fine crusher exhaust

jaw crusher pulverisette 1 premium line / accessories

jaw crusher pulverisette 1 premium line / accessories

Please note: The crushing jaws and lateral support walls of the FRITSCH Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 premium line are available in different materials in order to avoid undesired contamination due to material abrasion. The standard version is equipped with fixed and movable crushing jaws as well as lateral support walls made of hardened steel.

If required, we can equip your PULVERISETTE 1 premium line with fixed and movable crushing jaws in steel with a grooved surface, which have a different influence on particle shape and particle size distribution.

Normally, crushing jaws and support walls of the same material are used. Since the lateral support walls are subject to low stresses, however, the standard lateral support walls made of tempered steel can often be retained. Fixed and movable crushing jaws made of steel with grooved surface on request.

Normally, crushing jaws and support walls of the same material are used. For the comminution of RoHS samples such as for the XRF analysis crushing jaws and support walls made of chromium-free tool steel are particularly well suited. For complete metal-free pre-crushing of medium-hard, brittle samples, for example in the ceramics industry, we can equip your PULVERISETTE 1 premium line with crushing jaws made of zirconium oxide, lateral support walls made of POM plastic or zirconium oxide and a special polyamide-coated funnel and drawer - other coatings available on request.

General material specification: Material: hardened steel - 1.2436Abrasion resistance: goodsuitable for: brittle, hard samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification: Material: hardened steel - 1.2436Abrasion resistance: goodsuitable for: brittle, hard samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification:Material: stainless steel - 1.4571Abrasion resistance: fairly goodSuitable for: medium-hard, brittle samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification:Material: stainless steel - 1.4571Abrasion resistance: fairly goodSuitable for: medium-hard, brittle samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specifications:Material: chromium-free toolsteel 1.1740Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: medium-hard samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specifications:Material: chromium-free toolsteel 1.1740Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: medium-hard samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specifications:Material: manganese steel - 1.3401Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: hard, brittle samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specifications:Material: manganese steel - 1.3401Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: hard, brittle samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specifications:Material: Hardmetal tungsten carbide - WCAbrasion resistance: very goodSuitable for: very hard, abrasive samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specifications:Material: hardmetal tungsten carbide - WCAbrasion resistance: very goodSuitable for very hard, abrasive samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specifications:Material: zirconium oxide - ZrO2Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: medium-hard, brittle samples, metal-free crushingDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

Metal-free pre-crushingFor absolute protection against metal contamination, such as for dental ceramics. Crushing jaws made of zirconium oxide are perfect for completely metal-free pre-crushing of medium-hard brittle samples, for example in the ceramics industry, we can equip your FRITSCH Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 premium line and classic linewith lateral support walls made of:

General material specification:Material: zirconium oxide - ZrO2Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: abrasive, medium-hard, brittle samples, metal-free crushingDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

Metal-free pre-crushingFor absolute protection against metal contamination, such as for dental ceramics. Crushing jaws made of zirconium oxide are perfect for completely metal-free pre-crushing of medium-hard brittle samples, for example in the ceramics industry, we can equip your FRITSCH Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 premium line and classic line with lateral support walls made of:

General material specifications: Material: hardened steel - 1.2436Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: brittle, hard samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification: Material: stainless steel - 1.4571Abrasion resistance: fairly goodSuitable for: medium-hard, brittle samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification:Material: chromium-free tool steel - 1.1740Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: medium-hard samplesDetailed information about the materials you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification: Material: hardmetal tungsten carbide - WCAbrasion resistance: extremely goodSuitable for: very hard, abrasive samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

Conversion kit for metal-free pre-crushing, ideal for complete metal-free pre-crushing of brittle samples, for example in the ceramics industry. Consisting of funnel and drawer, both polyamide-coated - other coatings available on request.

Conversion kit for metal-free pre-crushing, ideal for complete metal-free pre-crushing of brittle samples, for example in the ceramics industry. Consisting of funnel and drawer, both polyamide-coated - other coatings available on request.

IQ/OQ documentation (questionnaire format - implementation by customer) for the independent utilization for the support of instrument qualification in the quality management system for the Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 premium line.

We offer the perfect dust exhaust and accessories with integrated channels for dust-free operation, simply connect the dust exhaust system and control it directly using the start and stop button on the instrument. The button lights up in green when the dust exhaust system is ready for operation.

For combination with the high performance and small volume cyclones. To operate the FRITSCH Cyclones you need an exhaust system. The strong airflow ensures simple feeding, increases throughput, and reduces the thermal load of the samples. The high performance and small volume Cyclone separator can be combined with Universal-Cutting Mill PULVERISETTE 19, the Variable Speed Rotor Mill PULVERISETTE premium line and classic line even passive without sample exhaust.

For cooling of the Variable Speed Rotor Mill PULVERISETTE 14 premium line By connecting the exhaust system with the connecting piece order no. 14.4214.00, the cooling of the mill can easily be enhanced.

For combination with the Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 premium line The exhaust system is simply connected and operated via a start and stop button on the instrument perfect dust exhaust due to integrated dust exhaust channels for dust free operation.

For connecting to Disk Mill PULVERISETTE 13 premium line The exhaust is simply connected to the PULVERISETTE 13 premium line and operated via a start and stop button on the instrument for dust free comminution.

For connecting to the Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1, Modell I + II classic line Simply connect the exhaust system to the integrated connection of the PULVERISETTE 1. Fine dust arising during comminution is automatically removed. The exhaust system is also very useful when cleaning the grinding parts.

For connecting to the Disk Mill PULVERISETTE 13 classic line Optionally, the exhaust system can be combined with the connecting piece order no. 13.1450.00, to the PULVERISETTE 13 classic line. Fine dust arising during comminution is automatically removed. The exhaust system is also very useful when cleaning the grinding parts.

1 pack = 5 piecesOne pack is included in the scope of delivery of the exhaust system (article No. 43.9070.00).These fleece filter bags should be used for the vacuuming off of fine, dry materials.For the vacuuming off of coarse, wet materials are plastic bags available (article no. 43.9052.00).

1 pack = 5 piecesOne pack is included in the order of the exhaust system (article No. 43.9070.00).These plastic bags should be used for the vacuuming off of coarse, wet materials.For the vacuuming off of fine, dry materials are paper filter bags available (article no. 43.9055.00).

For especially fast continuous premium pre- and fine-grinding of large quantities of coarse material, the combination of the Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 premium line and the Disk Mill PULVERISETTE 13 premium line is the solution: they form an efficient, heavy-duty, high-performance grinding instrument with integrated Riffle Sample Splitter. This gives you the full range of opportunities for sample preparation with a feed size of up to 95 mm and final fineness of down to 0.05 mm.The combined FRITSCH premium high-performance grinding instrument can also be configured for completely metal-free pre- and fine-grinding.

For especially fast continuous premium pre- and fine-grinding of large quantities of coarse material, the combination of the Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 premium line and the Disk Mill PULVERISETTE 13 premium line is the ideal solution. Together, they form an efficient, heavy-duty, high-performance grinding instrument with integrated Riffle Sample Splitter.Givingyou the full range of opportunities for optimal sample preparation with a feed size of up to 95 mm and final fineness of down to 0.05 mm.Integrated representative sample divisionAfter the comminution in the Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 premium line, the ground material falls directly into the Riffle Sample Splitter integrated in the collecting vessel and is automatically divided into representative samples. The division ratio can be set as desired, from 1:1 to 1:6.Continuous OperationConversion kit for continuous operation of the Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 premium line and the Disk Mill PULVERISETTE 13 premium line on request.Select the appropriate grinding parts and the desired configuration from the options available from our accessory pagesfor the:

jaw crusher model i pulverisette 1 classic line / accessories

jaw crusher model i pulverisette 1 classic line / accessories

Please note: The crushing jaws and lateral support walls of the FRITSCH Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 classic line are available in 6 different materials in order to avoid undesired contamination due to material abrasion. The standard version is equipped with fixed and movable crushing jaws as well as lateral support walls made of hardened steel.

Normally, crushing jaws and support walls of the same material are used. Since the lateral support walls are subject to low stresses, however, the standard lateral support walls made of hardened steel can often be retained.

Normally, crushing jaws and support walls of the same material are used. For the comminution of RoHS samples such as for the XRF analysis crushing jaws and support walls made of chromium-free steel are particularly well suited. For completely iron-free pre-crushing of medium-hard brittle samples, for example in the ceramics industry, we can equip your FRITSCH Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 classic line with crushing jaws made of zirconium oxide, lateral support walls in zirconium oxide or aluminium, and with a special PVC funnel. So you will have absolute protection against iron contamination, such as for dental ceramics.

General material specification:Material: hardened steel - 1.2436Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: brittle, hard samplesDetailed information about the materials you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification:Material: hardened steel - 1.2436Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: brittle, hard samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specifications: Material: stainless steel - 1.4571Abrasion resistance: fairly goodSuitable for: medium-hard, brittle samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification: Material: stainless steel - 1.4571Abrasion resistance: fairly goodSuitable for: medium-hard, brittle samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification:Material: chromium-free toolsteel -1.1740Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: medium-hard samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification:Material: chromium-free toolsteel - 1.1740Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: medium-hard samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification:Material: manganese steel - 1.3401Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: hard, brittle samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specifications: Material: hardmetal tungsten carbide - WCAbrasion resistance: very goodSuitable for: very hard, abrasive samples.Detailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specifications: Material: hardmetal tungsten carbide - WC Abrasion resistance: extremely goodSuitable for: very hard, abrasive samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification:Material: zirconium oxide - ZrO2Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: medium-hard, brittle samples, for metal-free crushingDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification:Material: zirconium oxide - ZrO2Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: medium-hard, brittle samples, for metal-free crushingDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification: Material: hardened steel - 1.2436Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: brittle, hard samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification: Material: stainless steel - 1.4571Abrasion resistance: fairly goodSuitable for: medium-hard, brittle samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification:Material: chromium-free tool steel - 1.1740Abrasion resistance: goodSuitable for: medium-hard samplesDetailed information about the materials you will find in the element analysis.

General material specification: Material: hardmetal tungsten carbide - WCAbrasion resistance: extremely goodSuitable for: very hard, abrasive samplesDetailed information about the material you will find in the element analysis.

Metal-free pre-crushingCrushing jaws made of zirconium oxide are perfect for completely metal-free pre-crushing of medium-hard brittle samples, for example in the ceramics industry, we canequip your FRITSCH Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 classic line with fixed crushing jaws (order no. 43.0100.27) or movable crushing jaws (order no. 43.0110.27) in zirconium oxide or aluminium lateral suport walls (order no. 43.0150.13), and with a special PVC funnel (order no. 01.5410.00). For absolute protection against metal contamination, such as for dental ceramics.

Use the PVC funnel and the included clamping strips for metal-free pre-crushing of brittle samples. So you will have absolute protection against metal contamination for example for example in the ceramics industry dental ceramics.

Use the PVC funnel and the included clamping strips for metal-free grinding of brittle samples. So you will have absolute protection against metal contamination for example for example in the ceramics industry dental ceramics.

An integrated connection makes it very simple to combine the instrument with a dust exhaust system for automatic removal of the fine dust arising during grinding. The dust exhaust system is also very useful when cleaning the grinding parts.

For combination with the high performance and small volume cyclones. To operate the FRITSCH Cyclones you need an exhaust system. The strong airflow ensures simple feeding, increases throughput, and reduces the thermal load of the samples. The high performance and small volume Cyclone separator can be combined with Universal-Cutting Mill PULVERISETTE 19, the Variable Speed Rotor Mill PULVERISETTE premium line and classic line even passive without sample exhaust.

For cooling of the Variable Speed Rotor Mill PULVERISETTE 14 premium line By connecting the exhaust system with the connecting piece order no. 14.4214.00, the cooling of the mill can easily be enhanced.

For combination with the Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 premium line The exhaust system is simply connected and operated via a start and stop button on the instrument perfect dust exhaust due to integrated dust exhaust channels for dust free operation.

For connecting to Disk Mill PULVERISETTE 13 premium line The exhaust is simply connected to the PULVERISETTE 13 premium line and operated via a start and stop button on the instrument for dust free comminution.

