fruit dryer machine design

fruit drying machine, mushroom dryer, cassava dryer, fish drying machine_gongyi lantian machanical plant

fruit drying machine, mushroom dryer, cassava dryer, fish drying machine_gongyi lantian machanical plant

Gongyi Lantian Mechanical Plant was found in 1980s, and it is a combination of design, sale and service. We are a professional factory to produce many kinds of dryers, such as rotary dryer for coal and sand, fruit dryer machine, fruit drying machine, fruit dryer, food dryer, fish drying machine, vegetable dryer machine, mushroom dryer machine, wood dryer machine...[More +]

Lantian Mechanical Plant regards quality as life and users as God. We always follow the quality policy of being responsible for each process, responsible for each product, and responsible for each user, and wholeheartedly serve the users.

industrial fruit dryer- loyal industrial manufacturer

industrial fruit dryer- loyal industrial manufacturer

As Industrial Fruit Dryer manufacture, the fruit dryer designcan be used in many fields, such as food processing industry, fruit and vegetable processing industry, agricultural and sideline industry, seafood processing industry, medicinal industry,chemical industry, etc. fruit drying equipmentCan save drying time and higly improce the work efficirncy.

Industrialfruitdryer is a kind of continuous drying machine,It is widely used in fruit drying processespecially it is perfect for drying sliced or cut fruits or vegetables, there are many advantages of this drying method. The fruit drying equipment is featured with high drying speed, strong evaporation strength, high quality,etc.By adding rotary feeding device, the evenly spreading can be realized. And as there are no turnovers or drops during drying, the balanced drying can be ensured. With the automatic mixer and scraper feed the materials smoothly to the following process.

Pre-service: As an excellent and experienced supplier,our company could provide customer withproducts and service withexcellent quality and reasonable price 1. Give the customer a detailed description of the appropriate product, and serious answers to the questions raised by the customer 2. Make the suitable project as the customer requirement and make sure the machine is suitable for the material;

Sale service: 1. Ensure product with high quality and pre-commissioning before delivery; 2. Delivery on time; 3. Provide full set of documents as customers requirements. After-sale service: Provide considerate services to minimize clients worries. 1. Assist clients to prepare for the first construction scheme; 2. Install and debug the equipment; 3. Train the first-line operators; 4.Examine the equipment; 5.Take the initiative for troubleshooting immediately; 6.Provide technical support; 7.Establish long-term and friendly relationship. Service commitment: 1. Provide clients one-year warranty to make sure the machine could work well; 2. Send every client a preferential quotation by e-mail.

fruit and vegetable drying machine

fruit and vegetable drying machine

heat pump fruit dryer through compressed air heating, only a small amount of electricity to drive the compressor can obtain the required high temperature heat, automatic operation without personnel duty, is a kind of energy saving and environmental protec

Heat Pump Fruit Dryer through compressed air heating, only a small amount of electricity to drive the compressor can obtain the required high temperature heat, automatic operation without personnel duty, is a kind of energy saving and environmental protection drying solution.

Beef dryer projects are numerous, and there are many successful cases at home and abroad. For example, New Zealand, Mexico, the United States, etc., where there is beef there will be demand for beef jerky dryers. In 2019, Mexican customer Gedo inquired ab

Mushroom dryer machine is an air-energy heat pump type drying equipment, with heat pump as the heat source, working through the compressor, only a small amount of electric energy is needed to convert the normal temperature and pressure air into a suitable

We are manufactory, and we can give you lower price than those trade companies. Besides, we have a policy that " for saving time and absolutely honest business attitude, we quote as low as possible, discount can be given according to quantity"

how to build a food dehydrator - diy - mother earth news

how to build a food dehydrator - diy - mother earth news

When I first took up self-reliant country living in the 1960s, I tried drying foods in a sandwich of old window screens laid at a sun-facing angle across a pair of sawhorses, but found that Mother Nature dries slowly in our changeable New England weather. I also tried an antique sheet-metal wet-heat corn dryer designed for wood-stove-top use, but its single, rusty-hardware cloth tray left barbecue-marks on the apple slices. Plus, it was too small to keep up with our kids' hearty appetite for dried delicacies.

In the 1970s I gave in to progress and got one of the MacManniman's big yard-square electric food dryers. For two decades, its gentle electric heat preserved apricot halves and apple sections for babies to teethe on, along with other fruits, fishes and meats.

