grinding machine

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grinding_machine_grinding_machine

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On the other hand, viewers who treasure Clooney, both as actor and director, for the deftness of his comic touch, or who remain alert to the grinding farce of the electoral machine, may prove harder to woo.

If you're tired of seeing those poor excuses for universal docks that connect via USB 2.0 -- most of which can't even export video without bringing your machine to a grinding halt -- you'll be elated to know that Belkin has upped the ante on the lackluster alternatives with its Notebook Expansion Dock.

grinding machines - an overview | sciencedirect topics

grinding machines - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Grinding machines, like broaching machines, operate over a range of speeds depending on the type of machine being used. These range from approximately 1250 to 2000m min1, although in high-speed grinding speeds of up to 5400m/min are achievable (Schey, 1987). The two most common grinding applications are cylindrical grinding and surface grinding. The wheel speed can be determined as follows:

Peel grinding machines offer a modern approach that achieves flexible grinding operations of a variety of diameters, grooves, thrust faces and forms using one set-up. Peel grinding is often compared with hard turning where a tool is traversed along a hardened workpiece following an appropriate form. Peel grinding operates in a similar mode removing a narrow strip of material as the grinding wheel is traversed along the programmed path. A typical operation is shown schematically in Figure 6.9. Grinding forces are minimized by using a very high-speed narrow superabrasive grinding wheel. Low grinding forces limit workpiece deflections and allow good accuracies to be achieved. Low forces also mean that components can be clamped using low clamping forces. This often allows components to be rotated by a driven centre. The use of superabrasive CBN wheels allows a number of diameters or faces to be ground with less frequent dressing in the case of vitrified CBN wheels or without dressing in the case of plated CBN wheels. Some peel grinding machines but not all have a swivel head for angle grinding. Angle grinding has an advantage for face grinding as explained in Chapter 5.

Peel grinding may be considered as one end of the HEDG spectrum of processes. Because a narrow wheel contact width is employed and rather more moderate depths of cut, power consumption is much lower than in HEDG. Grinding wheel wear is minimized and improved grinding ratios are achieved by using high-speed superabrasive wheels.

Surface grinding machines for ceramics can be divided into (1) creep-feed grinding type and (2) reciprocating (speed-stroke) grinding type. Reciprocating grinding works with relatively small depth of cut and high speeds (up to 40,000 mm/min) and requires particular specifications of the driving system such as high damping and acceleration. On the other hand, creep-feed grinding works with large depth of cut (e.g., more than 1 mm). For this purpose, it is necessary to work with a low and smooth feed velocity of less than 60 mm/min. Because of the large depth of cut, the contact length is high, the number of cutting edges is large, and thus the normal force acting between wheel and workpiece is relatively high. As a result, surface grinders for creep-feed machining must have a high static stiffness against these normal forces.

Grinding spindle drives of surface grinding machines require steplessly adjustable numbers of rotation speed up to about 10,000 min1. In dependence on the grinding wheel diameter, cutting speeds of about 400 m/s are achieved so that high speed machining conditions are reached. The spindle power of surface grinders depends on the field of application and may amount up to 80 kW.

Coolant supply of a surface grinding machine must provide high coolant flux (400 l/min) and high coolant pressure (300 kPa) to guarantee effective cooling of the workpiece and cleaning of the wheel. In combination with the small particle size of ceramic chips, high requirements also have to be met by the coolant purification system. Because oil is the common cooling liquid in ceramic machining, a completely sealed working area combined with an efficient suction of oil mist is required, in order to avoid danger of fire or explosion.

Furthermore, surface grinding machines can be sub-divided into three main types of construction: (1) the column, (2) moving column, and (3) transverse construction. An example of the column type grinder is shown in Figure 4.73. The design depicts a few characteristics for ceramic machining and provides a high-quality machined surface. By compact construction of the machine components as well as by using cast iron material for the machine bed, a high-static, dynamic, and good thermal symmetrical behavior is attained. A special device for trueing and dressing of diamond grinding wheels allows the application of the rotary trueing stones.