For connecting to the Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1, Modell I + II classic line Simply connect the exhaust system to the integrated connection of the PULVERISETTE 1. Fine dust arising during comminution is automatically removed. The exhaust system is also very useful when cleaning the grinding parts.

For connecting to the Disk Mill PULVERISETTE 13 classic line Optionally, the exhaust system can be combined with the connecting piece order no. 13.1450.00, to the PULVERISETTE 13 classic line. Fine dust arising during comminution is automatically removed. The exhaust system is also very useful when cleaning the grinding parts.

1 pack = 5 piecesOne pack is included in the scope of delivery of the exhaust system (article No. 43.9070.00).These fleece filter bags should be used for the vacuuming off of fine, dry materials.For the vacuuming off of coarse, wet materials are plastic bags available (article no. 43.9052.00).

1 pack = 5 piecesOne pack is included in the order of the exhaust system (article No. 43.9070.00).These plastic bags should be used for the vacuuming off of coarse, wet materials.For the vacuuming off of fine, dry materials are paper filter bags available (article no. 43.9055.00).

For fine pre-crushing of sample material with a feed size of up to 95 mm down to 0.1 mm final fineness in a single process and for continuous operation with the Jaw Crushers PULVERISETTE 1 classic line.Fine pre-crushing from up to 95 mm down to 01 mm in a single processA mounting rack with chute in combination with the Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 classic line (Model I + II) and the Disk Mill PULVERISETTE 13 classic linemake it possible to grind up to 95 mm feed material down to a final fineness of 100 m in a single process.

Continuous operationWith the use of the mounting rack and delivery chute, the Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 classic line (Model I+ II) can be used for continuous operation. Conversion kit for the continuous operation of the Disk Mill PULVERISETTE 13 classic line on request.

IQ/OQ documentation (questionnaire format - implementation not included); for the independent utilization for the support of instrument qualification in the quality management system for theJaw CrushersPULVERISETTE1 classic line, Model I and II.

IQ/OQ documentation (questionnaire format - implementation by customer) for the independent utilization for the support of instrument qualification in the quality management system for theJaw CrushersPULVERISETTE1 classic line, model I and II.

laboratory jaw crusher pulverisette 1 | laval lab

laboratory jaw crusher pulverisette 1 | laval lab

140 kg/h (model I) or 200 kg/h (model II). The optimum fineness depends on the gap width adjustment for setting the distance between the crushing jaws and therefore setting the final fineness, which is approximately

The funnel of the FRITSCH Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 classic line is particularly accessible, quickly and easily filled even with larger sample quantities and easy to clean.Its design enables the crushed material to be automatically conveyed into the crushing chamber blockages are practically impossible.

Especially safe and dust-free: the enclosed grinding chamber prevents users from reaching inside and ensures a safe and dust-free operation of all moving parts. An integrated connection makes it very simple to combine the instrument with a dust exhaust system for automatic removal of the fine dust arising during grinding. The dust exhaust system is also very useful when cleaning the grinding parts.

The crushing jaws and lateral support walls of the Jaw Crusher Pulverisette 1 classic line are available in 6 different materials in order to avoid undesired contamination due to material abrasion. The standard version is equipped with fixed and movable crushing jaws as well as lateral support walls made of tempered steel.

Normally, crushing jaws and support walls of the same material are used. Since the lateral support walls are subject to low stresses, however, the standard lateral support walls made of tempered steel can often be retained.

For completely iron-free pre-crushing of medium-hard brittle samples, for example in the ceramics industry, we can equip your Jaw Crusher Pulverisette 1 classic line with crushing jaws made of zirconium oxide, lateral support walls in zirconium oxide or aluminium, and with a special PVC funnel. So you will have absolute protection against iron contamination, such as for dental ceramics.

Maximum feed size: 60 mm (2-1/2) model I, 95 mm (3-3/4) model II Final fineness: 1-15 mm (16 mesh 5/8) Maximum capacity: 140 kg/h (model I) 200 kg/h (model II) Grinding materials: Tempered steel, stainless steel, chromium-free steel, manganese steel, tungsten carbide, zirconium oxide, aluminium Dimensions (WxDxH): 40x80x80 cm (16x32x32) Weight: 177 kg (390 lbs.) model I 205 kg (450 lbs.) model II Certified safety (CE mark) optional CSA approval for Canada 2-year warranty Combinable with the Disc Pulverizer PULVERISETTE 13

The powerful size reduction of the sample takes place in the Jaw Crusher under high pressure between one fixed and one movable crushing jaw in an enclosed grinding chamber. The final fineness is easily set from the outside with the 10-stage adjustable gap width between the crushing jaws. The ground sample automatically falls into a drawer for batch operation, or via a chute into a larger collection container for continuous operation, or directly into the Disc Pulveriser Pulverisette 13 for fine grinding.

The powerful size reduction of the sample takes place in the Jaw Crusher under high pressure between one fixed and one movable crushing jaw in an enclosed grinding chamber. The final fineness is easily set from the outside with the 10-stage adjustable gap width between the crushing jaws. The ground sample automatically falls into a drawer for batch operation, or via a chute into a larger collection container for continuous operation, or directly into the Disc Pulveriser Pulverisette 13 for fine grinding.

The Automatic Mortar Grinder Pulverisette 2 is ideal for universal grinding of medium-hard-brittle to soft-brittle materials (dry or in suspension) to analytical fineness, as well as for formulation and homogenisation of pastes and creams at laboratory scale.

The Vario Planetary Mill Pulverisette 4 is ideal for mechanical activation and alloying.It offers thefreedom toprogramall grinding parametersthroughPC software to achieve the desired effect on the sample.

The Planetary Ball Mill Pulverisette 5 allows fast and very fine grinding of hard to soft material, dry or in suspension, down to colloidal fineness. It can also be used for mixing and homogenising of emulsions and pastes. Grinding capacity of up to 8 samples per operation.

The Planetary Mono Mill Pulverisette 6 is recommended for extremely rapid, batch grinding of hard to soft material, dry or in suspension, down to colloidal fineness. It is also an ideal laboratory instrument for mixing and homogenising of emulsions.

aftermarket exhaust not illegal, barrister - motorbike writer

aftermarket exhaust not illegal, barrister - motorbike writer

Levente Jurth, who rides an Aprilia Tuono 1100, says he researched the matter because fellowriders have been fined by Queensland Police for having a non-standard aftermarket exhaust fitted to their bikes.

His paper follows police and various transport authorities in several states issuing fines for fitting an aftermarket exhaust, either after a roadside noise test or simply because the exhaust is not the original equipment.

He also points out that there is nothing in the regulations about removing a catalyticconverter from an exhaust system or replacing the exhaust system with one that doesnt havea cat, nordo theVehicle Standards contain any requirement for a motorbike to have acat.

For NSW motorcyclists it is a double hit with an $100-odd fine then (and this bit really gets me) if the motorcyclist is silly enough to pay the fine the EPA (who do/or did have control of noise pollution) are then contacted, the rider is then issued with a notice to have the machine tested with another fee.

(2)On 8 January 2016, this paper was provided in draft form for comment. Without naming them, Ithank those who provided feedback and have assisted me in preparing this paper. It is now published infinal form. Of course, any errors remain my own.

1. On the whole, the sportbike community is a law-abiding one. According to KevinCamerons definition, A sportbike is a motorcycle whose enjoyment consistsmainly from its ability to perform on all types of paved highway its corneringability, its handling, its thrilling acceleration and braking power, even (dare I sayit?) its speed. Each of those attributes may be enjoyed without breaking the lawand the road rules are usually clear enough.

2. Great effort, expense and pride can go into modifying and personalising amotorbike, whether to increase its dynamic performance, or to enhance its safety,or to add to its visual appeal. Most often, it involves a combination of all three ofthose things.

3. In a majority of cases, the first modification that a rider makes to his or hermotorbike is to install an aftermarket exhaust, whether a whole system or one ormore components of it. There are probably two reasons for this: first, anaftermarket exhaust satisfies each of the three aforesaid outcomes of modificationand personalisation; and secondly, it is a relatively simple and inexpensivemodification.

4. In this paper, a reference to an aftermarket exhaust is a reference to amotorbikes exhaust system, or any component of it header (manifold), midpipeor muffler that is intended to replace the stock or factory fitted exhaustsystem. It may be accepted that in a majority of cases but not in all cases theaftermarket exhaust is louder than the stock or factory fitted exhaust.

5. For the past few years, officers from the Queensland Police Service and theQueensland Department of Transport and Main Roads have been issuing defectnotices to riders in respect of aftermarket exhausts being fitted to theirmotorbikes. In some cases, defect notices were issued as a result of sound leveltesting. In other cases, simply having an aftermarket exhaust fitted resulted in adefect notice being issued, or attracted a police caution, without troubling withthe sound level meter.

6. The consequences of a motorbike being found to be defective due to a louderaftermarket exhaust ranges from serious (substantial fines and demerit points) todraconian (under the so-called anti-hoon laws pursuant to the provisions of thePolice Powers and Responsibilities Act 2000 (Qld), the motorbike can beimpounded or even forfeited to the State).

7. It is, therefore, imperative that riders (on the one hand) and police and otherrelevant officers (on the other hand), clearly know what the regulatory provisionsconcerning aftermarket exhausts and motorcycle noise emissions are so that theformer can comply with them and the latter can effectively enforce them.

8. One would imagine that as much ought to go without saying. Sadly, however,that seems not to be the case. There appears to be confusion on both sides as towhat the relevant provisions permit and prohibit, and precisely where that line is.

(a) draw together in one document the relevant provisions of numerousinterrelated regulatory and other instruments relevant to aftermarketexhausts and motorcycle noise emissions (which for the lay person can behard to find);

10. That said, the views and conclusions expressed in this paper on issues of law aremy sincerely held views as a barrister and I would have no hesitation in makingsubmissions to a Court consistent with such views.

11. The primary regulations are the Transport Operations (Road Use ManagementVehicle Standards and Safety) Regulation 2010 (Qld) (herein called theRegulations), which is available at the following URL:

(1) The vehicle standards are based on the Australian Vehicle StandardsRules 1999 contained in the National Transport Commission (RoadTransport LegislationVehicle Standards) Regulations 2006 (Cwlth),schedule 2 to the extent the rules apply to light vehicles.

17. A motorbike is relevantly defined in Schedule 4 to the Regulations as:a light motor vehicle with 2 wheels, and includes a 2-wheeled light motor vehiclewith a sidecar attached to it that is supported by a third wheel.

22. Section 5 of the Regulations draws a distinction between the equipment andthe optional equipment. The same dichotomy appears in section 7 of theRegulations that deals with defective light vehicles.

23. It is clear enough that the equipment is equipment that is fitted to the vehiclementioned in or required by the vehicle standards. In other words, it is thestandard equipment, presumably including original equipment manufacturer(herein called OEM) parts, with which a new motorbike is delivered from theshowroom floor.

(c) the Australian Vehicle Standards Rules 1999 contained in the NationalTransport Commission (Road Transport LegislationVehicle Standards)Regulations 2006 (Cth), which is available at the following URL:

28. Accordingly, optional equipment is equipment that is left to ones personal,free choice or preference. It is not obligatory, or prescribed, or compulsory. Ofcourse, in the circumstances, the one exercising the choice or preference must bethe owner of the motorbike. However, I would suggest that such personal freechoice or preference is not unlimited the equipment cannot be unlawful, unsafeor otherwise defective.

29. In my view, therefore, optional equipment includes aftermarket exhausts. It isequipment that the owner can choose to fit to his or her motorbike, subject to itbeing lawful and safe. There is no reason to suppose that optional equipmentis limited to options offered by the manufacturer (whether such equipment isactually manufactured by the manufacturer of the motorbike or constitutes OEMparts) to the exclusion of options which may be sourced by the owner of themotorcycle from an alternative supplier.

30. Accordingly, read alone, sub-sections 5(1)(a)(v) and 5(1)(a)(vi) of the Regulationswould permit an aftermarket exhaust to be fitted to a motorbike, and for amotorbike fitted with an aftermarket exhaust to be drive[n] (ridden) on a road,if the aftermarket exhaust:

32. Schedule 1 to the Regulations is headed Vehicle standards (herein called theVehicle Standards). It sets standards with which vehicles must comply in orderto be driven or ridden on roads. In most cases, if a vehicle complies with thevehicle standards, it is suitable to be lawfully used on a road.