But in time the plastic screen on the racks snagged and frayed, and the oversize box got creaky from being hauled from cellar to kitchen and back. When it came time for a new dryer, all I could find for sale were little round, plastic kitchen gadgets and a couple of large and expensive wood-box units from makers I'd never heard of. So I designed and built my own.

Being of dark-stained plywood, it absorbs solar energy for sun-drying and works with stoveheat and electricity as well. Just one of its trays holds as much as one of the plastic dryers, fully-loaded, but the box is hinged to fold flat for easy carrying and storage. Here's how to make one for yourself! It's a great late-winter project offering a promise of the gardening season and harvest to come. Materials cost about $50, or half again that much more if you buy the optional electric fan and thermostat.

The hardest parts of a food dryer for an amateur wood butcher to fabricate are framed screen drying-racks. They are continually being pulled in and out, and for adequate strength, you'd have to mortise or dovetail the joints, then stretch and fasten window screening to the wood a job requiring building jigs, a stretching frame, plus precision tools and set-up time not warranted by a single project. I have the tools and materials but not the time, so I improvised pre-assembled racks.

Know those telescoping half-window screens? I bought three of the largest I could find (the store carried 12"-, 15"- and 24"- high screens), pried them apart and trimmed them for six ready-made screen-racks, measuring 23 5/8wide x 18 3/4 deep to give 18 square feet of drying area the perfect size for a home-size dryer. Made of strong-enough galvanized steel rail and screen with wood endpieces, they are rust-resistant, easily replaced if need be, and fit neatly into channels made by screwing and gluing wood molding to the sides of a sturdy plywood box that is hinged for easy breakdown, transport and storage.

At a hardware store, building supply outlet, or lumberyard, buy three 24"-high telescoping window screens for about $8 apiece. You'll also need the better part of a 4' x 8' sheet of finished-both-sides, 3/8"-thick, exterior-grade plywood, a small can of moisture-proof glue (the best is ugly red Resorcinol), a box of #6 3/4" zincor brass-plated, flat-head wood screws, and a handful of #6 1 1/2" flathead wood screws. If using a power driver, be sure to get Phillips-head screws. Have on hand a dozen 1 1/2" finishing nails. To hinge the box, buy three 24" lengths of brass piano hinge for some $6 apiece. For framing, buy or cut 30' of inch-square wood (square pine molding costs a half a dollar a foot; cheaper is to rip your own from any nominal 1"-thick board.) To make the rack supports, you'll need 30 feet of 1/2" quarter-round molding, or more home-cut square strips. For the base, get 6' of 1" x 6" pine shelving and about 3' of 2" x 6" lumber.

If you are handy with electrical appliances you can disassemble a toaster oven and hook its heating element to the house wiring, or shop around for a rheostat-controlled, low-power, resistance-wire heating element used in commercially made dryers. But, as a cheap and easy heat source,I use a a 25' string of Christmas tree lights (and unscrew lights to moderate heat output). Lights are strung between screw hooks under the drying racks. Optional to speed airflow and shorten drying time is one of those little plastic-shrouded muffin fans used in computers and copiers. You'll find them used in surplus electronic-goods catalogs for a few dollars, or at an electronics supply store for under $20. You might have one appliance do double-duty and rig an electric hair-dryer to blow heated air through a hole in the back of the dryer, but I've never tried it and doubt that a household-quality model would hold up long under continual use.

A thermometer is a very helpful option to gauge dryer temperatures. I invested $15 for an electronic inside/outside thermometer. Its "outside" probe can be inserted deep into the dryer to gauge drying temps while the "inside" reading warns if the unit is getting too warm when used over a stove.

Metal-working tools you'll need include needle-nose and side-cutting pliers and a hacksaw with the finest-toothed blade you can get. A flat metal file will smooth any exposed metal snags. A hot glue gun is an almost indespensible aid in tacking on small frame boards that are best fitted on the work. Buy a small one at any hardware store for under $15 if you aren't already so equipped.

First, disassemble and trim the screen frames. With a little wiggling, and screwdriver and pliers use, the screens will pry apart. Trim off all but 1/4" of the ends extending beyond the crossbar. Next, saw notches in the angles of the trimmed ends up to the crossbar. With the pliers, bend the 1/4" flap of rail sides, tops, and bottoms to form a boxed end. File any snags or sharp edges.

