The grinding performance of the new vitrified bonded abrasive materials can be optimized varying the sintering temperature.Composite mechanical properties (flexural strength) are improved by increasing the sintering temperature, up to 1050C.Sintering temperature between 950 and 1050C does not change the final open porosity of the new composite formulation.Composite wear behaviour improved as its porosity raised using a new bonding material and increasing abrasive proportion.Two dominant wear mechanisms were observed the fine scale abrasive wear of abrasive grains and the bond bridge fracture.
A new vitrified bonded abrasive composite for grinding wheels and a reference material used in the industrial production of grinding wheels were compared in terms of mechanical properties and wear behaviour. The new formulation abrasive samples were processed using different sintering temperatures. With the new composite, it was possible to, simultaneously, obtain similar mechanical properties and increase the open porosity, at a lower sintering temperature. The results demonstrated that the grinding performance of vitrified bonded abrasives can be optimized varying the heat treatment maximum temperature. The best combination of results was achieved with a sintering temperature of 1000C.
Vitrification heat treatment of grinding wheels has been studied with great interest over the past 10 years but with very little work published in the area of superabrasive grinding wheels that use cubic boron nitride (cBN) and diamond as the abrasive medium. It has been shown that heat treatment of vitrified bonding systems has a remarkable effect on the resulting wear of the grinding wheel, which is shown by wide variations in the wheel wear parameter, grinding ratio. However, grinding wheels that contain cBN and diamond require bonding systems that fuse together under lower forming pressures and vitrification temperatures. This paper describes the initial stages of powder selection, consolidation and vitrification heat treatments applied to these types of grinding wheels, and shows that using bonding materials that contain very low quartz content can decrease the tendency for the grinding wheel to wear out very quickly.
Metal bond diamond grinding wheels are usually manufactured by powder metallurgy. The manufacturing technology includes mixing, pressing, sintering. There are 3 kinds of main production methods of metal bond diamond grinding wheel blank: cold pressed sintered, hot pressed sintered, semi-hot pressed sintered.
This sintered method features high forming pressure, long sintering time, high energy consumption, poor mechanical performance, and service performance. Especially need to supply much energy to make the blanks body sintered in the sintering process without press, and the sintering holding time is 1-2 hours. The production cycle is long, so this method is seldom used now. But mounted points and diamond finish pellets are mostly applied to this method.
Hot pressed sintered method: There are usually medium frequency induction hot pressed and high current resistance heating. This method usually is that heat and hot press the molding materials in the graphite mold at the same time(i.e. direct hot pressed sintered). Or the molding materials are cold pressed into the blanks with a certain density and strength in the steel mold, and then sintered by hot pressing in the graphite mold.
The specification of the abrasives is limited by the graphite mold, and the diameter of the abrasives is usually less than 300mm. It will consume a lot of energy in the heating process with medium frequency induction and high current resistance.
Semi-hot pressed sintered method: First, press the molding material into the blanks with a certain density and strength in the steel mold, and then sintered without pressure. After sintering, the blanks are pressed to the design density. This method is usually suitable for the production of large size grinding wheels.
The sintering temperature is the most important factor affecting sintering. With the increase of sintering temperature, the viscosity of powder materials decreases the vapor pressure increases, and the diffusion coefficient increases, and which promote the material flow process. On the other hand, with the increase of sintering temperature, and the factors affecting sintering decreases.
The initial sintering temperature has a great influence on the sintered body performance. When the density of the sintered body reaches a certain value, if prolong the sintering time, the improvement of density is not obvious. On the contrary, it exacerbates the grain growth and secondary crystallization and causes the strength of the grinding wheel to decrease and forms the waste products.
Sintering atmosphere is very important to ensure the sintering process. The influence of the atmosphere on sintering is complex. It not only affects the sintering of the powder grains but also affects the effect of additives. The same atmosphere often shows different or even opposite effects on the sintering of different powder materials.
Usually, the grain size is fine, and the surface finish is good, but the grinding efficiency is low. The grain size is rough, and the surface finish is low, but the grinding efficiency is high. When choosing the grain size, the influence of the metal bond to the grain size should be considered. Another, choose the roughest grain size of diamond to improve the grinding efficiency and reduce the grinding ratio under the requirement of surface finish.
When the diamond concentration is too high, the diamond grains increase, and the amount of the bond decreases, which reduces the holding force of the bond to diamond. When the diamond concentration is too low, the diamond grains decreases, the pressure acting on each abrasive grain increases, which makes the abrasive tools wear too early.