34. For the purposes of this paper, it is presumed that all motorbikes complied withthe applicable ADR at the time of manufacture and original sale (that is, prior toany aftermarket modifications). It is beyond the scope of this paper to considerpre ADR or ADR exempt motorbikes.

38. Section 130 of the Vehicle Standards is the only section in the Vehicle Standardsthat deals with exhaust systems. However, it is not immediately apparent to mehow section 130 of the Vehicle Standards could apply to motorbikes, despite itstating that it applies to all motor vehicles other than buses.

39. For example, sub-section 130(2)(b)(i) of the Vehicle Standards requires that the outlet must discharge the main exhaust flow to the air horizontally or at anangle of not over 45 downwards. To my knowledge, the exhaust system onmost, if not all, sportbikes discharges the exhaust flow horizontally or at an angleupwards. It also seems awkward to speak of a motorbike having a back seat ora floorpan.

40. Arguably, motor scooters with step-through frames such as the ubiquitousVespa have a form of floorpan; but, even so, it is difficult to see how subsection130(1)(b) of the Vehicle Standards could be applied to a motor scooterinsofar as it requires ascertainment of the outermost joint of the floorpan that isnot continuously welded or permanently sealed.

41. In any event, it is beyond the scope of this paper to consider the physical size orplacement of aftermarket exhausts. The scope of this paper is limited to noiseemissions from aftermarket exhausts.

For this regulation, the stationary noise level of a motor vehicle must bemeasured in accordance with the procedure set out for the kind of vehicle in thedocument titled National Stationary Exhaust Noise Test Procedures for In-Service Motor Vehicles September 2006 published by the commission.

45. The National Stationary Exhaust Noise Test Procedures for In-Service MotorVehicles published in September 2006 by the National Transport Commissionand referred to in section 131(1) of the Vehicle Standards is available at this URL.

For this regulation, a vehicle is certified to ADR 83/00 if approval has beengiven, under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 (Cwlth), section 10A, toplace identification plates showing compliance with ADR 83/00 on vehicles ofthat type.

50. Although that definition is expressly limited to section 133 of the VehicleStandards, as the Regulations and Vehicle Standards contain no other definitionof silencing device, I shall proceed on the basis that it is intended to apply tothe whole of the Regulations and the Vehicle Standards, not just section 133 ofthe Vehicle Standards.

(b) the latter is calculated by the noise level limit that was established for eachvehicle when it was certified plus no more than 5dB(A). For example, the2015 Aprilia Tuono 1100 is certified to ADR 83/00 at a noise level of107db(A) at 5,500 rpm. The maximum stationary noise level for thatmotorbike would, therefore, be 112db(A) at 5,500 rpm, being 107db(A)plus 5dB(A).

59. Were the Regulations to end there, the position would be perfectly simple: amotorbike, whether fitted with a stock or factory fitted exhaust, or anaftermarket exhaust, would comply with the Vehicle Standards and theRegulations and hence be suitable to be lawfully used on a road if themaximum stationary noise level referred to in the immediately precedingparagraph hereof applying to the particular motorbike was complied with.Exceeding those levels would constitute an offence under section 5 of theRegulations.

60. Unfortunately, things are not that simple. That is because sub-sections 10(1)(d)and section 11 the Regulations (which also appear within Part 2) contain aprohibition on performing a modification to a silencing device and driving avehicle on a road containing a modified silencing device, and that prohibition,on its face, operates without reference to the stationary noise levels prescribed bythe Vehicle Standards.

63. Sub-section 10(2)(b) of the Regulations may be quickly disposed of. Itcomprehends situations where, for example, a farm-bike is intended to be usedonly on private property or track or race-bike is intended to be used only onclosed circuit tracks.

66. The National Code of Practice for Light Vehicle Construction and Modification(herein called the National Code of Practice) and the Queensland Code ofPracticeVehicle Modifications are available at the following URL:

Motor cycles manufactured from 1 July 1975 are subject to strict designrequirements for noise emissions. Components affecting noise emissions(especially exhaust systems) must not be modified and must be maintained in aserviceable condition. Any replacement component must be as near as practicalto the original component specification.

The AVSR sets stationary noise limits for all motor vehicles including motorcycles. The stationary noise level for a motor cycle or a motor trike, built afterFebruary 1985, is 94 dB(A) or for any other motor cycles or motor trikes, 100dB(A). Refer to Section LT Test Procedures for details about the stationary noisetest.

Motor cycles manufactured from 1 July 1988 have all components of theSilencing System marked with the name or trade name of the manufacturer.Every motor cycle manufactured after 1 July 1988 carries details of the ADRs39/ and 83/ stationary noise test in a format similar to that shown in FigureLL7

69. It is immediately apparent that clause 2.1.15 of the National Code of Practice ispartly inconsistent with the maximum stationary noise levels set out in theVehicle Standards referred to above in that it imposes a 94dB(A) stationary noiselevel limit on all motorbikes manufactured after February 1985, rather than, inthe case of ADR 83/00 certified vehicles, the noise level that is established for thevehicle when it was certified plus no more than 5dB(A).

74. The noise test procedure contained within section LT of the National Code ofPractice, therefore, does allow for the 5dB(A) increase in relation to ADR 83/00certified vehicles. That is consistent with the Vehicle Standards, but isinconsistent with clause 2.1.15 of the National Code of Practice.

(b) the prohibition contained in sub-section 10(1)(d) of the Regulations issubject to certain exceptions contained in sub-section 10(2) of theRegulations, relevantly, a modification is not prohibited if it complies withthe National Code of Practice;

(c) clause 2.1.15 of the National Code of Practice does not allow for the5dB(A) increase in relation to ADR 83/00 certified vehicles but insteadimposes a 94dB(A) stationary noise level limit on all motorbikesmanufactured after February 1985;

(f) the noise test procedure set out in Section LT of National Code of Practice which is presumably required to test compliance with the limits imposedby clause 2.1.15 of the National Code of Practice does allow for the5dB(A) increase in relation to ADR 83/00 certified motorbikes; and

(g) the noise test procedure set out in Section LT of National Code of Practiceis, therefore, inconsistent with clause 2.1.15 of the (same) National Codeof Practice, but is consistent with the Vehicle Standards.

76. The completely absurd and plainly unintended result being that an ADR 83/00certified motorbike that has a stationary noise level of (say) 100dB(A) whencertified would pass the noise test procedure set out in Section LT of NationalCode of Practice (and also comply with the Vehicle Standards) and despite doingso would nevertheless not comply with clause 2.1.15 of the National Code ofPractice.

78. That confusion then infects the prohibition on modifying a silencing deviceprovided for in sub-section 10(1)(d) (and, as I shall come to, section 11) of theRegulations as one cannot know with certainty what the exception provided forin section 10(2)(a) of the Regulations to that prohibition means or extends to.

80. In my view, the exceptions provided for in sub-section 10(2)(a) of the Regulationsalso applies to the prohibition contained in section 11 of the Regulations. That isbecause it must follow that if it is lawful to perform a modification to a vehiclebecause the modification comes with the exception provided for in sub-section10(2)(a) of the Regulations, then it must also be lawful to drive such a modifiedvehicle on a road.

81. Ordinarily, the expression modify would connote that the original devicecontinues to exist, albeit in a form which is somehow altered, rather thandiscarded and replaced. But in the context of sub-section 10(1)(d) and section 11of the Regulations, that cannot be what was intended: otherwise, a motorist whosimply removes the silencing device from a vehicle, and who fails to replace iteither with an altered version of the original device or a new device, would beexempt from the operation of these provisions.

82. The better construction is to read silencing device as silencing system, suchthat sub-section 10(1)(d) and section 11 of the Regulations are directed, not atmodifications made to a specific item of equipment, but at modifications made tothe entire silencing system of which a specific item of equipment forms a part.

84. Leaving aside the exceptions referred to above, the prohibition contained in subsection10(1)(d) and section 11 of the Regulations is only a partial prohibitionbecause modifying a vehicles silencing device, or driving a vehicle on a road witha modified silencing device, is prohibited only if the modification results in theeffectiveness of the device being reduced, or likely to be so. It is not an outrightprohibition or blanket-ban on any kind of modification to a vehicles silencingdevice (or silencing system).

85. In other words, pursuant to sub-section 10(1)(d) and section 11 of theRegulations, modifying a vehicles silencing device, or driving a vehicle on a roadwith a modified silencing device, is permitted if the modification does not reducethe effectiveness of the device.

86. That is important because other modifications are prohibited outright. Forexample, sub-section 10(1)(a) of the Regulations prohibits, absolutely, a personfrom modifying the chassis of a light vehicle (subject, of course, to any applicableexceptions in sub-section 10(2) of the Regulations).

(ii) alternatively, section 138 of the Vehicle Standards, which permitsADR 83/00 certified vehicles to have a maximum stationary noiselevel that is no more than 5dB(A) higher than the certified noise levelestablished for those vehicles that is, 5dB(A) louder than thecertified noise level; and

(iii) sub-sections 5(1)(a)(v) and 5(1)(a)(vi) of the Regulations, whichpermits optional equipment which, for the reasons stated above,includes an aftermarket exhaust to be fitted to a vehicle if itcomplies with the Vehicle Standards, including the applicablestationary noise level; and

(b) on the other hand, sub-section 10(1)(d) and section 11 of the Regulations,which prohibit modifying a vehicles silencing device, or driving a vehicleon a road with a modified silencing device, if the modification results in theeffectiveness of the device being reduced that is, if the vehicles exhaustbecomes louder.

89. In relation to non-ADR 83/00 certified vehicles, the question that arises iswhether fitting an aftermarket exhaust to a motorbike that results in an increaseto its stationary noise level, but which increase does not exceed the prescribedmaximum stationary noise level is:

90. Similarly, in relation to ADR 83/00 certified vehicles, the question that arises iswhether fitting an aftermarket exhaust to a motorbike that results in an increaseof no more than 5dB(A) to its maximum stationary noise level over its certifiednoise level established for that particular motorbike is:

92. Where statutory provisions are seemingly at odds, as they are here, theinconsistency or tension is to be resolved, if possible, by construing them that is,interpreting or reading them in a manner that gives each provision meaningfuloperation and effect.

93. One possibility is to read the prohibition on modifications contained in subsection10(1)(d) and section 11 of the Regulations as applying beyond thestationary noise level which the vehicles silencing system achieved prior to themodifications. This interpretation is supported by the consideration that thesesections require a before and after comparison, between:

94. Such an interpretation would, however, lead to entirely bizarre and obviouslyunintended consequences. To give a simple example, if the motorbike were a2015 Aprilia Tuono 1100, certified to ADR 83/00 at a noise level of 107db(A) at5500rpm, and with a maximum permitted stationary noise level of 112db(A) at5500rpm being 107db(A) plus 5dB(A) that motorbike, in its pre-modifiedstate, may be expected to have a stationary noise level of between 107db(A) and112db(A) at 5500rpm.

95. But it might well be the fact that, immediately prior to any modifications, thesilencing system was either more or less effective than was contemplated by itsoriginal or OEM specifications. Either way, it would be the actual effectiveness ofthe silencing system, immediately prior to any modifications, rather than itsnominal or intended effectiveness, which sets the ceiling on what is permissibleunder sub-section 10(1)(d) and section 11 of the Regulations.

96. If on an earlier occasion the owner (or a previous owner) had modified thesilencing system to increase its efficacy reducing the stationary noise level at5500rpm to (say) 80db(A) that figure would represent the maximumpermitted under sub-section 10(1)(d) and section 11 of the Regulations. But if thesilencing system had been damaged or deteriorated to the extent that thestationary noise level at 5,500 rpm had increased to (say) 120db(A), (4)it is thatfigure which would represent the maximum permitted under sub-section 10(1)(d)and section 11 of the Regulations.

(4)This would not necessarily involve any infringement of the law, since the requirements of section 5 ofthe Regulations apply only where a light vehicle is drive[n] or park[ed] on a road. A motorbikewhich is kept and ridden exclusively on private property is not required to have any silencing system. Onthe construction of section 10(1)(d) and section 11 of the Regulations which is presently underdiscussion, such a motorbike could lawfully be modified by fitting an entirely inadequate silencingdevice albeit one which is better than no silencing device at all and then lawfully driven on the road.There would be no breach of section 10(1)(d) or section 11 of the Regulations, as the post-modificationsilencing system would (on any view) be more effective than what existed immediately prior to themodification.