First, connect the side panels to the back panel with piano hinges. Placing the best side of the plywood down, lay a side panel on each side of the back panel long dimensions running up and down. Nudge long sides of the two side panels an even 1/8" away from the long sides of the back panel. Place hinges between back and side panels with the flat side of the hinges facing up, the mid-hinge bumps nestling into the space between panels. Use your steel rule to assure that top and bottom edges of the panels are even, so the box will set square. Tap panels as snugly together as you can without pushing the hinges up. Then insert the little wood screws that come with the hinges into 1/16"-wide, 1/4" deep pilot holes, drilled through the precise center of the holes in the hinge and into the plywood (use a centerpunch of sharp nail to center the drill bit). Tighten brass screws by hand, not with the power driver too much torque can bruise the soft-grooved heads.

To locate the rack rests, scribe eight lines from side to side, across all three panels every 3" from and parallel to the bottom edge. Do not fix rails to the top or the bottom lines. Apply waterproof glue to one flat side of the six 22" lengths of quarter-round molding and center them with their top edges just below the lines on the back panel. Locate the 18" quarter-rounds with one end 1 1/2 " in from the outer edges of each side panel and glue in place even with the rails on the back. As you go, pilot-drill and set 3/4" brass screws through the belly of the quarter-round rails and into the plywood one screw an inch from each end and one in the middle.

Try folding the three hinged panels into a three-sided box. Folded flat-side-in, the hinges will stop, making each corner a tight 45 degrees.If inner ends of rails meet and prevent full closure, file or saw their inside corners off.

The box rests on square-stock rails attached to the inside of a base of 6"-wide lumber. As your final box size may vary depending on hinge design and placement, build the base (as well as the top and door) around the three-sided box. Set the box square and perfectly centered in the 25" x 27" plywood bottom panel. Trim the two 27" x 6" boards (one of 1"-thick lumber, the other of 2") the width of the back plus 1/8" inch. Center the 1" x 6" on edge 1/16" from the back. Center the 2" x 6" flush against the front edges of the side panels. Trim the 23" 1" x 6"s to box the front and back boards. (For a sturdier fit, cut a 3/4"-wide, 3/8"-deep notch at the inside ends of the 2' x 6' front board so the nominal 1" side boards will snug into it. It also looks best to trim the back and side boards at 45 degreesto make a mitred joint. Just be sure the box has about 1/16" of clearance from back and sides of the base.) If the plywood base panel extends beyond the baseboards, draw around outsides of the latter and trim the plywood to size.

The box rests on four rails of square stock fastened to the inside of the base boards. On each base board, draw a line three inches down from and parallel to the top edge. Center two 22" lengths of square stock on the side boards and the two 19" lengths on the front and back boards with their top edges along the bottom of the drawn lines. Fasten the boards with glue and screws.

Replace base boards carefully around the box, maintaining the 1/16" clearance at back and sides. Remove the box and, on the plywood base, draw around insides of baseboards. Removing and replacing one board at a time, apply glue to the bottoms and to the edges of joints and set into place inside the drawn lines. Weight corners with bricks. Then pilot drill and fasten ends of side boards to front and back boards with two 1 1/2" screws or three 1 1/2" finish nails per joint.

When glue is tacky enough to hold, flip base over and put 3/4"screws every four inches through pilot holes in the plywood and into the base boards. Flip again and, for added strength, cut four 3"-to-a-side triangular gussets from scrap 1" x 6" lumber and drill a 1/16" pilot hole in the center of each. Coat one flat side and the two 45degreeedges with glue, press one gusset hard into each corner, and screw to plywood with a3/4" screw.

Now frame the top with a dual row of square-stock rails arranged around the edges so the box will nest into it. Place the three-sided box on the base and put the 22" x 26" plywood top panel on top so that it extends 1/16" more than the actual width of your square stock beyond the back and equal distance out from each side panel (you want the front to extend out a bit). On the underside of the top panel, draw carefully around the outside of the three box panels. Remove top, measure, and trim one 21" and the two 26" lengths of square stock to fit in a box-top-opening size "U" shape with their inner edges just outside of the lines just drawn. Draw around the outsides of rails, and trim outer edges of the back and sides of the plywood even with the outer edges of the rail "U." Tack-glue the three frame boards onto the top panel and screw-fasten.