In order to pursue the high holding force to the abrasives, the density of metal bond diamond grinding wheel is usually used as an important index to measure the quality of grinding wheels. Owing to the high densification of the metal bond diamond grinding wheel, the dressing and sharpening of diamond grinding wheel at the beginning of using and after wearing become more important. At present, there are mainly ELID( Electrolytic In-process Dressing), EDM dressing and compound dressing. The ELID is fast but the dressing precision is not high. The EDM dressing has high dressing precision, which can both be dressing and sharpening, but the dressing speed is low. The compound dressing includes ELID compound dressing, mechanochemical compound dressing, and etc. and the dressing effect is good, but the system is complex. Therefore, the pressing problem of the metal bond diamond grinding wheel is still not solved well.
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The purpose of this paper is to study a new high thermal conductivity vitrified bond CBN grinding wheel to improve the heat conduction rate during the grinding of titanium alloy. In order to analyze the effect of graphite addition on the properties of vitrified bond CBN grinding wheel samples, different amounts of graphite (0, 2, 4, 6wt%) were added to the vitrified bonder. When the graphite addition is 2wt%, the refractoriness, fluidity, and bending strength of the grinding wheel samples are better than those of conventional vitrified bond grinding wheel samples. The study found that the addition of graphite promoted the formation of pores in the grinding wheel samples after sintering, improved the chip-holding capacity of the grinding wheel, and thus improved the thermal conductivity of the customized grinding wheel. Finally, the vitrified bond grinding wheels with high thermal conductivity were successfully manufactured. Grinding titanium alloy (TC4) under the same experimental conditions showed that high thermal conductive CBN grinding wheels were better to conventional those in terms of grinding temperature and force, machined TC4 surface roughness. Thus, this study shows that high thermal conductivity vitrified bond CBN grinding wheels are more suitable for the grinding of titanium alloys.
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MgO/CeO2 glass ceramic is a key solid catalyst and accelerant produced by raw mixing, prilling and pressure sintering. Grinding, as a high-efficiency machining method was used to obtain MgO/CeO2 glass ceramic components with accurate size to meet the size requirements of design. However, thermal damage occurring on the ground surface may change the properties of the components and affect their performance in subsequent applications. In this work, a grinding thermal model was established and validated by experiments. On the basis of this thermal model, the grinding temperature can be controlled to < 100 C by selecting optimal grinding parameters and thus prevent grinding burn. The mechanism of potential chemical reactions on the grinding surface was further studied by analysing the transient temperature jump at a grain wear flat area and comparing the change in element mass fraction before and after grinding. The performance of a normal resin bond diamond wheel and a resin bond wheel with NiP alloy coating on the diamond grains was compared. Results showed that the latter intensified the redox reaction because of the catalytic actions of Ni and P, and the mass fraction of each elements on the workpiece surface shows obvious uneven distribution due to the surface spalling of NiP alloy. All these results indicated that key issues are the optimal setup of process parameters to control the grinding zone temperature and the selection of a proper grinding wheel to avoid catalytic elements such as Ni and P.
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Ceramic materials refer to a class of inorganic non-metallic materials made from natural or synthetic compounds through forming and high-temperature sintering. It has the advantages of high melting point, high hardness, high wear resistance and oxidation resistance. It can be used as structural material and cutting tools.Because ceramics also has some special properties, it can also be used as a functional material.
Having the state-of-art equipments such as ultra precision Wire EDM, CNC optical precision profile grinding machine, surface grinding machine, internal/cylindrical grinder and CNC milling and CNC turning machine, VILL MOUNT has the capability to make customized ceramic parts with tolerance up to 0.001mm and surface roughness up to Ra0.2m.
VILL MOUNT mainly produced 99%, 95% and 75% alumina ceramic parts: ceramic sealing ring, ceramic machinery parts, ceramic wear-resistant bricks, ceramic thread guides, ceramic thread guide wheels, ceramic wear-resistant liners, ceramic nozzle counter rollers, ceramic valve rings, ceramic valve plates, ceramic valve balls,ceramics spinning disks , textile ceramics, insulating ceramics, cordierite ceramics, electric heating appliance ceramics, sensor ceramics, honeycomb ceramics, porcelain tubes, porcelain rods, porcelain eyes, porcelain seats and other (special) precision ceramics parts.
Ceramic has the characteristics of high hardness, high strength, brittleness, belongs to the difficult processing materials. Due to the large sintering shrinkage, it is impossible to ensure the accuracy of the sintered preform body, so the ceramic still needs to be reprocessed after sintering. There are mainly 6 methods of machining ceramics.