97. On the one hand, it seems exceedingly unlikely that the legislature intended subsection10(1)(d) and section 11 of the Regulations to operate such that the ownerof a motorbike is permitted to make modifications which do not comply withsection 135 or 138 (as applicable) of the Vehicle Standards, simply because themotorbike was non-compliant with section 135 or 138 (as applicable) of theVehicle Standards immediately before the modifications were carried out.

98. On the other hand, it also seems improbable that the legislature intended subsection10(1)(d) and section 11 of the Regulations to operate such that the ownerof a motorbike who wishes to modify the existing silencing system is limited to anoise level which may be lower (perhaps significantly lower) than the maximumpermitted for that motorbike under section 135 or 138 (as applicable) of theVehicle Standards.

99. Another reason why this interpretation should be rejected is that, in practicalterms, it would make any prosecution impossible. In every case, the prosecutorwould have to establish the motorbikes actual noise output immediately prior tothe modifications, so as to demonstrate that the modifications had a negativeimpact on the efficacy of the silencing system. Absent an unguarded admission bythe owner of the motorbike which could be used as an admission againstinterest such as an admission that the motorbike is significantly noisier sincethe modifications were made the prosecution could never discharge the onus ofproof.

100. For these reasons, I prefer a construction pursuant to which sub-section 10(1)(d)and section 11 of the Regulations require that a comparison be made, not withthe actual efficiency of the motorbikes silencing system immediately prior to anymodifications, but with what was lawfully permissible immediately prior to anymodifications.

101. Such a construction avoids the absurd consequences which would flow from amore literal reading of the sections. It also obviates the risk that, on a literalreading of the sections, no successful prosecution could ever be brought.

102. Therefore, in relation to non-ADR 83/00 certified vehicles, the properconstruction and effect of those provisions is, in my view, to read the prohibitionon modifications contained in sub-section 10(1)(d) and section 11 of theRegulations as applying beyond the maximum stationary noise level provided forin section 135 of the Vehicle Standards.

(d) modify a light motor vehicles silencing device if the modificationreduces, or is likely to reduce, the effectiveness of the device suchthat it exceeds the stationary noise level prescribed in section 135of the Vehicle Standards.

A person must not drive a light motor vehicle on a road if the vehicles silencingdevice has been modified to reduce, or to be likely to reduce, the effectiveness ofthe device such that it exceeds the stationary noise level prescribed in section 135of the Vehicle Standards.

105. In relation to ADR 83/00 certified vehicles, in my view, the proper constructionand effect of those provisions is to read the prohibition on modificationsprovided for in sub-section 10(1)(d) and section 11 of the Regulations as applyingafter allowance is made for the up to 5dB(A) increase in the maximum stationarynoise level provided for in section 138 of the Vehicle Standards, since the 5dB(A)increase forms part of the definition of what was permissible pre-modification.

(d) modify a light motor vehicles silencing device if the modificationreduces, or is likely to reduce, the effectiveness of the device bymore than 5dB(A) above the stationary noise level that wasestablished for the motor vehicle when it was certified to ADR83/00.

A person must not drive a light motor vehicle on a road if the vehicles silencingdevice has been modified to reduce, or to be likely to reduce, the effectiveness ofthe device by more than 5dB(A) above the stationary noise level that wasestablished for the motor vehicle when it was certified to ADR 83/00.

108. Read in that way, each provision is given meaning and operation and theinconsistency or tension is resolved. No absurd or patently unintendedconsequences flow from such a reading; nor will it imperil the prospects of asuccessful prosecution in cases where a motorbike has been modified in a waywhich exceeds the maximum noise levels permitted under sections 135 or 138 ofthe Vehicle Standards.

110. Returning to the example of a 2015 Aprilia Tuono 1100, fitting an aftermarketexhaust to that motorbike that results in a stationary noise level of no more than112dB(A), being an increase of no more than 5dB(A) over its ADR 83/00 certifiedstationary noise level, will not contravene the Regulations or the VehicleStandards.

111. The Regulations are silent as to the issue concerning removing a catalyticconverter from an exhaust system of a motorbike, or replacing the system with anaftermarket exhaust that does not contain a catalytic converter. Similarly, theVehicle Standards do not contain any requirement for a motorbike to contain acatalytic converter.

112. The only way that such a requirement might be read into the legislation is byconstruing the words the effectiveness of the device in each of sub-section10(1)(d) and section 11 of the Regulations as extending to include theeffectiveness of a silencing device, not merely as a device for reducing noise levels,but also as a device for reducing emissions levels.

(a) in the first place, such an interpretation depends on a comparison betweenthe post-modification effectiveness of the silencing device and its actualeffectiveness immediately prior to any modifications. For the reasonsalready advanced, that is not the correct comparison; rather, the postmodificationeffectiveness of the silencing device is to be compared with itsmandated effectiveness immediately prior to any modifications. And asthere is no statutory requirement for a motorbike to be fitted with acatalytic converter, a modification involving removal of a catalyticconverter does not diminish the mandated effectiveness of the silencingsystem;

(b) secondly, whilst (for obvious reasons) a catalytic converter is usuallyintegral to a vehicles exhaust system, it cannot accurately be described as asilencing device. The fact that a catalytic converter is physically locatedin, or forms part of, the same item of equipment which also muffles soundemissions does not make it a silencing device; and

(c) thirdly, where sub-section 10(1)(d) and section 11 of the Regulations referto the effectiveness of the device, it is clear from the context that they areconcerned with the effectiveness of a silencing device as a silencing device.It cannot be understood as referring to the devices effectiveness incontrolling emissions, any more than it can be understood as referring tothe devices effectiveness in enhancing (or retarding) fuel efficiency; or itseffectiveness in reducing (or increasing) vibrations affecting the comfortof riders or pillion passengers; or its effectiveness in increasing (orreducing) the motorbikes torque or speed; or, indeed, its effectiveness asan ornament to improve (or diminish) the motorbike aesthetic appeal. (5)

(5)Logically, the comparison of effectiveness required by sections 10(1)(d) and 11 of the Regulations specifically, whether the device is less effective following modifications is only possible if there is asingle variable; otherwise, one is faced with intractable questions whether enhanced effectiveness inone respect is outweighed by diminished effectiveness in another respect. So, for example, amodification which reduces a devices effectiveness in respect of noise reduction, but at the same timeincreases its effectiveness in terms of emission control and fuel economy, cannot simply be judged to beless effective or no less effective.

115. Of course, if removing a catalytic converter from an exhaust system of amotorbike, or replacing the system with an aftermarket exhaust that does notcontain a catalytic converter, causes the motorbike to exceed the maximumstationary noise levels prescribed in sections 135 or 138 of the Vehicle Standards,then the motorbike will be defective on that basis.

116. Simply having an aftermarket exhaust fitted to a motorcycle does not contraveneany provision of the Regulations or the Vehicle Standards. It cannot result in adefect notice being issued, nor should it attract a police caution, for that reasonalone.

117. To be issued with a defect notice for contravention of sections 5, 10 or 11 of theRegulations on the grounds of excessive noise level emissions, the noise level mustexceed the maximum stationary noise levels prescribed in sections 135 or 138 ofthe Vehicle Standards.

118. In relation to non-ADR 83/00 certified vehicles, prohibition on modificationsprovided for in sub-section 10(1)(d) and section 11 of the Regulations should beread as only applying beyond the maximum stationary noise level provided for insection 135 of the Vehicle Standards.

119. In relation to ADR 83/00 certified vehicles, the prohibition on modificationsprovided for in sub-section 10(1)(d) and section 11 of the Regulations should beread as only applying after allowance is made for the 5dB(A) increase in themaximum stationary noise level provided for in section 138 of the VehicleStandards.

120. In my view, it will not be accepted by a Court that any police officer, by virtue ofhis or her occupation, has sufficient expertise in the fields of acoustics or soundengineering such that he or she can determine the noise level of a particularexhaust (which may be contrasted with its being accepted by some magistratesthat a police officer is able to judge a motor vehicles speed by virtue of his or heroccupation). It may also be doubted whether a police officer conducting ordinarytraffic duties and without specialised training could effectively and reliably set upand operate a sound level meter or other device that measures noise levels.

121. In the absence of the noise level of the allegedly offending motorbike being testedin accordance with National Stationary Exhaust Noise Test Procedures for In-Service Motor Vehicles September 2006 pursuant to section 131(1) of the Vehicle Standards by a person having relevant expertise or training, a defectnotice issued on the basis of a police officers subjective judgment will not, in myview, sustain a conviction.

How is it justified that a police officer can advise the EPA to send you a letter to have your motorcycle tested just because he believes from sitting inside his vehicle that your bike is making excessive noise even though at the time of the offense you were riding with other bikes!

When buying a second hand vehicle in good faith from a dealer they are sold with road worthy certificates which indicate (to the layman) that they comply with all road safety regulations. I was told after the fact by police that this does not mean the bike is legal and you can still be booked as soon as you leave the dealership. When asked, Surely it cant be legal for these dealerships to be allowed to sell defective vehicles for as much as $35,000 as roadworthy? The reply was shugged shoulders and not my problem. Nice! To protect and serve used to be about the people now days its more about the coffers.

I am a retired motorcycle rider and I find the exceptionally loud exhaust noise from many motorcycles obnoxious. In my day the motorcycle was sold with a stamp on the muffler that stated the muffler was manufactured to comply with a certain standard and met the noise limit which was I think 94 db. If I was a the police comissioner I would uphold the law without exception. Any reasonable thinking person that argues otherwise is simply deluded and unrealistic. The sooner that lawbreakers realise that common law is for the benefit of the majority the better.

What about handle bars that the RMS & ADR required limit of 380mm? Most bikes that come out of factory are well above that as I got a defect & 3 points heading to a show in April got pulled over by SF Raptor and was defected & $318 & 3 points for over hight bars on my 2013 Wide glide factory bars. It would be nice if we could look into this also and what are bikes coming out on showroom floors not complying with the rules????? I have called HD head office in Sydney 2 weeks ago and still waiting for a call back

I have been going through a very similar thing & lost in court after an officer (Constable Paul Hocken- Google the name) testified that the police are the testing authority & his self authored handbook criteria that greatly differed to that of the National Green Guide Stood. In cross examination I asked Constable Hocken- Qlds most experienced sound testing officer if he was fimilar with the Natiomal Green Guide & his reply was No never heard of it.

In basic terms if your vehicles noise testing criteria is not in the National Green Guide then you must abide by the noise emission standards as outlined in the National Stationary Exhaust Noise Test Procedures for In-Seevice Motor Vehicles- not call your local police- research Constable Hocken- make a personal appointment etc.

As further re-iterated from Vehicle Standards Engineer Mr Adam Shaw & members for the minister for Roads (Mr Mark Bailey)- Im then required to have a test relevant to the guides section 4.2.3.3 This reads Where the ESMP for that engine has not been determined by the testing authority then the engine shall be bought to & stabilised at a speed as close as possible as the testing officer can achieve to one of the following speeds:

Well lodging a complaint to the ethical standards, police commissioner, CCC have fallen on deaf ears even though the officer lied in court & I was ticketed to appear in court whilst tested at the car park Harrys diners concrete complex on a busy day- ticketed at 93DB @ a test rpm of 4200rpm

I have been issued with a defect notice for after market pipes on my motorcycle, why ?.Not for noise but for not having noise rating label afixed to the bike for the new pipes.The kind blue meanie also took his tape measure to the mirrors to check that the mirrors had the desired surface area.This Qld motorcycle cop was well prepared with pads of the regulations refering to the , pipes and mirrors.Action.go to Testing station for noise and get a new label.change the mirrors..Done visted cop shop for clearance of defects.No problem ,front desk didnot look at bike stamped clearance there and then, goodbye.what a con.

I had excactly the same thing from a motorcycle cop/ prosecutor from Ipswich (name withheld for legal reasons). But after having the test , getting the sticker and getting clearance from the police. The same mr plod sends me another ticket for nearly $500 for not complying claiming he didnt receive the cleared defect ticket. A con alright. The exhaust shop admitted he is on on the con too.