Cut three 8" lengths of scrap square-stock and tack-glue them to the underside of the top, parallel to and a 1/2" inside the outer frame members (so they will hold the panels loosely against the outer frame members). One board should be centered along the back, and the front ends of the other two even with the front ends of the outer-side boards already in place. Cut two 4" pieces of square scrap and tack them 1/2" inside the outer side frames toward the back. Check how well it fits by putting the top on the box; then pilot-drill and fasten the frame boards to the panel with two 1" screws every three inches. Now, the top will fit down over the three-sided box and hold it square.

Next make the door, which hinges to the nominal 2"-wide front baseboard and is held at top by a strip of square stock you will measure and attach to the front of the top panel. Place box into base, put on the top, and slide in the drying racks. If need be, trim the upper edge of the door panel so its width is the same as the base frame is wide, and its height 3/16"less than the front opening with top on. Trim the two 28" lengths of square stock the height of the door and screw and glue them to the inside of the door so they make a flange at each side of the box. Trim the 24" of square stock so it fits loosely into the top of the box-front opening, just under the top. Center it along the inside upper edge of the door; glue and screw it on.

Then attach the door to the base with the remaining length of piano hinge. Fit the door snug against the box, so it closes the opening. Orient the hinge bumped-side up and bend up at a 45 degreeangle. Press angled hinge into intersection of door bottom and top edge of the front baseboard. Tack glue, then fasten upper flange of hinge to door with screws provided, pilot-drilling the holes. Press door tight against the front of the box, then tack-glue and fasten the lower hinge flange to the top of the front frame board with pilot-drilled 1 1/4" #6 screws (the small screws provided with the hinge are too small to hold in softwood lumber). The door will now open out flat and swing up to close the dryer reasonably airtight.

Finally, trim the last 26" of square stock the full width of the door, close the door, and fasten the square strip to the underside of the top panel in a lip snug enough against the front of the door that the top will keep the door closed. Trim front of top even with the front edge of the lip.

To provide bottom vents to admit drying air, use a large-diameter (1/2" is best) twist or spade bit to drill slightly up-trending holes from outside to inside, every 3" or so through all the base boards. (Don't try to drill through screws fastening boards to the plywood baseboard.) Set the base on scrap wood you don't mind drilling through and make a grid of holes spaced about 4" apart each way through the plywood. (For the cleanest cut through plywood, drill slowly and straight down through and into the scrap beneath it.

For a top vent, use your jigsaw to cut a hole in the center of the top (drill a blade-size hole on the inside of the scribed circle, insert blade, and go around). Make it the same diameter as the circle described by the moving blades of the muffin fan if you are using one. For unpowered, gravity-drying, cut out an 8"-diameter circle. From scrap plywood, cut out a circle an inch larger than the hole with a nickel-size bump on the rim. Center lid over hole, drill through the center of the bump and the underlying top panel; then fix lid to top with a small bolt so you can adjust size of the opening to control airflow and drying temperature.

If you plan to dry fish or use hot spices on meat or in leathers, finish the inside of the box and the wood of the screens. Apply two or three coats of sanding-sealer, sanding each coat smooth. Then paint with several coats of white enamel or clear varnish so that the wood is shiny and impermeable as the inside of a refrigerator. For a kitchen furniture-like outside finish, sand, seal, and paint white. For a living-room finish, seal, stain (with a dark furniture stain if you plan to use sun power), and varnish.

To power the dryer electrically, insert six small screw hooks, three inches apart into each side rail inside the base. Suspend a 25' string of Christmas tree lights tight between the hooks. Be surethat no bulb touches wood or awire. Cut an inch-long notch into the bottom of the rear base board wide enough to run the cord through. At the middle of one side, drill a hole under the third-from-the-bottom drying rack rail to admit the probe. Mount the thermostat above it with screws provided. Lead the semi-flexible tubing into dryer through the hole, stapling loosely along the underside of the rail, and staple the end of the probe to the middle of the back panel the element of the probe extending out into the dryer.

