gold mining pictures south africa kloof

major mines & projects | kloof mine

major mines & projects | kloof mine

Kloof is a deep level underground gold mine located along the northern and southwestern margins of the Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa. This mine is typical of the many Witwatersrand Basin operations, which have been the primary contributors to South Africas production of a significant portion of the worlds recorded gold output since 1886. The Witwatersrand Basin comprises a 6,000-meter vertical thickness of sedimentary rocks, extending laterally for some 350 kilometres northeast to southwest by some 120 kilometres northwest to southeast, generally dipping at shallow angles toward the centre of the Witwatersrand Basin. The Witwatersrand Basin outcrops at its northern extent near Johannesburg, but to the west, south and east it is overlaid by up to 4,000 meters of volcanic and sedimentary rocks. The Witwatersrand Basin is Archaean in age, meaning the sedimentary rocks are of the order of 2.8 billion years old. Gold mineralisation occurs within laterally extensive quartz pebble conglomerate beds called reefs, which are developed above unconformable surfaces near the basin margin. As a result of faulting and primary controls on mineralisation processes, the goldfields are not continuous and are characterised by the presence or dominance of different reef units. The reefs are generally less than two meters in thickness and are widely considered to represent laterally extensive braided fluvial deposits or unconfined flow deposits, which formed along the flanks of alluvial fan systems around the edge of an inland sea. Dykes and sills of diabase or dolerite composition are developed within the Witwatersrand Basin and are associated with several intrusive and extrusive events.Gold generally occurs in native form, often associated with pyrite, carbon and uranium. Pyrite and gold within the reefs display a variety of forms, some obviously indicative of detrital transport within the depositional system and others suggesting crystallisation within the reef itself. As early as 1923, the presence of uranium was noted in the Witwatersrand reefs. It was found that on average the reefs contain about 0.03% uranium and as a by-product of gold relatively low uranium grades can be recovered. Notwithstanding different opinions as to the origin of the uranium in the reefs, most theories accept localisation of both gold and uranium a function of sedimentary textures. Metal concentrations are directly related to the reefs. Exploration programmes and eventual evaluation of gold and uranium according to a placer philosophy, prove to be highly successful.The most fundamental controls of gold and uranium distribution are the primary sedimentary features such as facies variation and channel directions. Consequently, the modeling of sedimentary features within the reefs and the correlation of payable grades within certain facies is key to in situ reserve estimation, as well as effective operational mine planning and grade control.

Kloof, a shallow to ultra-deep level gold operation, was formed when the Venterspost, Libanon, Leeudoorn and Kloof gold operations were amalgamated in 2000. The first shaft however, was already established in 1934 at Venterspost. The Kloof operation is situated in the West Wits Line of the Witwatersrand Basin, near the towns of Randfontein and Westonaria, approximately 60km west of Johannesburg, in the Gauteng province of South Africa.Kloof has seven vertical shaft complexes (four with sub-shafts) and two mineral processing plants. Supporting infrastructure to service the operating shaft sections is also in place: Thuthukani (1 Shaft) operational; Hlalanathi (3 Shaft) operational; Ikamva (4 Shaft) operational; Manyano (7 Shaft) operational; Masimthembe (8 Shaft) operational; 9 Shaft care and maintenance; Celemanzi (10 Shaft) pumping; Kloof 1 plant operational, processing SRD material; Kloof 2 plant operational, processing underground and SRD material.Mining methodUnderground: Scattered-conventional breast mining 79%; Pillars extraction (white areas) 21%.Surface SRD mining (LHD and trucks).Key developments and brownfield projects (on-mine)The depth extension project at 4 Shaft, to access the area between 45 and 47 Levels, progressed to 46 Level during 2019 and development will continue to 47 Level. This project is aimed at LoM extention.The Kloof 8 Shaft expansion project, designed to increase current production levels at 8 Shaft to 300ktpa, has commenced on 14, 15 and 16 Levels as planned.The Kloof integration project, designed to optimise operating shafts and close redundant infrastructure, has commenced. The lower levels of 3 Shaft will be accessed via 4 Shaft infrastructure by Q4 2020 and the sub-vertical and tertiary shaft barrels will be decommissioned. 7 Shaft production has been rationalised and the shaft will serve as a shorter access route for the long-life 4 Shaft. Main Shaft opening-up and development towards 3 Shaft is progressing according to plan and will allow for the complete closure of 3 Shaft which represents a significant cost saving.The Eastern boundary area remains a significant very high grade opportunity and is included in the Mineral Resource.

Kloofs operations comprise two metallurgical gold plants: Kloof 1 CIL plant operational, processing SRD material, Design capacity of 180 tpd; Kloof 2 CIP plant operational, processing underground and SRD material, Design capacity of 120 tpd.

Production: From 17 April 2020, management commenced implementing its strategy to mobilise the required employee complement to safely ramp up production at our South African operations to the initial restricted 50%. At 30 June 2020 the SA Gold and SA PGM operations were at a production capacity of 86% and 73%, respectively.

kloof | sibanye-stillwater

kloof | sibanye-stillwater

Kloof is a large, shallow to ultra-deep level gold mining and processing operation located in the Far West Rand Goldfield of the Witwatersrand Basin, near the town of Westonaria in the Gauteng Province of South Africa, 70km west of Johannesburg.

As of 31 December 2020, Kloof had surface and underground gold Mineral Reserves of 4.7 million ounces and Mineral Resources of 33 million ounces. underground gold mineral reserves of 4.7 million oz and mineral resources of 33 million oz.

At Kloof, we are focused on optimising the mineral resource, stabilising production profiles at current performance levels, reducing pay limits through quality mining and cost reduction, targeting secondary reefs on an incremental basis above existing infrastructure and the mining of low-grade surface reserves to fill excess metallurgical capacity.