I have been going through a similar thing with a modified car. Although ADR28 reverts to the newer code now, Qld has NO testing facility for noise. Even if I wanted to I cannot take a car in for a noise emission test. For a Police officer to condemn and defect a vehicle the testing must be done to the ADR specification. This has pages of rubbish in it including ashphalt specifications. The vehicle must be in an open area, no gutters, trees etc to reverberate noise and then the testing can be done with the correct equipment. Not an Iphone app held 500mm away from the pipe ..

A very complex issue indeed , I always thought modifying the exhaust was ok so long as the exhaust system , or more specifically , the emission system , still complied with the relevant ADR(s) . Surely though our Police Service have more pressing crimes to address ?

20. For completeness, motorbike is relevantly defined in Schedule 4 to the Regulations as: a light motor vehicle with 2 wheels, and includes a 2-wheeled light motor vehicle with a sidecar attached to it that is supported by a third wheel.

If a motorbike is defined (in Queensland) as a light motor vehicle with 2 wheels (and only 2 wheels) then what is the status of 3 wheeled motorcycles like Piaggio MP3s, Yamaha TriCitys, Can-Ams or even the upcoming Yamaha MWT-9? With three wheels they cannot meet the Acts definition of a motorcycle which just shows how old and inadequate those laws are.

The requirements in NSW were cleared up in 2013 with the release of VSI-6 which quite clearly states that an aftermarket exhaust is not illegal provided it does not emit noise over and above the prescribed limit. The only requirement is the pipe must be stamped with the manufacturers name. The MCC of NSW worked with the Centre for Road Safety on developing this document and lot of negotiation went into averting the requirement for an Engineers Certificate for an aftermarket exhaust. http://www.rms.nsw.gov.au/documents/roads/safety-rules/standards/vsi-06-light-vehicle-modifications.pdf

Whilst VSI-6 is clear in what is legal and what is not, it is, as mentioned above, subject to interpretation by the NSW Police officer on the side of the road and there have been many instances of vexatious defects being issued to riders that do not hold up in court and the pipes are quite legal in every respect including the subsequent noise test. The MCC of NSW has successfully guided a number of riders through the maze of exhaust issues in NSW leading to a not guilty verdict in court. Our suggestion is you print, read and carry a copy of VSI-6 with you so you do not get bluffed on the side of the road. Ensure your bikes pipes are with in the specified limits and if needs be get a test done and carry the results with you. Dont just accept the fine and pay it, get advice on the matter and act accordingly. Before paying the fine get the pipe tested and cleared at a private testing facility (the MCC can provide details of these) and get a copy of the results sent through to SDRO (NSW) to have the fine cleared first then get the defect cleared. If enough of these cases get thrown out of court then the officers using this tactic as a weapon will cease and riders can be left in peace. Christopher Burns Chairman MCC of NSW

I think there is an error regarding the definition of modification of the silencing device. Modification means to physically alter the existing device. An after market replacement is not a modification of that device, it is a modification of the vehicle if it is not OEM or equivalent. To modify the silencing device you could shorten it remove baffles or packing or drill holes in it but replacement is not a modification. If replacement were modification then even replacing with OEM equipment would still be considered as a modification.

I think there is an error regarding the definition of modification of the silencing device. Modification means to physically alter the existing device. An after market replacement is not a modification of that device, it is a modification of the vehicle if it is not OEM or equivalent. To modify the silencing device you could shorten it remove baffles or packing or drill holes in it but replacement is not a modification. If replacement were modification then even replacing with OEM equipment would still be considered as a modification.

aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: a review - sciencedirect

aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: a review - sciencedirect

Aviation is globally growing (+5%y1) mainly driven by developing countries.Airport operations cause an increase in ground-level pollution.Chemical and physical properties of the emitted gases and particles are reviewed.An overview of other additional sources within airports is provided.Future research needs on aircraft emissions are highlighted.

Civil aviation is fast-growing (about+5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

exhaust noise laws by state | sema action network

exhaust noise laws by state | sema action network

DID YOU KNOW? In addition to free resources designed for true enthusiastslike emissions and exhaust noise toolkitsthe SAN also keeps tabs on proposed laws for cars and trucks in all 50-states? Protecting your rights is cost-free, easy, and more important than ever. Subscribe for breaking updates in your state:

(a) Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise and annoying smoke, and no person shall use a muffler cut-out, bypass, a muffler without baffles or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a highway.

(a) The exhaust of every internal combustion engine used on any vessel shall be effectively muffled by equipment so constructed and used as to muffle the noise of the exhaust in a reasonable manner. The use of cutouts is prohibited, except for vessels competing in a regatta or official boat race, and for such vessels while on trial runs.

(d) Beginning with motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines of the 1968 model year, motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines shall be equipped with emissions control devices that meet the standards established by the director of environmental quality.

27-37-601. Noise or smoke producing devices prohibited. (a) Every motor vehicle shall, at all times, be equipped with a factory-installed muffler or one duplicating factory specifications, in good working order and in constant operation, to prevent excessive or unusual noise and annoying smoke.

(b) No person shall use on a motor vehicle upon the public roads, highways, streets, or alleys of this state, nor shall any person sell for use on a motor vehicle upon the public roads, highways, streets, or alleys of this state, a muffler, other than as defined in subsection (a) of this section, cutout, bypass, similar device, or any type device which produces excessive or unusual noise or smoke.

(b) Any person found guilty in any court of Arkansas of violating this section, in whole or in part, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to a fine of not less than ten dollars ($10.00) nor more than five hundred dollars ($500).

(a) Every motor vehicle subject to registration shall at all times be equipped with an adequate muffler in constant operation and properly maintained to prevent any excessive or unusual noise, and no muffler or exhaust system shall be equipped with a cutout, bypass, or similar device.

(a) No person shall modify the exhaust system of a motor vehicle in a manner which will amplify or increase the noise emitted by the motor of the vehicle so that the vehicle is not in compliance with the provisions of Section 27150 or exceeds the noise limits established for the type of vehicle in Article 2.5 (commencing with Section 27200). No person shall operate a motor vehicle with an exhaust system so modified.

(b) For the purposes of exhaust systems installed on motor vehicles with a manufacturers gross vehicle weight rating of less than 6,000 pounds, other than motorcycles, a sound level of 95 dbA or less, when tested in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers Standard J1169 May 1998, complies with this section. Motor vehicle exhaust systems or parts thereof include, but are not limited to, nonoriginal exhaust equipment.

(1) Every motor vehicle subject to registration and operated on a highway shall at all times be equipped with an adequate muffler in constant operation and properly maintained to prevent any excessive or unusual noise, and no such muffler or exhaust system shall be equipped with a cut-off, bypass, or similar device. No person shall modify the exhaust system of a motor vehicle in a manner which will amplify or increase the noise emitted by the motor of such vehicle above that emitted by the muffler originally installed on the vehicle, and such original muffler shall comply with all of the requirements of this section. (1.5) Any commercial vehicle, as defined in section 42-4-235 (1) (a), subject to registration and operated on a highway, that is equipped with an engine compression brake device is required to have a muffler. (2) A muffler is a device consisting of a series of chamber or baffle plates or other mechanical design for the purpose of receiving exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine and effective in reducing noise. (3) Any person who violates subsection (1) of this section commits a class B traffic infraction. Any person who violates subsection (1.5) of this section shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of five hundred dollars. Fifty percent of any fine for a violation of subsection (1.5) of this section occurring within the corporate limits of a city or town, or within the unincorporated area of a county, shall be transmitted to the treasurer or chief financial officer of said city, town, or county, and the remaining fifty percent shall be transmitted to the state treasurer, credited to the highway users tax fund, and allocated and expended as specified in section 43-4-205 (5.5) (a), C.R.S. (4) This section shall not apply to electric motor vehicles.

(a) Each motor vehicle and the devices on such vehicle shall be operated, equipped, constructed and adjusted to prevent unnecessary or unusual noise. (b) Each motor vehicle operated by an internal combustion engine shall be equipped, except as hereinafter provided, with a muffler or mufflers designed to prevent excessive, unusual or unnecessary exhaust noise. The muffler or mufflers shall be maintained by the owner in good working order and shall be in use whenever the motor vehicle is operated. No person, including a motor vehicle dealer or repairer or a motorcycle dealer, shall install, and no person shall use, on a motor vehicle, a muffler or mufflers lacking interior baffle plates or other effective muffling devices, a gutted muffler, a muffler cutout or a straight exhaust except when the motor vehicle is operated in a race, contest or demonstration of speed or skill as a public exhibition pursuant to subsection (a) of section 14-164a, or any mechanical device which will amplify the noise emitted by the vehicle. No person, including a motor vehicle dealer or repairer or a motorcycle dealer, shall remove all or part of any muffler on a motor vehicle except to repair or replace the muffler or part for the more effective prevention of noise. No person shall use on the exhaust system or tail pipe of a motor vehicle any extension or device which will cause excessive or unusual noise. (c) The engine of every motor vehicle shall be equipped and adjusted to prevent excessive fumes or exhaust smoke. (d) All pipes carrying exhaust gases from the motor shall be constructed of, and maintained with, leak-proof metal. Exhaust pipes shall be directed from the muffler or mufflers toward the rear of the vehicle and shall be approximately parallel with the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and approximately parallel to the surface of the roadway, or shall be directed from the muffler upward to a location above the cab or body of the vehicle so that fumes, gases and smoke are directed away from the occupants of the vehicle. Exhaust pipes on a passenger vehicle shall extend to the extreme rear end of the vehicle's body, not including the bumper and its attachments to the body, or shall be attached to the vehicle in such a way that the exhaust pipes direct the exhaust gases to either side of the vehicle ensuring that fresh ambient air is located under the vehicle at all times. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 to establish safety standards for passenger vehicles equipped with exhaust pipes located in front of the rear axle.

Motor vehicle and snowmobile noise emissions when measured with the sound level measuring microphone located 50 feet (15.2 m) from the target point in accordance with the requirements of section 14-80a-7a shall not exceed the following specified values:

Vehicles Manufactured: Prior to Jan. 1, 1979: SOFT SITE: Highway Speed Limit 35 MPH or less 76 dB(A). Highway Speed Limit above 35 MPH 82 dB(A). HARD SITE: Highway Speed Limit 35 MPH or less 78 dB(A). Highway Speed Limit above 35 MPH 84 dB(A).

On and after Jan. 1, 1979: SOFT SITE: Highway Speed Limit 35 MPH or less 72 dB(A). Highway Speed Limit above 35 MPH 79 dB(A). HARD SITE: Highway Speed Limit 35 MPH or less 74 dB(A). Highway Speed Limit above 35 MPH 81 dB(A).

(a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle, including a motorcycle, on a highway, including residential streets, unless such motor vehicle or motorcycle is equipped with a muffler in good working order and in accordance with manufacturer's specifications and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise.

(b) No person shall use a "muffler cutout" on any motor vehicle upon a highway. (c) It shall be unlawful to sell or offer for sale any muffler without interior baffle plates or other effective muffling devices or to sell or offer for sale any "gutted muffler," "muffler cutout" or "straight exhaust." (d) The provisions of this section shall only apply if there is not a violation of 4311A of this title.

13) Exhaust systems--Every street rod shall be equipped with an exhaust system that is free of leaks including the exhaust manifolds (including headers), the piping leading from the flange of the exhaust manifold(s) and the tail piping.

Exhaust systems on street rods shall discharge the exhaust fumes at a location to the rear of the vehicle body or direct the exhaust fumes outward from the side of the vehicle body at a location rearward of any operable side windows. No part of the exhaust system shall pass through any area of the vehicle that is used as a passenger carrying compartment. Every street rod must be equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise. Muffler cutouts or mufflers without internal baffle plates are prohibited.

(1)Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with an exhaust system in good working order and in constant operation, including muffler, manifold pipe, and tailpiping to prevent excessive or unusual noise. In no event shall an exhaust system allow noise at a level which exceeds a maximum decibel level to be established by regulation of the Department of Environmental Protection as provided in s. 403.061(11) in cooperation with the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. No person shall use a muffler cutout, bypass or similar device upon a vehicle on a highway.

(2) Operating noise limits.-- No person shall operate or be permitted to operate a vehicle at any time or under any condition of roadway grade, load, acceleration, or deceleration in such a manner as to generate a sound level in excess of the following limit for the category of motor vehicle and applicable speed limit at a distance of 50 feet from the center of the lane of travel under measurement procedures established under subsection (3).

