes was used asconstruction aggregate, 74.9million tonnes used for cement manufacture, and 18.1million tonnes used to makelime. Crushedmarblesold or used totaled 11.8million tonnes, the majority of which was ground very fine and used ascalcium carbonate. And the following chart also shows us the large quantity of crushed stone is a very important resource to develop the construction of the United State.
Crushed Fines and also known as Quarry Dust, is a form offractured gravel chipsand fine dust used to solidify the base under patios and walkways. The Sub-Base is laid above the ABC or Sub-Grade at 1 to 2 inches on light weight traffic areas like pathways and paver patios.
Cross-Section layers that make up a mortar-less or dry-laid pavement. A. Sub-Grade or undisturbed soil B. Aggregate Base Course C. Sub-Base Crushed Fines D. Paver Sand base bed E. Pavers F. Polymeric Sand
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This crushed; washed stone makes an excellent driveway or path material where a solid base exists. It is light to dark gray in color and is a harder stone than Michigan Limestone, making it less chalky.
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Limestone crusher plant is kind of special stone processing line for crushing hard mineral. To meet the production requirements, it can take coarse or fine crush for the limestone to produce stones of all sizes. This is beneficial to the deep processing of limestone in the later stage.
Large amount of limestone is used as building material and important raw material for many industries. It is widely applied in various fields, such as highway, high-speed railway, rural-way, building sand, it is an ideal material in the construction industry.
Our company is professional at producing construction machinery, such as dry mortar production line, asphalt mixing plant, concrete batching plant, crushing plant, etc. With reliable quality, affordable price, complete after-sales service, our company has won more high praise, trust and repeat customers. If you are interested, never hesitate to contact us!
Stone crushing production line is applied to the crushing and processing of limestone, basalt, granite, pebbles and other rocks. The quality of the finished product completely meets the construction standards, which provides qualified aggregate for highway, railway, water conservancy, concrete batching plant and other industries.
The limestone of the original material passes through the silo, it is uniformly fed by the vibrating feeder, and transported to the jaw crusher for primary crushing.The material after the primary crushing and the fine material screened by the vibrating feeder are transported to the compactcrusher together with the belt conveyor.
After the roughcrushing,material transported to the impact crusheris crushed, the limestone after impact crusherand crushing is screened by circular vibrating screen: the larger particle limestone is returned to the impact crusherand crushagain.
Features: The structural design is unique, the control-ability and flexibility are strong, the discharged particle size can be adjusted reasonably, the grain shape of finished product is better, and the comprehensive economic benefit is high.
The plate hammer of impact crusher is easy to wear, it is also limited in the application of hard material crushing. Impact crusher is usually used for rough crushing, medium crushing and fine crushing limestone, quartz, dolomite, iron sulfide other medium hard brittle material.
Hammer crusher is kind of new crushing device. It is designed, optimized and produced based on common hammer crusher, impact crusher, vertical hammer crusher and mechanical principles of hammer head/board hammer on the stone to crush. It changes the method of controlling the particle size with grid section, reduces the wear of hammer in the crushing cavity, prolongs the service life of hammer by 4-6 times, achieves great breakthrough of crushing technology and the effect of getting twice the result with half the effort.
Hammer crusher has the advantages of large feeding particle size, small discharge particle size, turns three-stage crushing into first-order crushing, which completely realizes the low-cost operation of one crusher instead of two crusher pieces. As a result, the cost can be reduced by 35%. It is equipment with low energy consumption and low investment. It can crush wet material, that is, water can be added when crushing wet material to reduce dust pollution and protect workers health and environment.