A surface grinder in moving column construction is shown in Figure 4.74, which is also appropriate for ceramic machining. In addition, the machine is provided with an external cylindrical grinding device. The concept is based on the specifications required for utilizing CBN and diamond grinding wheels. The moving column travels on a central bed and carries the grinding spindle and the spindle motor. These machine components made of polymeric concrete assure high rigidity and good damping.

The external feed drive device controlled by a CNC axis is developed for creep-feed grinding operations. The rotational speed is adjustable up to 25 l/min. A specific trueing device mounted on the top of the grinding wheel allows continuous dressing (CD) during grinding. Intermediate dressing with a table trueing device is also possible. Furthermore, the machine is fitted with complete measuring devices to record information on the workpiece, tool, and machine system [123].

Precision grinding machines, as with all production machines, are subject to wear. This means there must be a programme of planned maintenance or checking for sustained quality and output. Some machine designs are less prone to the effects of wear than others and this can be an important consideration in machine selection. In-process gauging can overcome the effects of wear to some extent but some types of wear are more serious than others. For example, wear of rolling contact bearings causes irregularity of motion and can seriously detract from the ultimate surface quality. Accuracy of spindle bearings and spindle-bearing condition are critical as little can be done to correct for poor spindle performance.

Precision grinding machines as with all production machines are subject to wear. This means there must be a program of planned maintenance or checking for sustained quality and output. Some designs of machine are less prone to the effects of wear than others, and this can be an important consideration in machine selection. In-process gauging can overcome the effects of wear to some extent, but some types of wear are more serious than others. For example, wear of rolling contact bearings causes irregularity of motion and can seriously detract from the ultimate surface quality. Accuracy of spindle bearings and spindle bearing condition are critical since little can be done to correct for poor spindle performance. Hydrostatic and aerostatic bearings are sometimes employed to avoid wear and to achieve the highest accuracy and longest service life (Rowe, 2012).

Table 10.1 lists the elements involved in grinding size and shape accuracy. The elements include the machine, the slide positioning, fixtures/work mounting arrangements, the grinding wheel and the workpiece. In addition, other tribological factors come into play for surface integrity and surface roughness. These include machine vibrations, grinding wheel grain size and structure and material characteristics such as hardness and toughness.

Currently electrochemical grinding (ECG) machines, developed by Everite Ltd are the only commercial combined hybrid machine tools that combine both grinding and ECM processes. UG 824 [11] is an ECG surface grinder machine tool. It is able to process any conductive material that is electrochemically reactive. It can produce burr-free and stress-free parts without heat or other metallurgical damage caused by mechanical grinding, eliminating the need for secondary machining operations. Like ECM, ECG generates little or no heat that can distort delicate components.

The traveling distances of the X, Y, and Z axes of the machine are 600, 300, and 200mm, respectively. The maximum rotating speed of the work spindle is up to 4000rpm. ECG Technology can easily machine most metals with hardness >Rc 65 such as titanium, tool steel, and CoCr and also some brittle materials such as zirconium. The advantages of ECG process are burr-free production, low cutting force, free of heat stress, no heat affected zone, no work hardening, no recast layer, no metallurgical damage, and faster than EDM.

The above reviews show that vibration-assisted hybrid machines are the most established hybrid machines and have already gained wide industrial applications. Other hybrid machines such as hybrid laser and mechanical machining machines and hybrid additive and subtractive machines are in the initial stages of industrial validation.

The stiffness characteristics of a grinding machine vary with frequency. This can be shown by exciting a machine structure using well-known methods. Typical methods include the use of electromagnetic or hydraulic vibrators to excite the machine over a range of frequencies. Vibration measurement transducers are used to check amplitudes at different locations on the machine. Another technique is to use a force-instrumented hammer to excite the machine impulsively. The impulsive technique is usually less accurate and more difficult to apply than harmonic excitation.

The vibration shape at resonance can be found by positioning a vibration measurement transducer at various points on the machine and noting the amplitude at each point. Plotting the amplitudes on a diagram of the machine shape builds up a picture of the machine vibration. It is also helpful to measure the phase between the excitation force and the response. From the various amplitudes, the shape of each vibration mode can be plotted.