(a) For motorcycles other than motor-driven cycles: Before January 1, 1979 Speed Limit 35 mph or less: 82 dBA. Speed Limit over 35 mph: 86 dBA. On or after January 1, 1979 Speed Limit 35 mph or less: 78 dBA. Speed Limit over 35 mph: 82 mph. (b) For any motor vehicle with a GVWR or GCWR of 10,000 pounds or more: On or after January 1, 1979 Speed Limit 35 mph or less: 86 dBA. Speed Limit over 35 mph: 90 mph. (c) For motor-driven cycles and any other motor vehicle not included in paragraph (a) or paragraph (b): Before January 1, 1979 Speed Limit 35 mph or less: 76 dBA. Speed Limit over 35 mph: 82 dBA. On or after January 1, 1979 Speed Limit 35 mph or less: 72 dBA. Speed Limit over 35 mph: 79 mph.

(3) Measurement procedures. --The measurement procedures for determining compliance with this section shall be established by regulation of the Department of Environmental Protection as provided in s. 403.415(9), in cooperation with the department. Such regulations shall include the selection of measurement sites and measurement procedures and shall take into consideration accepted scientific and professional methods for the measurement of vehicular sound levels. The measurement procedures may include adjustment factors to be applied to the noise limit for measurement distances of other than 50 feet from the center of the lane of travel. (4) Applicability. --This section applies to the total noise from a vehicle and shall not be construed as limiting or precluding the enforcement of any other provisions of this chapter relating to motor vehicle mufflers for noise control. (5) Noise abatement equipment modifications.

(a) No person shall modify the exhaust system of a motor vehicle or any other noise-abatement device of a motor vehicle operated or to be operated upon the highways of this state in such a manner that the noise emitted by the motor vehicle is above that emitted by the vehicle as originally manufactured. (b) No person shall operate a motor vehicle upon the highways of the state with an exhaust system or noise-abatement device so modified.

(a) Emergency vehicles operating as specified in s. 316.072(5)(a). (b) Any motor vehicle engaged in a professional or amateur sanctioned, competitive sports event for which admission or entry fee is charged, or practice or time trials for such event. (c) Any motor vehicle engaged in a manufacturer's engineering, design, or equipment test. (d) Construction or agricultural equipment either on a job site or traveling on the highways.

(a) Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with an exhaust system, in good working order and in constant operation, meeting the following specifications: (1) The exhaust system shall include the piping leading from the flange of the exhaust manifold to and including the muffler or mufflers and tail pipes; (2) The use of flexible pipe shall be prohibited except on diesel tractors or according to manufacturers' original specifications; (3) The exhaust emission point shall extend beyond the rear or outside of the passenger compartment. The trunk shall be considered as part of the passenger compartment; (4) The exhaust system and its elements shall be securely fastened, including the consideration of missing or broken hangers; and (5) There shall be no part of the exhaust system passing through the passenger compartment or any exposed stack so located that any individual entering or leaving the vehicle may be burned. (b) The engine and power mechanism of every motor vehicle shall be so equipped and adjusted as to prevent the escape of excessive fumes or smoke. (c) It shall be unlawful for any person to sell or offer for sale any muffler which causes excessive or unusual noise or annoying smoke or any muffler cutout, bypass, or similar device for use on a motor vehicle or for any person to use, to sell, or to offer for sale any motor vehicle equipped with any such muffler, muffler cutout, bypass, or similar device. Any person violating this subsection shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

(a) No person shall use on a public highway, sell, alter or install a muffler which will noticeably increase the noise emitted by a motor vehicle above that emitted by the vehicle as equipped from the factory. (b) Any violation of this section shall constitute a violation and shall be enforceable by police officers. The fine for this violation shall be not less than $25 nor more than $250 for each separate offense. Any person who violates the provisions of this section may be issued a summons or citation for such violation.

(1) Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise and annoying smoke, and no person shall use a muffler cut-out, bypass, or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a highway. When any motor vehicle was originally equipped with a noise suppressing system or when any motor vehicle is required by law or regulation of this state or the federal government to have a noise suppressing system, that system shall be maintained in good working order. No person shall disconnect any part of that system except temporarily in order to make repairs, replacements or adjustments, and no person shall modify or alter that system or its operation in any manner, except to conform to the manufacturer's specifications. No person shall knowingly operate and no owner shall knowingly cause or permit to be operated any motor vehicle originally equipped or required by any law or regulation of the state or the federal government to be equipped with a noise suppressing system while any part of that system is disconnected or while that system or its operation is modified or altered in any manner, except to conform to the manufacturer's specifications. (2) The engine and power mechanism of every motor vehicle shall be so equipped and adjusted as to prevent the escape of excessive fumes or smoke.

(3) No person shall modify the exhaust system of a motor vehicle or a motorcycle in a manner which will amplify or increase the noise of the vehicle or motorcycle above that emitted by the muffler originally installed on the vehicle by the manufacturer.

Every motor vehicle driven or operated upon the highways of this State shall at all times be equipped with an adequate muffler or exhaust system in constant operation and properly maintained to prevent any excessive or unusual noise. No such muffler or exhaust system shall be equipped with a cutout, bypass or similar device. No person shall modify the exhaust system of a motor vehicle in a manner which will amplify or increase the noise of such vehicle above that emitted by the muffler originally installed on the vehicle, and such original muffler shall comply with all the requirements of this Section.

A motor vehicle must be equipped with a muffler free from the following visually discernible conditions: (1) Exhaust gas leaks. (2) Alteration of muffler elements. (3) Deterioration of muffler elements.

A motor vehicle must be equipped with a muffler or other noise dissipative device that meets the following conditions: (1) Is in good working order. (2) Is in constant operation to prevent excessive noise.

Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise and annoying smoke, and no person shall use a muffler cutout, bypass or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a highway.

(a) Every vehicle shall be equipped, maintained and operated so as to prevent excessive or unusual noise. Every motor vehicle at all times shall be equipped with a muffler or other effective noise suppressing system in good working order and in constant operation, and no person shall use a muffler cut-out, bypass or similar device.

Every vehicle when on a highway shall be so equipped as to make a minimum of noise, smoke or other nuisance, to protect the rights of other traffic, and to promote the public safety. 189.140. Mufflers -- Noise regulation.

(1) Every motor vehicle with an internal-combustion, steam or air motor shall be equipped with a suitable and efficient muffler. No person while on a highway shall operate a motor vehicle with the muffler cut out or removed. No cutout shall be so arranged or connected as to permit its operation or control by the driver of any motor vehicle while in position for driving. (2) No person shall modify the exhaust system of a motor vehicle or an off highway vehicle in a manner which will amplify or increase the noise emitted by the motor of such vehicle above that emitted by the muffler originally installed on the vehicle. The original muffler shall comply with all of the noise requirements of KRS Chapter 224 and regulations promulgated pursuant thereto. No person shall operate a motor vehicle with an exhaust system so modified. 224.30-190 Modification of motor vehicle exhaust system to increase noise prohibited.

No person shall modify the exhaust system of a motor vehicle in a manner which will amplify or increase the noise emitted by the motor of such vehicle, above that emitted by the muffler originally installed on the vehicle and the original muffler shall comply with all of the requirements of this chapter. No person shall operate a motor vehicle with an exhaust system so modified.

A. Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise. B. No person shall use a muffler cut-out, bypass or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a highway of this state. C. The engine and power mechanism of every motor vehicle shall be so equipped and adjusted as to prevent the escape of excessive fumes or smoke.

No person shall modify the exhaust system of a motor vehicle in a manner which will amplify or increase the noise emitted by the motor of such vehicle, above that emitted by the muffler originally installed on the vehicle and the original muffler shall comply with all of the requirements of R.S. 32:352.

1. Muffler required. A person may not operate a motor vehicle unless that vehicle is equipped with an adequate muffler properly maintained to prevent excessive or unusual noise. For purposes of this subsection, "excessive or unusual noise" includes motor noise emitted by a motor vehicle that is noticeably louder than similar vehicles in the environment.

3. Amplification prohibited. A person may not operate a motor vehicle with an exhaust system that has been modified when the result of that modification is the amplification or increase of noise emitted by the motor above that emitted by the muffler originally installed on the vehicle.

(a) If a muffler or exhaust system of a motor vehicle as defined in section 101, subsection 42, not including a motorcycle, does not emit noise in excess of 95 decibels as measured in accordance with standards and specifications outlined in standard J-1169 adopted by the Society of Automotive Engineers in May 1998, subsections 1 and 3 do not apply. A person served with a Violation Summons and Complaint charging a violation of subsection 1 or 3 must provide satisfactory evidence that the muffler or exhaust system does not emit noise in excess of 95 decibels as measured in accordance with standards and specifications outlined in standard J-1169 adopted by the Society of Automotive Engineers in May 1998. Measurements must be made by a participating certified inspection station.

(a) Mufflers. -- Every motor vehicle with an internal combustion engine shall be equipped with an exhaust muffler system in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise, and no person may use a muffler cutout, bypass, or similar device on a motor vehicle on a highway. Noise levels in excess of those adopted by the Administrator under 22-601 of this title are excessive. (b) Prevention of noise. -- A person may not use on the exhaust or "tail pipe" of a motor vehicle any extension or other device to cause excessive or unusual noise.

(c) Discharge of smoke; maximum period of idling. -- (1) No motor vehicle may be operated, nor may the owner or lessee of a motor vehicle permit it to be operated, on any highway in this State unless the engine power and exhaust mechanism is equipped, adjusted, and operated to prevent: (i) The discharge of clearly visible smoke (comparable to smoke equal to or darker in shade than that designated as No. 1 of the Ringelmann Chart as published by the U.S. Bureau of Mines) in the exhaust emissions within the proximity of the exhaust outlet for more than 10 consecutive seconds; and (ii) The discharge of smoke from any other part of the engine in such amounts and of such opacity as to partially obscure persons or objects from view.

(a) Modification that increases sound prohibited. -- A person may not modify the exhaust system or any other noise abatement device of a motor vehicle driven or to be driven on any highway in this State in such a way that the noise emitted by the vehicle exceeds that emitted by the vehicle as originally manufactured.

(b) Operation of improperly modified vehicle prohibited. -- A person may not drive on any highway in this State a motor vehicle with an exhaust system or noise abatement device modified in a way prohibited by subsection (a) of this section.

Every motor vehicle so operated shall be provided with a muffler or other suitable device to prevent unnecessary noise and with a suitable bell, horn or other means of signaling, with suitable lamps, and with a lock, key or other device to prevent such vehicle from being set in motion by unauthorized persons, or otherwise contrary to the will of the owner or person in charge thereof. Chapter 90 16. Offensive or illegal operation of motor vehicles

No person shall use a muffler cut-out or by-pass. No person shall operate a motor vehicle on any way which motor vehicle is equipped (1) with a muffler from which the baffle plates, screens or other original internal parts have been removed and not replaced; or (2) with an exhaust system which has been modified in a manner which will amplify or increase the noise emitted by the exhaust.

(1) A motor vehicle, while being operated on a highway or street, shall be equipped with an exhaust system in good working order to prevent excessive or unusual noise and shall be equipped to prevent noise in excess of the limits established in this act.