As noted above, food will dry (slowly) in sub-freezing weather and if given ahigh air flow will dry at any warm temperature. However, the most effective drying-temperature range is 110 to 150 degrees Fahrenheit. Old-timers dried foods at high temperatures; however a temperature above 150 degreeswill destroy nutrients. Indeed, recent research suggests that the lower the drying temperature, the more nutrients are retained. If you use a thermometer, juggle vent opening and fan speed to regulate air flow, so as to keep the temperature around 110 degrees Fahrenheit. When sun-drying in mid-summer, you may find that a high air volume is needed to keep temperatures from skyrocketing and cooking the food.

Drying times depend on the nature and thickness of the food, as well as warmth, humidity, and air-flow. In dry winter air, you may find that the fan alone running at top speed with vent open wide will dry thin apple slices in 24 hours. In humid weather, you may need the heat lights, with the fan moving a small but constant volume of air, to dry a batch in two days or more. Experiment remembering that the dryer the food, the better it will keep.

To keep wet food from sticking to the drying racks, either let it air-dry awhile, lay a donut of wax paper or square of cheesecloth over the wire screens for the first phase of drying, or (with fish, meat, or cooking vegetables, but not fruit products) spray Pam or another non-stick cooking aid on screens.

Lay pieces close together but with space for air to circulate between. Shake the trays or hand-turn larger pieces two or three times a day. To maintain continuous production, compact pieces on fewer screens as they shrink and move screens from top to bottom as food dries. Unload the lowest rack when its load is dry and introduce new foods to the upper level.

To use a dark-stained dryer with free and natural energy, take the box off the base, and set it on bricks or 2"-high wood blocks over a dark, heat-absorbing platform in the sun. Turn the box from time to time to keep the internal temperature even, and crack the top or regulate the top vent to maintain internal temperature.

If the woodstove is really pumping out the heat, place the dryer-box on blocks on a table that's a safe distance from the stove's radiant-heat-projecting surfaces (typically, any combustible must be kept 18" from the back or sides and 36" from the front, but check your stove's installation instructions). Open the top vent for gravity-drying or place the fan on top so it pulls air up. Adjust blade speed with a rheostat or regulate the vent cover to maintain a gentle air flow (fan-forced air will dry effectively even if cooler than 110 degrees Fahrenheit).

If the wood stove is warm but not hot, you can take the box off its base and place it on stacked bricks over the stove top. You can do the same over a gas or electric stove top if you're careful and plan to stay in the kitchen all day. But wood can ignite if overheated even if not touching flame. The inside/outside thermometer provides a safety factor; don't let the outside temperature exceed 150 degrees Fahrenheit. And never set a wood food-dryer over a potential fire-maker if there is a remote possibility that you might be called out of the house.

In winter, if you have forced hot-air central heating, place the dryer over a register. In subfreezing weather, put the dryer on the porch and turn on the fan; dry-cold air will "freeze-dry" foods slowly but effectively as frozen water "sublimates;' turning directly from a solid to a vapor state without going through a liquid state in between. But easiest, fastest, and most worry free even if your electrical bill will be a tad higher is to use the Christmas-light heater with the fan. Place the box on the heater base, open the top vent, and maintain a gentle warmth and constant air flow by adjusting size of the the top vent under the fan and by screwing-in and unscrewing bulbs. If a single strand of lights doesn't provide enough heat, string on another. Wrap wires with flexible black electrician's tape on both sides of light sockets if lamps threaten to touch the insulation.

For storage, unfold the box and lay flat or support firmly against a wall to prevent plywood from warping. Fold door down against the base base and pile together with the top and stacked drying racks on top of the box panels.

In some of my recent woodworking articles, I have mentioned the pleasure I experience when using the silky, rosewood-handled try square that I inherited from my grandfather. I suggested that readers buy a similar tool, new or used, at an auction or yard sale. Well, I've just learned that rosewood is one of several tropical rain forest trees being over-harvested in the wild, to the point that they have become seriously endangered. Others over-harvested woods include: ebony, roko, padauk, and true mahogany. Coincidentally, all these woods used for ornamental inlay work and musical-instrument finger boards, as well as fine tool handles contain toxic phenols and are best not worked by amateurs.

Teak, a tropical (though not strictly a rain forest) species widely used for outdoor furniture, is also endangered in the wild. However, most raw boards and teak products on the U.S. market are from plantations (and have been in existence since the days when teak was used to deck sailing ships) and are now being certified by several international conservation organizations. Hopefully, rosewood and other endangered trees will also come under cultivation or controlled harvest providing cash incomes to people who are now burning the rain forests for subsistence agriculture. Till then, to do my small bit in reducing the total demand for these endangered woods, I will not buy rosewood, ebony, etc., as raw stock or in a finished product, new or used; I both regret and retract my earlier recommendation. Try squares come with American walnut and other type handles, and readers wanting to work with dense, easy-working but common domestic woods having all the character of an exotic, might look into the Texas Mesquite.