Kloof was one of the three original assets acquired by Sibanye when Goldfields International completed its February 2013 unbundling transaction. Mining operations have been carried out in the West Rand since the late 19th century and at Kloof in its current form since 2000 when a number of existing mining operations were amalgamated.

Gold and uranium mineralisation is contained in paleo-placer conglomerates, that are locally known as reefs. The principal mining activity takes place on the Ventersdorp Contact reef with additional reefs mined including the Middlevlei, Kloof and Libanon reefs. The orebody is accessed from the surface via vertical shafts, with the deepest operating level some 3,347m below surface. Mining is focused on open ground and pillars using scattered conventional breast, mini-longwall stoping. Mining operations also take place on surface rock dumps.

The current mine infrastructure consists of seven shaft complexes, four with sub-shafts and five of which are producing. Two gold processing plants, with No. 1 carbon-in-pulp processing primarily surface rock dump material, and No. 2 carbon-in-pulp processing primarily underground ore at a rate of 347 tonnes per day.

about gold | sibanye-stillwater

about gold | sibanye-stillwater

Gold, has always been considered one of the most precious and lustrous of metals and has held its allure since its early days. The first gold artefacts come from a few small towns in what is now Bulgaria, central Europe. These treasures have been wrought by humans, evidence of a thriving gold mining and metallurgical prowess roughly 6000 to 7000 years ago.

How to find gold Geological conditions which are conducive to the formation of gold may differ from one deposit to another. There are however, certain common elements which are associated with the majority of global gold deposits. So, if youre looking to find a new gold deposit, remember: Gold is frequently associated with the presence of quartz rock, in alluvial deposits appearing as pebbles in riverbeds or reefs in hard rock as well as epithermal and porphyry veins White-coloured quartz may be found as small stones in river beds or in reefs found in large seams in hillsides and underground Gold can present as a vein in the quartz. Studies indicate that gold veins within the quartz, are deposited when high-pressure and temperature geothermal water in which the gold is dissolved, is disseminated through a host rock and crystalisation occurs as it cools.

How to find gold Geological conditions which are conducive to the formation of gold may differ from one deposit to another. There are however, certain common elements which are associated with the majority of global gold deposits. So, if youre looking to find a new gold deposit, remember: Gold is frequently associated with the presence of quartz rock, in alluvial deposits appearing as pebbles in riverbeds or reefs in hard rock as well as epithermal and porphyry veins White-coloured quartz may be found as small stones in river beds or in reefs found in large seams in hillsides and underground Gold can present as a vein in the quartz. Studies indicate that gold veins within the quartz, are deposited when high-pressure and temperature geothermal water in which the gold is dissolved, is disseminated through a host rock and crystalisation occurs as it cools.

Geological conditions which are conducive to the formation of gold may differ from one deposit to another. There are however, certain common elements which are associated with the majority of global gold deposits. So, if youre looking to find a new gold deposit, remember:

With increasing modernisation in the gold industry, the focus on mechanised mining methods has increased in many mines worldwide. In South Africa, it is a particular area of focus, both in order to engineer out hazards and safety concerns, but also in an important drive to maintain the mines profitability.

Golds appeal as an adornment has persisted over time and it retains a significant roles in the jewellery industry. The metal is malleable and resistant to corrosion and tarnishing and lends itself to being wrought into fine pieces, which withstand ageing. By alloying gold with other metals, it is possible to create white, yellow and rose gold pieces of jewellery:

Yellow is the traditional colour for gold jewellery, and is at its most pure at 24 carats; 18 carat gold contains 75% gold, with the balance comprising other metals eg. copper or silver; while 9 carat is the lowest caratage permissible in most parts of the world.

In the world of finance and markets, The London Bullion Market Association (LBMA) has certain specifications for their Good Delivery List, which provides comfort in terms of the purity and provenance of gold metal worldwide. Global member refineries are required to comply with the LBMA in order to be accepted on the prestigious Good Delivery List. Good delivery gold bars weigh approximately 400 troy ounces or 12.5kgs (one troy ounce is approximately 31.1 grams).

Physical gold may be bought as an investment in the form of gold bullion,bars or coins. Other ways to invest indirectly in gold arethrough shares in gold companies; unit trusts or mutual funds; ETFs and other similar investment funds and instruments.

For years, until 1971, many countries currency values were linked to a specified amount of gold. This was known as The Gold Standard. As each currency was fixed in terms of gold, exchange rates between participating currencies were also fixed. After World War 2 a new international system, known as the Bretton Woods system was put in place to provide both stability and flexibility. Nevertheless, golds value remains in place, and it is still considered to be a safe haven in times of uncertainty and fear.

In the modern era, golds properties have been innovatively applied in a number of technological, industrial and medical applications. Gold is used in catalytic converters and in space travel gold to protect against radiation and heat. In the medical field gold nanoparticles have become commonplace in rapid diagnostic testings, thereby transforming disease diagnosis over the past decade; at the same time scientists at the Imperial College London are working on early detection of the HIV virus, using experimental gold nanoparticle techniques, a project being supported by the World Gold Council.

Discoveries around golds ability to reflect infrared light resulted in microscopically thin gold coatings being used in NASAs James Webb Space Telescope, due to be launched in 2021, which will search for the first galaxies formed in the early universe. Similar coatings are also used by engineers to reflect heat radiation, thereby assisting temperature control in buildings, lowering their energy costs and reducing carbon emissions.

Also in the field of environmental health, gold nanoparticles are being used to improve the efficiency of solar cells, and research into the use of gold-based materials in the search for new, more effective fuel cell catalysts has pointed to further positive applications for this precious metal.

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