(1) After April 1, 1978, a motor vehicle shall not be operated or driven on a highway or street if the motor vehicle produces total noise exceeding 1 of the following limits at a distance of 50 feet except as provided in subdivisions (b)(iii) and (c)(iii):

(a) A motor vehicle with a gross weight or gross vehicle weight rating of 8,500 pounds or more, combination vehicle with gross weight or gross vehicle weight ratings of 8,500 pounds or more. (i) Ninety DBA if the maximum lawful speed on the highway or street is greater than 35 miles per hour. (ii) Eighty-six DBA if the maximum lawful speed on the highway or street is not more than 35 miles per hour. (iii) Eighty-eight DBA under stationary run-up test. (c) A motor vehicle or a combination of vehicles towed by a motor vehicle not covered in subdivision (a) or (b): (i) Eighty-two DBA if the maximum lawful speed on the highway or street is greater than 35 miles per hour. (ii) Seventy-six DBA if the maximum lawful speed on the highway or street is not more than 35 miles per hour. (iii) Ninety-five DBA under stationary run-up test 20 inches from the end of the tailpipe. (2) A dealer shall not sell or offer for sale for use upon a street or highway in this state a new motor vehicle manufactured after April 1, 1978, which produces a maximum noise exceeding the following limits: (a) A motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of 8,500 pounds or more83 DBA. (c) A motor vehicle not covered in subdivision (a) or (b)--80 DBA. (3) A person shall not operate a vehicle on a highway or street if the vehicle has a defect in the exhaust system which affects sound reduction, is not equipped with a muffler or other noise dissipative device, or is equipped with a cutout, bypass, amplifier, or a similar device. (4) A person, either acting for himself or herself or as the agent or employee of another, shall not sell, install, or replace a muffler or exhaust part that causes the motor vehicle to which the muffler or exhaust part is attached to exceed the noise limits established by this act or a rule promulgated under this act. (5) A person shall not modify, repair, replace, or remove a part of an exhaust system causing the motor vehicle to which the system is attached to produce noise in excess of the levels established by this act, or operate a motor vehicle so altered on a street or highway. (6) A dealer shall not sell a used or secondhand motor vehicle for use upon a street or highway which is not in compliance with this act.

Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order which blends the exhaust noise into the overall vehicle noise and is in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise, and no person shall use a muffler cutout, bypass, or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a street or highway. The exhaust system shall not emit or produce a sharp popping or crackling sound. Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with such parts and equipment so arranged and kept in such state of repair as to prevent carbon monoxide gas from entering the interior of the vehicle.

Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise and annoying smoke. No person shall use a muffler cutout, bypass or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a highway.

2. Muffler cutouts: Muffler cutouts shall not be used and no vehicle shall be driven in such manner or condition that excessive and unnecessary noises shall be made by its machinery, motor, signaling device, or other parts, or by any improperly loaded cargo. The motors of all motor vehicles shall be fitted with properly attached mufflers of such capacity or construction as to quiet the maximum possible exhaust noise as completely as is done in modern gas engine passenger motor vehicles. Any cutout or opening in the exhaust pipe between the motor and the muffler on any motor vehicle shall be completely closed and disconnected from its operating lever, and shall be so arranged that it cannot automatically open, or be opened or operated while such vehicle is in motion.

(1) Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise and annoying smoke, and no person shall use a muffler cutout, bypass, or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a highway.

(1) Except as provided in subsection (3), a person may not operate a motor vehicle with an exhaust system that emits a noise in excess of 95 decibels, as measured by the society of automotive engineers' standard j1169 (May 1998).

Every vehicle shall be equipped, maintained, and operated so as to prevent excessive or unusual noise. No person shall drive a motor vehicle on a highway unless such motor vehicle is equipped with a muffler or other effective noise-suppressing system in good working order and in constant operation. It shall be unlawful to use a muffler cutout, bypass, or similar device on any motor vehicle upon a highway.

No person shall modify or change the exhaust muffler, the intake muffler, or any other noise-abatement device of a motor vehicle in a manner such that the noise emitted by the motor vehicle is increased above that emitted by the vehicle as originally manufactured. Procedures used to establish compliance with this section shall be those used to establish compliance of a new motor vehicle with the requirements of sections 60-6,363 to 60-6,374.

1. Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent emissions greater than those allowed by rules and regulations established by the Department. No person shall use a muffler cutout, bypass or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a highway.

I. Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler as defined in RSA 259:66, in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise, and no person shall use a muffler cutout, bypass or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a way.

IV. No person shall operate a motor vehicle with a straight pipe exhaust system; "straight pipe exhaust system" means any straight-through exhaust system that does not contain baffles or otherwise does not meet the definition of muffler in RSA 259:66. Any person who violates the provisions of this paragraph shall be guilty of a violation and shall be fined not less than $100 for a first offense, not less than $250 for a second offense in a calendar year, and not less than $500 for a third or subsequent offense in a calendar year.

Every motor vehicle having a combustion motor shall at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise and no person shall use a muffler cut-out, bypass, or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a highway.

A. Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise, and no person shall use a muffler cutout, bypass or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a highway.

C. Every registered gasoline-fueled motor vehicle manufactured or assembled, commencing with the 1968 models, shall at all times be equipped and maintained in good working order with the factory-installed devices and equipment or their replacements designed to prevent, reduce or control exhaust emissions or air pollution.

31. Mufflers and exhaust systems. Prevention of noise. Every motor vehicle, operated or driven upon the highways of the state, shall at all times be equipped with an adequate muffler and exhaust system in constant operation and properly maintained to prevent any excessive or unusual noise and no such muffler or exhaust system shall be equipped with a cut-out, bypass, or similar device. No person shall modify the muffler or exhaust system of a motor vehicle in a manner which will amplify or increase the noise emitted by the motor or exhaust system of such vehicle above that emitted by the muffler or exhaust system originally installed on the vehicle and such original muffler and exhaust system shall comply with all the requirements of this section.

A muffler is a device consisting of a series of chambers or baffle plates, or other mechanical design for the purpose of receiving exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine, and effective in reducing noise.

c. It shall be unlawful for any person to operate or cause of be operated on a public highway any motor vehicle or combination of vehicles, except motorcycles, with a maximum gross weight of ten thousand pounds or less, at any time, under any condition of grade, load, acceleration or deceleration in such a manner as to exceed the applicable A-weighted sound level set forth in table II. The maximum allowable sound levels in table II are based on a sound level measured at, or adjusted to, a distance of fifty feet from the center of the lane in which the motor vehicle is traveling:

4. The commissioner of environmental conservation shall promulgate regulations establishing the measurement procedures and instrumentation to be utilized in the enforcement of this section. a. These procedures shall allow, to the extent feasible, motor vehicle sound measurements to be accomplished in reasonably confined areas such as residential areas of urban cities and may provide for sound measurement at distances other than fifty feet and in the vicinity of sound reflecting surfaces. b. The regulations shall take into consideration recognized scientific and professional standards for the measurement of vehicular sound levels. 5. The provisions of this section shall not apply to vehicles and implements or combinations thereof used solely for farm purposes, nor to authorized emergency vehicles.

(a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on a highway unless such motor vehicle is equipped with a muffler, or other exhaust system of the type installed at the time of manufacture, in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise, annoying smoke and smoke screens.

(c) No motor vehicle registered in this State that was manufactured after model year 1967 shall be operated in this State unless it is equipped with emissions control devices that were installed on the vehicle at the time the vehicle was manufactured and these devices are properly connected.

(d) The requirements of subsection (c) of this section shall not apply if the emissions control devices have been removed for the purpose of converting the motor vehicle to operate on natural or liquefied petroleum gas or other modifications have been made in order to reduce air pollution and these modifications are approved by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.

1. Every motor vehicle must at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise and annoying smoke, and no person may use a muffler cutout, bypass, or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a highway. 2. The engine and power mechanism of every motor vehicle must be so equipped and adjusted as to prevent the escape of excessive fumes or smoke.

(A) Every motor vehicle and motorcycle with an internal combustion engine shall at all times be equipped with a muffler which is in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise, and no person shall use a muffler cutout, by-pass, or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a highway. Every motorcycle muffler shall be equipped with baffle plates. No person shall own, operate, or have in the person's possession any motor vehicle or motorcycle equipped with a device for producing excessive smoke or gas, or so equipped as to permit oil or any other chemical to flow into or upon the exhaust pipe or muffler of such vehicle, or equipped in any other way to produce or emit smoke or dangerous or annoying gases from any portion of such vehicle, other than the ordinary gases emitted by the exhaust of an internal combustion engine under normal operation. (B) Whoever violates this section is guilty of a minor misdemeanor.

(A) The board of county commissioners of any county, and the board of township trustees of any township subject to section 505.17 of the Revised Code, may regulate passenger car and motorcycle noise on streets and highways under their jurisdiction. Such regulations shall include maximum permissible noise limits measured in decibels, subject to the requirements of this section. (B) Regulations establishing maximum permissible noise limits measured in decibels shall prohibit the operation, within the speed limits specified herein, of a passenger car or motorcycle of a type subject to registration at any time or under any condition of load, acceleration, or deceleration in such manner as to exceed the following maximum noise limits, based on a distance of not less than fifty feet from the center of the line of travel: (1) For passenger cars:

(a) When operated at a speed of thirty-five miles per hour or less, a maximum noise limit of seventy decibels; (b) When operated at a speed of more than thirty-five miles per hour, a maximum noise limit of seventy-nine decibels. (C) Maximum noise limits established pursuant to division (B) of this section shall be measured on the "A" scale of a standard sound level meter meeting the applicable requirements for a type 2 sound level meter as defined in American national standards institute standard S1.4--1983, or the most recent revision thereof. Measurement practices shall be in substantial conformity with standards and recommended practice established by the society of automotive engineers, including SAE standard J 986 A NOV81, SAE standard J 366 MAR85, SAE standard J 331 A, and such other standards and practices as may be approved by the federal government. (F) Whoever violates any maximum noise limit established as provided in division (B) of this section or any of the prohibitions authorized in division (E) of this section is guilty of a minor misdemeanor. Fines collected under this section by the county shall be paid into the county general fund, and such fines collected by the township shall be paid into the township general fund.

Title 47 12-402. Mufflers, Prevention of Noise A. Every vehicle shall be equipped, maintained, and operated so as to prevent excessive or unusual noise. Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler or other effective noise-suppressing system in good working order and in constant operation, and no person shall use a muffler cut-out, bypass or similar device. No person shall modify the exhaust system of a motor vehicle in any manner which will amplify or increase the noise or sound emitted louder than that emitted by the muffler originally installed on the vehicle.

(1) A person commits the offense of operation without proper exhaust system if the person drives or moves on any highway or owns and causes or knowingly permits to be driven or moved on any highway a motor vehicle that is not equipped with an exhaust system that meets the requirements under this section. (2) An exhaust system only meets the requirements of this section if all of the following apply:

(a) The exhaust system must be in good working order. (b) The exhaust system must be in constant operation. (c) The exhaust system must meet noise emission standards determined by the Department of Environmental Quality to be substantially equivalent to the following standards based upon a stationary test conducted at a distance of 25 feet in accordance with procedures established by the Department of Environmental Quality: _______________________________________________________________________

I. Vehicle type: Motor vehicles required to establish a registration weight under ORS 803.430 and commercial buses Maximum level, dBA: 94 dBA if model year before 1976; 91 dBA if model year 1976 and after III. Vehicle type: motor vehicles not described under I or II Maximum level, dBA: 92 dBA if model year before 1976; 88 dBA if model year 1976 and after ________________________________________________________________________ (3) This section does not apply to the following vehicles: (a) Vehicles of special interest that are registered under ORS 805.020 and that are: (A) Equipped with original manufacturer's equipment and accessories, or their equivalent, and that are maintained in safe operating condition; or (B) Street rods that conform to ORS 815.107. (b) Road machinery, road rollers or farm tractors. (c) Antique motor vehicles that are maintained as collectors' items and used for exhibitions, parades, club activities and similar uses, but not used primarily for the transportation of persons or property. (4) The court in its discretion may dismiss a citation issued for violation of the offense described in this section if evidence is presented that the exhaust system complies with or has been repaired or modified to comply with the requirements under this section. (5) The offense described in this section, operation without proper exhaust system, is a Class C traffic violation.

(a) Prohibition. No person shall operate either a motor vehicle or combination of vehicles of a type subject to registration at any time or under any condition of grade, load, acceleration or deceleration in such a manner as to exceed the following noise limit for the category of motor vehicle within the speed limits specified in Table 1.

(1) Any motor vehicle with a manufacturers gross vehicle weight rating of 6,000 pounds or more and any combination of vehicles towed by such motor vehicle Soft Site: 35 mph or less: 86. Above 35 mph: 90. Hard Site: 35 mph or less: 88. Above 35 mph: 92. (2) Any motorcycle other than a motor-driven cycle Soft Site: 35 mph or less: 82. Above 35 mph: 86. Hard Site: 35 mph or less: 84. Above 35 mph: 88. 3) Any other motor vehicle and any combination of vehicles towed by such motor vehicles Soft Site: 35 mph or less: 76. Above 35 mph: 82. Hard Site: 35 mph or less: 78. Above 35 mph: 84.