The Solar Food Dryerbook, by Eben Fodor. If you are thinking of building a solar food dryer, or you just want to learn the basics of how to preserve food by dehydrating, this is the best book available. Includes full details on how to build a very effective solar-powered dehydrator.

Surely you've got to be kidding us. Sorry you feel obligated to try selling a book for funding. Perhaps your heart is in the right place, but you've no engineering aptitude. My dehydrator is simple, has lasted for 3 decades [so far], works with only a 40W string of xmas lights (about 100 bulbs long) doesn't require any kind of attention during operation, any air moving fans or other gadgets. I use my old picnic cooler (Coleman polylite) which is about 22inches x 12in x 12in. Spread out the string of lights around the bottom, put in some dollar store (stainless) steel mesh collanders resting atop the lights and then just prop open the lid a few inches. The inner temperature naturally rises to 105-110 deg F (at ordinary room temps) and never overheats. I use it to sprout seeds / rye grain (only 1/3 of bulbs inside); dehydrate seeds / thinly sliced fruit (most of the bulbs inside) or malting (dehydrating) sprouted rye grain (for sourdough bread). PS- Solar powered? In my view, that's a buzzword not an effective method.

At MOTHER EARTH NEWSfor 50 years and counting, we are dedicated to conserving our planet's natural resources while helping you conserve your financial resources. You'll find tips for slashing heating bills, growing fresh, natural produce at home, and more. That's why we want you to save money and trees by subscribing through our earth-friendly automatic renewal savings plan. By paying with a credit card, you save an additional $5 and get 6 issues of MOTHER EARTH NEWS for only $12.95 (USA only).

hot air circulation dryer for dehydrating fruit

hot air circulation dryer for dehydrating fruit

Fruits are an important part of the human diet which is commercially important and nutritionally necessary food commodity. Worldwide, over 100 million acres of land has been devoted to fruits production. Each year, fruits create tens of billions of dollars to the global economy and being major sources of income for developing countries. Fruits are edible products of the perennial plants with high water content and are rich sources of vitamins such as vitamin C and minerals such as calcium which can keep people healthy. Fruits also contain sufficient amounts of fibers and digestive enzymes that help gastrointestinal digestion and prevent constipation.

However, fruits are highly perishable once largely harvested, and fruit processing is an indispensable step in food preservation especially drying which is a common method to preserves fruits nutrition, prolong its lifetime, and reduce space for storing and transportation. In drying procedures, hot air circulation drying oven is the widely employed machine for fruit dehydration due to its operation simplicity, relatively inexpensive technology, and highly efficient drying effect. Therefore, the type of fruit which is suitable for hot air drying is enormous and next we will introduce our hot air circulation dryer oven for different types of fruit drying.

Hot air circulation drying oven can be applied in dehydrating fruits whole such as grapes and berries, or as slices such as mangoes and kiwis. Alternatively, fruits can be milled after drying into powder like coconut powder or be pulped and dried into fruit leather such as strawberry leather. Generally, operation steps for processing dried fruit slices, fruit powder and fruit leather are selecting, trimming, washing, peeling, slicing, (pulping only when process fruit leather), drying and milling. The process operations involved the crucial drying step will be detailed below.

Dried fruit slices have been proved that contain more fibers and are a good source of antioxidants like dried fig slices. Dried slices by hot air drying oven can be applied in industrial production and meet the markets demands, and the process operations wont take long for you to learn the art of fruit drying.

Not all fruits will dry well, so select the ones that known to produce excellent results when dried. For example, vine fruits such as grape and kiwifruit, or tree fruits such as lemon and mango. Moreover, choose fully ripe fruit but not overly ripe which can provide high quality dried slices with nice texture, flavor and sweetness.