A machine has many resonances although some are more important than others. It is important to be aware that the excitation position and the response measurement position have a substantial effect on the resonant frequencies measured. In Figure 12.7, the excitation was applied horizontally to the grinding wheel-head, and the responses were measured at a nearby wheel-head position. In this case, the machine was free-standing on four levelling pads. A dominant sideways rocking mode resonance at 36Hz was found. There is a lesser resonance for sideways excitation caused by forward and backward rocking at 32Hz. Rocking modes such as these are found for most machines.

The rocking modes in this example had a relatively small influence on the accuracy of the process compared to the dominance of the vibration amplitudes. This is because at the frequency of vibration, the whole machine rocked almost as a solid body with only small relative vibration between the two wheel-heads. It is the relative vibration between the two heads that is critical for workpiece shape (Rowe, 1964).

The rocking modes can be eliminated by fixing the machine rigidly to the foundations as in Figure 12.8. In this figure, it becomes apparent that there are three relative vibration resonances. The most important resonance is the tuning fork vibration mode where the two wheel-heads vibrate in anti-phase. It is this tuning fork vibration mode shown at 82Hz that is most susceptible to relative excitation by the grinding force and is most strongly associated with work-regenerative chatter.

A more informative way of viewing frequency responses is by means of a polar plot of amplitude and phase as in Figure 12.9. At low frequency, the deflection is in phase with the applied excitation force. At resonance, the deflection lags the applied force. Figure 12.9 shows relative vibration responses between the control wheel and the work-plate position when the aforementioned centreless machine was vibrated at the control wheel. The first resonance was at 82Hz but was found to be reduced to 78Hz when excitation was applied between the two grinding wheels.

Additional vibration responses are found at higher frequency modes. These become important when grinding large workpieces at low work speeds. For example, the first grinding wheel spindle mode was found at 240Hz.

Light-running tests show the effect of the various motors, pumps, belts, pulleys, dressing wheels and grinding wheels. The machine should be mounted on foundations in such a way as to minimize vibrations and the rotating parts carefully balanced. The light-running amplitudes can be measured by positioning transducers at various positions as in excitation tests. Typical light-running vibrations for relative vibrations between the two wheel-heads of the same centreless grinding machine as above are shown in Figure 12.10. The grinding wheel motor running at 24.2Hz has a strong effect on the light-running vibrations. The effect is demonstrated not only at the corresponding frequency but also at approximate harmonics of this frequency at 48, 63 and 97Hz. The spindle speed was 30Hz, but since the spindle was carefully balanced there is no direct evidence of this frequency. Impulsive vibrations due to belts cause vibration over a range of frequencies but particularly at resonant frequencies identified from excitation tests.

The wheel head of some cylindrical grinding machines may be swivelled so that the spindle axis is inclined to the work axis as shown in Figure 12.23. A section in plane AB shows that the contact between the shoulder of the workpiece and the wheel is similar to that of a surface grinding operation where the wheel periphery is used. Ideally the same force/grit is desired when grinding the shoulder as when grinding the diameter, so that self-sharpening conditions occur at each grinding position. It is obvious that for most practical conditions of operating

Excessive glazing at the shoulder is less likely to occur for these conditions than when full contact at the shoulder is made by using the wheel with its axis parallel to the work axis. A very important saving is made in wheel dressing, because both surfaces can be redressed continually without loss of the face width of the wheel as indicated in Figure 12.23.