(b) Measurement distance. The noise limits established by this section shall be based on a distance of 50 feet from the center lane of travel within the speed limit specified in this section. Measurements at distances closer than 50 feet from the center of the lane of travel may be made. In such a case, the measuring device shall be so calibrated as to provide for measurements equivalent to the noise limit established by this section measured at 50 feet. (c) Trucks. A truck, truck tractor, or bus that is not equipped with an identification plate or marking bearing the name and gross vehicle weight rating of the manufacturer shall be considered as having a gross vehicle weight rating of 6,000 pounds or more if the unladen weight is more than 5,000 pounds.

(a) Compliance with established sound levels. --Every motor vehicle operated on a highway shall be constructed, equipped, maintained and operated so as not to exceed the sound level for the vehicle as prescribed in regulations promulgated by the department. The test procedures and instrumentation to be utilized shall also be established by regulation. (b) Compliance with exhaust requirements. --In addition to any requirements established under sections 4531 (relating to emission control systems) and 4532 (relating to smoke control for diesel-powered motor vehicles), every motor vehicle shall be constructed, equipped, maintained and operated so as to prevent engine exhaust gases from penetrating and collecting in any part of the vehicle occupied by the driver or passengers. (c) Mufflers and related equipment. --Every motor vehicle shall be equipped with a muffler or other effective noise suppressing system in good working order and in constant operation and no muffler or exhaust system shall be equipped with a cutout, bypass or similar device. (d) Unauthorized modification of equipment. --No person shall modify the exhaust system of a motor vehicle in a manner which will amplify or increase the noise emitted by the motor of the vehicle above the maximum levels permitted under subsection (a) or violate the provisions of subsection (b). Headers and side exhausts are permitted provided the vehicle meets all the requirements of this section. (e) Fire equipment and racing vehicles. --This section does not apply to fire equipment or to racing vehicles being operated in an organized racing or competitive event conducted under a permit issued by local authorities.

Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise and annoying smoke. No person shall use a muffler cutout, bypass, or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a highway. Any exhaust system shall be deemed defective if any changes, modifications, alterations, deletions, or adjustments have been made which would cause the exhaust system to generate a higher or louder sound level than would be generated by the exhaust system customarily installed by the manufacturer as original equipment. The defective exhaust system shall be replaced or repaired to restore the exhaust system to the performance specifications of the original equipment. Failure to replace or restore the exhaust system as required in this section within five (5) days shall be deemed a civil violation and violators are subject to fines enumerated in 31-41.1-4.

31-45-1. Noise limits (a) No person shall operate a motor vehicle, nor shall the owner of any vehicle allow the vehicle to be operated, at any time, or under any condition of grade, load, acceleration, or deceleration, in such a manner as to exceed the following noise limit based on a distance of fifty feet (50) from the center of the lane of travel within the speed limit. For the purposes of this section, "dbA" means decibels measured with a calibrated sound level meter weighted to the "A" scale. (b) In speed zones of thirty-five miles per hour (35 mph) or less, not more than eighty-six (86) dbA. In speed zones of more than thirty-five miles per hour (35 mph), not more than ninety (90) dbA.

Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise and annoying smoke and no person shall use a muffler cutout, bypass or similar device upon a motor vehicle upon a highway. The engine and power mechanism of every motor vehicle shall be so equipped and adjusted as to prevent the escape of excessive fumes and smoke.

No person may drive a motor vehicle on a highway unless the motor vehicle is equipped with an exhaust system and a muffler both in good working condition and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise. Exhaust systems on passenger or passenger-carrying vehicles used on any highway shall discharge the exhaust fumes at a location to the rear of the vehicle body or direct the exhaust fumes outward from the side of the vehicle body at a location rearward of any operable side windows. Any motor vehicle equipped with side exhaust according to the original vehicle manufacturer specifications is exempt from the location requirements. A bus used for the purpose of carrying school children may discharge the exhaust on the left side in front of the rear axle. Exhaust systems on property-carrying vehicles used on any highway shall discharge the exhaust fumes at a point rearward of the passenger-carrying compartment. No person may use a muffler cut-out on any motor vehicle upon a highway. A violation of this section is a Class 2 misdemeanor.

(a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on any road, street or highway unless the motor vehicle is equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise and annoying smoke.

(1) (a) A vehicle shall be equipped, maintained, and operated to prevent excessive or unusual noise. (b) A motor vehicle shall be equipped with a muffler or other effective noise suppressing system in good working order and in constant operation. (c) A person may not use a muffler cut-out, bypass, or similar device on a vehicle.

46.2-1047. Muffler cutout, etc., illegal It shall be unlawful to sell or offer for sale any (i) muffler without interior baffle plates or other effective muffling device or (ii) gutted muffler, muffler cutout, or straight exhaust. It shall be unlawful for any person to operate on the highways in the Commonwealth a motor vehicle, moped, or motorized skateboard or foot-scooter equipped with a gutted muffler, muffler cutout, or straight exhaust.

No person shall drive and no owner of a vehicle shall permit or allow the operation of any such vehicle on a highway unless it is equipped with an exhaust system in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual levels of noise; provided however, that for motor vehicles, such exhaust system shall be of a type installed as standard factory equipment, or comparable to that designed for use on the particular vehicle as standard factory equipment. An exhaust system shall not be deemed to prevent excessive or unusual noise if it permits the escape of noise in excess of that permitted by the standard factory equipment exhaust system of private passenger motor vehicles or trucks of standard make.

The term "exhaust system," as used in this section, means all the parts of a vehicle through which the exhaust passes after leaving the engine block, including mufflers and other sound dissipative devices.

The provisions of this section shall not apply to (i) any antique motor vehicle licensed pursuant to 46.2-730, provided that the engine is comparable to that designed as standard factory equipment for use on that particular vehicle, and the exhaust system is in good working order, or (ii) converted electric vehicles.

(1) No person shall operate any motor vehicle or any combination of such vehicles upon any public highway under any conditions of grade, load, acceleration or deceleration in such a manner as to exceed the maximum permissible sound levels for the category of vehicle in Table I, as measured at a distance of 50 feet (15.2 meters) from the center of the lane of travel within the speed limits specified, under procedures established by the state commission on equipment in chapter 204-56 WAC, 'procedures for measuring motor vehicle sound levels.'

Table I IN-USE MOTOR VEHICLE NOISE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Measured @ 50 feet (15.2 meters) Vehicle Category (type): Automobiles, light trucks and all other motor vehicles 10,000 pounds GVWR or less: 45 mph or less 72 dBA. Over 45 mph 78 dBA.

(2) Every motor vehicle operated upon the public highways shall at all times be equipped with an exhaust system and a muffler in good working order and constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise. (3) No person shall operate a motor vehicle in such a manner as to cause or allow to be emitted squealing, screeching or other such noise from the tires in contact with the ground because of rapid acceleration or excessive speed around corners or other such reason, except that noise resulting from emergency braking to avoid imminent danger shall be exempt from this provision. (4) No person shall operate any motor vehicle upon any public highway if the vehicle exhaust system exceeds the maximum permissible sound levels of Table II for the category and year of vehicle, as measured at a distance of twenty inches (0.5 meter) from the exhaust outlet under procedures established by the state commission on equipment in chapter 204-56 WAC, 'procedures for measuring motor vehicle sound levels.'

Table II IN-USE MOTOR VEHICLE EXHAUST SYSTEM NOISE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Measured @ 20 inches (0.5 meters) Vehicle Category (type) Automobiles, light trucks and all other motor vehicles 10,000 pounds GVWR or less: Before 1986 95 dBA. 1986 and after see above.

(1) Measurements shall be made with a sound level meter meeting Type 1, S1A, 2 or S2A requirements as specified in the American National Standards Specifications for Sound Level Meters S1.4-1971 as required under measurement procedures established in chapter 204-56 WAC, 'procedures for measuring motor vehicle sound levels.' (2) Violation of any in-use motor vehicle noise standard set forth in this chapter shall be a traffic infraction, enforced by such authorities and in such manner as violations of chapter 46.37 RCW. (3) Law enforcement personnel selected to measure vehicle sound levels shall have received training in the techniques of sound measurement and the operation of sound measuring instruments. (4) Any enforcement officer who by use of the initial inspection procedures of chapter 204-56 WAC suspects that a motor vehicle may be in violation of the standards of this chapter may require the operator to have the vehicle presented for sound level measurement. Measurements of a motor vehicle may be performed at off-road sites to determine compliance with the in-use standards. (5) Any operator who fails to comply with the directive to present the vehicle to a sound level measurement test shall be in violation of this chapter.

(1) Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise, and no person shall use a muffler cut-out, bypass, or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a highway. (3) No person shall modify the exhaust system of a motor vehicle in a manner which will amplify or increase the noise emitted by the engine of such vehicle above that emitted by the muffler originally installed on the vehicle, and it shall be unlawful for any person to operate a motor vehicle not equipped as required by this subsection, or which has been amplified as prohibited by this subsection. A court may dismiss an infraction notice for a violation of this subsection if there is reasonable grounds to believe that the vehicle was not operated in violation of this subsection. This subsection (3) does not apply to vehicles twenty-five or more years old or to passenger vehicles being operated off the highways in an organized racing or competitive event conducted by a recognized sanctioning body.

2812.1 No person shall modify or alter the exhaust system of a motor vehicle or motorcycle in a manner that will amplify or increase the noise emitted by the vehicle above the level permitted under 2811 of this chapter. 2812.2 No person shall use or operate a motor vehicle or a motorcycle having an exhaust system that has been modified or altered in a manner that will amplify or increase the noise emitted by the vehicle above the level permitted under 2811 of this chapter.

2811 OPERATIONAL LIMITS FOR MOTOR VEHICLES 2811.1 No person shall operate a motorcycle, motor vehicle, or combination of motor vehicles of a type subject to registration under D.C. Code 40-103 (1990 Repl. Vol.) at any time, or under any condition of grade, load, acceleration, or deceleration in a manner that exceeds the maximum noise limits designated in the table of this subsection for the specified speed limits, measured at a distance of fifty feet (50 ft.) from the center line of travel by a sound level meter switched to the A-weighting network, in accordance with such nationally recognized test procedures as the administering agency may prescribe in accordance with 2700.7 through 2700.9 of Chapter 27 of this subtitle.

(a)Any motor vehicle with a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating of ten thousand pounds (10,000 lbs.) or more, and any combination of vehicles towed by that motor vehicle: 35 MPH or less: 86 dB(A) Over 35 MPH: 90 dB(A) Stationary Run-up: 88 dB(a)

Washington, D.C. DMV: No historic motor vehicle shall be required to comply with any performance standard with which it was not legally required to achieve or comply when it was manufactured. Performance standards shall include, but not be limited to, standards or requirements for exhaust and noise emissions and for fuel usage.

(a) Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise. Such muffler shall be the muffler originally installed by the manufacturer of the vehicle or, if a replacement, the equivalent thereof. No person shall use a muffler cutout, bypass, or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a highway. (b) The engine and power mechanism of every motor vehicle shall be so equipped and adjusted as to prevent the escape of excessive fumes or smoke.

(1) No person shall operate on a highway any motor vehicle subject to registration unless such motor vehicle is equipped with an adequate muffler in constant operation and properly maintained to prevent any excessive or unusual noise or annoying smoke. This subsection also applies to motor bicycles. (2) No muffler or exhaust system on any vehicle mentioned in sub. (1) shall be equipped with a cutout, bypass or similar device nor shall there be installed in the exhaust system of any such vehicle any device to ignite exhaust gases so as to produce flame within or without the exhaust system. No person shall modify the exhaust system of any such motor vehicle in a manner which will amplify or increase the noise emitted by the motor of such vehicle above that emitted by the muffler originally installed on the vehicle, and such original muffler shall comply with all the requirements of this section. (3) In this section, "muffler" means a device consisting of a series of chambers of baffle plates or other mechanical design for receiving exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine and which is effective in reducing noise.

(a) Every vehicle shall be equipped, maintained and operated so as to prevent excessive or unusual noise. Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler or other effective noise suppressing system in good working order and in constant operation. No person shall use a muffler cut-out, bypass or similar device. (b) The engine and power mechanism of every motor vehicle shall be so equipped and adjusted as to prevent the escape of excessive fumes or smoke. (c) This section applies to motorcycles, motor-driven cycles, multipurpose vehicles and mopeds.

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