Hot air circulation drying technique employs a circulating flow of heated air to remove fruit slices surface and interior moisture. In the hot air drying oven, the heated air can speed up the chambers heat transmission, it also reduces the chambers relative humidity and thus accelerates the drying process. When drying, the fruits drying rate decreases non-linearly, the longer the drying time, the slower the drying rate. In the falling rate period, as moisture content falls, the solids heat up and the higher temperatures speed up the diffusion of water from the interior of the solid to the surface. The whole drying process happens in the stainless steel dryer and without bacterial growth, the operations about hot air dryer are in below:

(1)Firstly, the slices will be placed evenly on the trays of the hot air dryer and shouldnt touch each other. (2)Secondly, set the temperature and push the button, drying begins: the air will be heated with electricity and do not use an open flame. Therefore, our dryer produces air that is completely clean and unpolluted. The drying temperature which is easily controlled by a button type digital display usually ranges between 30and 140, generally, fruits drying temperature depends on fruit variety, the drying time depends on fruit variety, drying temperature and airs relative humidity, so the data cant give a precise drying time but an estimated time. For example, the apple slices can be dried at 105for about 2 hours in hot air dryer. (3)Thirdly, during drying, the fan which is equipped in the dryer will blow the heated air to circulate in the dryer, and the machine has sealed construction, thus the homogeneous temperature is distributed inside the dryer and without thermal dispersion. (4) Finally, when fruit slice is dried, it becomes chewy, not too soft or too crunchy. Generally, the dried slices moisture content can vary from small of 3% 8% to substantial of 16% 18%, depending on the type of fruit.

Fruit powder is just one step past drying fruit. After a brief processing phase, all you have to do is mill it. (1) Firstly, select the freshest, ripest fruit for producing a powder with best color, taste, and texture. (2) Then, peel the fruit and slice it into smaller slices. (3) Next, heat the dehydrator and lay the fruit slices flat on the drying trays, spacing them 1cm apart on all sides. You can place fruits in racks in the dehydrator. During drying, rotate the racks 180 degrees for 1-2 times. After 2-3 hours, when fruit felt moisture-free and without squishy, taste the slice and if it has the texture of paper, its ready. (4) Finally, mill the dried slices with fruit milling machine until it has a consistency similar to flour. The dried fruit powder can be vacuum-stored at room temperature for 6-12 months.

Fruits can also be pulped and dried as fruit leathers and rolls. Fruit leather is a dehydrated fruit-based confectionery product which is often consumed as snack or dessert. Fruit leathers are processed from mixing fruit puree and other additives such as sugar, pectin, acid, glucose syrup and color, and then dehydrating them into a leather-like sheet by hot air drying machine. The operation process can be divided into making-puree phase and drying phase.

(1)Select ripe or slightly overripe fruit like mango, apricot fruit, the grape is a nice choice for making fruit leather. (2)Wash fruit by fruit washing machine. Remove peel, seeds stems and bruised or spoiled portions of fruit. (3)Cut fruit into chunks. Then puree fruit by fruit paste making machine until smooth. If the fruit puree is too thick, you can add liquid to bring to a pouring consistency. (4)An optional part: you can add corn syrup, honey, sugar or other additives to sweetener the puree. Corn syrup or honey is best for longer storage because it prevents crystal formation. Sugar is fine for immediate use or short storage. Generally, add 1/4 to 1/2 cup corn syrup, honey or sugar for each two cups of fruit puree.

Dehydration of fruit leather is a process of heat transfer. (1)The traditional sun drying allows the products have a natural color and translucent appearance, however, the sun drying is fully depended on the weather, thus it needs a long drying time and exposure in the open air for long will contaminate the products quality.

(2)The industrial dehydration of fruit leather is hot air circulation dryer which has overcome the problems of hygiene and time, as it is rapid, safe and controllable drying method. Firstly, fruit puree can be poured onto the trays. Please notice: spread puree evenly, about less than 1 cm thick, onto drying trays. Then, set the drying temperature which is usually depended on fruit variety and ranges from 60to 120. When drying, leather dries from the outside edge to the center. You can touch the center of the leather to test its dryness until the surface is not sticky and still pliable but hold together, you can peel it from trays and cut or roll into your required shape. The drying time is mainly influenced by fruit variety, temperature and most fruit leathers need be dried for 6-12 hours until the leathers moisture content has reduced at 12%20%. Generally, the dried fruit leather can be stored in the vacuum-container for about 2-4 weeks at room temperature, or stored in the refrigerator for up to one year.