The ball-milling process is common in grinding machines as well as in reactors where various functional materials can be created by mechanochemical synthesis. A simple milling process reduces both CO2 generation and energy consumption during materials production. Herein a novel mechanochemical approach 1-3) to produce sophisticated carbon nanomaterials is reported. It is demonstrated that unique carbon nanostructures including carbon nanotubes and carbon onions are synthesized by high-speed ball-milling of steel balls. It is considered that the gas-phase reaction takes place around the surface of steel balls under local high temperatures induced by the collision-friction energy in ball-milling process, which results in phase separated unique carbon nanomaterials.

grinding machine | britannica

grinding machine | britannica

All of the many types of grinding machines use a grinding wheel made from one of the manufactured abrasives, silicon carbide or aluminum oxide. The wheel is manufactured by mixing selected sizes of abrasive granules with a bonding agent (such as clay, resin, rubber, shellac, or silicate of soda) and fusing them together by baking or firing. The grade (hardness) of a wheel is determined by the ratio of bond to abrasive. Properly, a grinding wheel is self-sharpening because as it is worked, the dull grains break off, exposing fresh, sharp grains. The harder the grade, the more slowly the wheel releases the grains.

The shapes that can be produced by machine grinding depend on the shapes that can be cut with a diamond or other dresser on the sides and edge of the grinding wheel and the manner in which the workpiece is moved relative to the wheel. To grind a cylindrical form in a workpiece, the piece is rotated as it is fed against the grinding wheel. To grind an internal surface, a small wheel is so mounted that it can move back and forth inside the hollow of the workpiece, which is gripped in a rotating chuck.

On a surface grinder, a flat magnetic plate or a vise holds the workpiece in place on a table that moves back and forth under the rotating abrasive wheel. At the end of each traverse the table is moved automatically a short distance at right angles to the direction of travel.

grinding machines manufacturer, grinding machine - jainnher various grinding machines

grinding machines manufacturer, grinding machine - jainnher various grinding machines

At Jainnher Centerless Grinder Machine Company we have been providing precision centerless grinder and tube grinding solutions for over 34 years. Whether you need a centerless grinder or you need us to hold tight tolerances, we can meet your machining specifications at a competitive price.

A grinding machine or grinder is an industrial power tool that is a type of machining using an abrasive wheel as the cutting tool. Jainnher Machine Co., Ltd. is a superior grinding machines manufacturer, specializing in different grinding machines including centerless grinders, cylindrical grinders, center hole grinders, etc.

Since 1982 Jainnher Machine Co., Ltd. has excelled in the development of centerless grinding technology. Dedicated to advancements in diversity and automation, we are constantly offering new and improved machinery. Jainnher specialized in variety of centerless grinder, cylindrical grinder and internal grinding machines as well as various NC & CNC automatic loading and unloading systems. Our precision machine tools are sold to places all over the worldwide.

grinding machine - all industrial manufacturers - videos

grinding machine - all industrial manufacturers - videos

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Adjustable clearance angle for perfect grinding results - Grinding diameter 1,5 - 26 mm - Speed 4.200 1/min - Angle adjustment 40 - 100 Details - 6-jax precision check for maximum accuracy ...

... precision optics grinding machine covers a wide workpiece range from 5200 in mm. The unique dual-spindle technology and axis design enables superior speed and consistent processing of spheres, aspheres, ...

... sets the benchmark in efficient spherical processing. Efficient and flexible One machine for all processing functions, including pre-grinding, fine grinding, and edge processing Aspheric ...

The SPM-30 micro-optics grinding machine provides optimum accuracy and precision processing in the range of up to 30 mm, offering the highest level of accuracy in surface form, center thickness and ...

... because of additional modules. Speeds optimal for metal working at 3 000 rpm. Height-adjustable plane grinding table for linear plane grinding. Detachable swarf collector. Connection for extraction ...

... series, ideal for machining stainless steel Details Expandable because of additional modules. Speeds optimal for metal and stainless steel working at 1 500/3 000 rpm. Height-adjustable plane grinding ...

Cylindrical grinding module for perfect surfaces of metal and stainless steel pipes and shafts. Details Automatic feed is individually adjustable. High process speed at highest surface quality. For grinding ...

... simple and very reasonably priced machine has a tried-and-tested SPS control unit. It is easy to operate and the machine can be reset very quickly. Hardware: Cross slide with wheelhead for external ...

... adapted to other grinding tasks using various accessory kits such as in-process gauging, balancing system, contact detection and length positioning. The solid Granitan S103 machine base forms the basis ...

11 interpolating CNC axis guarantee a perfect positioning of the endless abrasive belt to the work piece surface and allows the processing of complex crank shaft and work piece geometries. The two belts heads allow a two stage process.

1 hp, 240 V (AC), 1 Phase, 50/60 Hz, 600-4,000 SFPM, for 1/4"-2" W x 72" L (6-51 mm x 122 cm) Belts Machine offers simplified design that eliminates belt tension rollers to reduce maintenance costs.Design also allows ...

1 hp, 230 V (AC), 1 Phase, 50 Hz, 600-4,000 SFPM, for 1/4"-2" W x 72" L (6-51 mm x 122 cm) Belts This model carries the CE (European Conformity) mark, signifying that it complies with all essential requirements of relevant European health, ...

... Tension) 2 hp, 2,850 RPM, Wet, 230 V (AC), 1 Phase, 50 Hz, 4,500 SFPM Mounts to Standard Lathes, for Applications from Grinding to Superfinishing. Each model includes 90 durometer, 65338 Contact Wheel (4" dia. x 2" ...

HIGH-PRECISION MACHINING OF PCD TOOLS The VOLLMER QM eco select was developed for the machining of tools, in particular those with PCD cutting edges, with the utmost precision and best possible surface ...

The mobile bench or static bench solutions can be associated with any kind of grinding unit, from the basic ones needed to operate on a linear surface to the most complex CNCS ones. The necessity to find a way to perform ...

LT TITAN the NEW TECHNOLOGY from Garboli LT TITAN is the perfect mix between centerless and orbital grinding systems, to grant high volume production of polished tubes, bars and steel wire. This medley enabled us ...

... by Garboli, is suitable for use in grinding, buffing, and satin finishing of straight parts. This straight component is designed from stainless steel, iron, aluminium, and brass materials. This belt grinding ...

The Syrio is a stroke belt grinder developed by Garboli. It comes with rough cast iron design for grinding, buffing and finishing operation on big pieces. The unit is supplied with square or rectangular section, and plates ...

The Macro-SI is the ultra-compact grinding machine of the Macro series. With a dead weight of 6,000kg, it offers efficient vibration damping, as well as the basis for high-precision surface grinding. ...

The profile grinding machine KNG 3P ready offers an inexpensive entry into precision machining. It has been designed as a solution for flexible production of small and medium lot sizes. The machine ...

BEVELLING- RECTIFYING MACHINE PATENTED MRC is an automatic machine designed to make the rectifying board of squared or rectangular material and to bevel the upper edge. It is ideal for marble, granite, ...

Vertical abrasive belt grinding machine for flat piece processing at 1 speed, equipped with removable and grindable working table, adjustable piece support. Operating head mounted on large base cabinet. ...

... are already complete and ready for use. The worktop or the entire swiveling assembly can be easily disassembled from the machine to improve the use of accessories. The belt tension system, equipped with an adjustable ...

Abrasive belt orbital grindeing machine for round or elliptical tubes, with variable speed ideal for grinding, satin finishing and cleaning of parts with diameters from 10 to 150 mm both straight and ...

... system employing a jet mill and an air classifier has been developed for a laboratory applications. The system can be configured as the JMX50 jet mill alone (with the internal air classifier), the ACX50 air classifier ...

... Extension: Item-No. 18051 Module: Horizontal table for grinding of circular knives, form knives, saw blades Item-No. 18782 Module: Programme package for HSS saw ...

... maintenance-free- - low backlash, innovative spindle drive - quick and easy web- and cross-facet thinning - precise dressing of the grinding wheel Versatility coupled with robustness and precision. - Fast, easy handling ...

... CBN grinding wheel. - Quick and easy handling, proven patented reversing prism system guarantees the highest possible accuracy and cutting symmetry - Sharpens twist drills, step drill bits, sheet metal drills, ...

... and has fine axial and radial feeds for fine finishing. The machine is delivered ready for use, including a set of grinding cones for seat angles 30 / 40 / 60 / 75 / 90 degrees. The machines is ...

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