In the season of 2015-2016, dried fruit production is more than 2.6 million metric tons, dried grapes are the most produced dried fruit with almost 1.3 million metric tons, followed by table dates, prunes, and dried Apricots. In 2015/16, the USA leads the worlds dried fruit production with 418,250 metric tons, followed by Turkey with a production of 355,000 metric tons and Iran with 290,000 metric tons. In 2015, dried fruits totally create a market value of up to 7,000 million dollars, in the market, the most popular dried fruit products are in forms of dried slices, powder, and leather.

Dried fruit slices are widely applied in the food manufacturing industry and non-food industry. In food field, the dried slices can be used in snack industry such as plastic-packaged fruit crisps, confectionery industry such as chocolate-covered fruit sweets, ready meals and soup industry such as instant soup, breakfast-cereal industry such as fruit-mixed cereal, bakery industry such as fruit cupcakes and etc. In the non-food industry, the dried slices can be used as the Christmas decorations.

(1) In Europe, the dried fruit consumption is valued at 2.3 billion and the mainly consumed products consist of dried grapes, dates, figs and prunes. The top three markets are in Italy, the UK, and Spain. (2) By far, the food processing industry is the largest market segment for dried fruits. They firstly dry fruits by hot air dryer and further process it in breakfast cereals, bakery, desserts, and confectionery products. In Europe, another market segment is retail sector sales, which are dominated by the supermarket sector, but health stores increasingly gain market share. The rest of the market segments is the catering market which uses very small amounts of dried fruit. (3) Imports More than half of EU dried fruit imports come from developing countries, the dried fruit suppliers are mainly Turkey and Chile. The developed country USA is the second largest supplier of dried fruit to the EU. The largest imported product are dried grapes, accounting for about 34% of total EU dried fruit imports. Dried prunes and dates are the second and third largest imported products with respectively 14% and 12%. (4) Exports France is the largest exporter of dried fruit in the EU, accounting for 24% of EU exports. Germany and Italy are the second and third largest exporter of dried fruit in the EU, respectively accounting for 23% and 17% of EU exports. About 85% of exports are re-exported to intra-European destinations such as to UK and Germany, the remaining 15% of export destinations are non-EU countries such as the United States.

(1) The U.S. is the worlds leading producer of nontropical dried fruits, producing two-thirds of world prunes and about 45% of world raisins. The large markets for U.S. exports are Europe, Japan, and China. About half of U.S. imports come from Turkey, mainly in the form of dried apricots. Chile, Argentina, and Mexico are also its significant suppliers. (2) U.S. consumption demand In the U.S., demand for dried fruit comes from the packaged food product industry. For example, the packaged dried-apples is used as an ingredient in breakfast cereals. Dried cranberries, a relatively new product in U.S. market, other dried berries such as dried blueberries are a fast-growing segment, as are dried cherries. They are mainly dried by hot air dehydration and sold through supermarkets, health food stores, and restaurants.

Fruit powder has applications in food manufacture such as being an ingredient in producing a beverage, baking bread, frosting cake or used in the restaurant. In the medical industry, fruit powder is added as nutrition ingredient in health care product. The fruit powder processed by hot air dehydration and milling machine becomes very light and retains much of its original flavor. Therefore, it gains a great population worldwide especially in America, Europe, and Asia.

Consuming fruit leather is an economic and convenient value-added substitute for natural fruits as a source of various nutritional elements. Furthermore, fruit leather has far fewer calories, less than 100kcals per serving, than many other snacks. In the market, the usual fruit leather products are mango leather, apricot fruit leather, grape leather, berry leather and so on. In addition, mixed fruit leathers like guava and papaya fruit leather are also available. In recent years, fruit leathers popularity has increased, transforming from a homemade preparation into an industrial product. In industrial manufacture, the hot air dryer machine has an accurate design for dehydrating fruit and hot air drying is an indispensable operation in producing fruit leather.

The dehydrated fruit by hot air drying has a longer shelf life and portability. In will be applied in more fields in the future. (1) In the professional field. Since dried fruits contain little to no fat but contain significant calories per serving, making them a natural source of energy for athletes. (2) In health product, trend including energy/sports drinks with flavors of cider and coconut water will be increased. (3) In the medical industry, examples include fruit powder associated with reducing cholesterol, weight control, reducing blood pressure, promoting digestion, controlling diabetes and strengthening the bones/joints to produce multipurpose medicine.

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