high frequency screen hardware

high-frequency trading (hft) definition

high-frequency trading (hft) definition

High-frequency trading, also known as HFT, is a method of trading that uses powerful computer programs to transact a large number of orders in fractions of a second. It uses complex algorithms to analyze multiple markets and execute orders based on market conditions. Typically, the traders with the fastest execution speeds are more profitable than traders with slower execution speeds.

In addition to the high speed of orders, high-frequency trading is also characterized by high turnover rates and order-to-trade ratios. Some of the best-known high-frequency trading firms include Tower Research, Citadel LLC and Virtu Financial.

High-frequency trading became popular when exchanges started to offer incentives for companies to add liquidity to the market. For instance, the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) has a group of liquidity providers called Supplemental Liquidity Providers (SLPs) that attempts to add competition and liquidity for existing quotes on the exchange. As an incentive to companies, the NYSE pays a fee or rebate for providing said liquidity. In January 2021, the average SLP rebate was $0.0012 for NYSE- and NYSE MKT-listed securities on NYSE. With millions of transactions per day, this results in a large amount of profits. The SLP was introduced following the collapse of Lehman Brothers in 2008, when liquidity was a major concern for investors.

The major benefit of HFT is it has improved market liquidity and removed bid-ask spreads that previously would have been too small. This was tested by adding fees on HFT, and as a result, bid-ask spreads increased. One study assessed how Canadian bid-ask spreads changed when the government introduced fees on HFT, and it was found that market-wide bid-ask spreads increased by 13% and the retail spreads increased by 9%.

HFT is controversial and has been met with some harsh criticism. It has replaced a numberof broker-dealers and uses mathematical models and algorithms to make decisions, taking human decision and interaction out of the equation. Decisions happen in milliseconds, and this could result in big market moves without reason. As an example, on May 6, 2010, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) suffered its largest intraday point drop ever, declining 1,000 points and dropping 10% in just 20 minutes before rising again. A government investigation blamed a massive order that triggered a sell-off for the crash.

An additional critique of HFT is it allows large companies to profit at the expense of the "little guys," or the institutional and retail investors. Another major complaint about HFT is the liquidity provided by HFT is "ghost liquidity," meaning it provides liquidity that is available to the market one second and gone the next, preventing traders from actually being able to trade this liquidity.

best 4k gaming monitors for pc 2021: 144hz, curved and more | tom's hardware

best 4k gaming monitors for pc 2021: 144hz, curved and more | tom's hardware

With great pixels comes great image quality. Soit's not surprising when PC gamers drool over monitors with 4K resolution. A panel packing 8.3 million pixels (3840 x 2160) makes your favorite games look incredibly sharp and realistic. In addition to being the highest resolution you can get in a good gaming monitor these days, going 4K also offers the ability to expand past 20-inch screens. With that loaded pixel army, you can stretch your screen size well past 30 inches without having pixels so big that you can see them.And the new graphics cards from Nvidia's RTX 30-series and AMD's Radeon RX 6000-series make the move to 4K even more tempting.

But that image quality comes at a steep price. Anyone who's shopped for a 4K monitor before knows they're not cheap. Yes, 4K is about high-res gaming, but you're still going to wantsolid gaming specs, like a 60Hz-plus refresh rate, low response time and your choice of Adaptive-Sync (Nvidia G-Sync or AMD FreeSync, depending on your system's graphics card). And you can't forget the cost of the decently beefy graphics card you'll require to game properly in 4K.If you're not ready for 4K yet, see our Best Gaming Monitors page for lower-res recommendations.

With speed, accurate color and high contrast, the LG 27GN950-B is the best 4K gaming monitor and our top recommendation. Theres tough competition on this page, but the 27GN950-B stands out with some of the best input lag scores weve seen of a 144Hz monitor (tying with the Asus ROG Strix XG27UQ below) while also keeping up with its rivals in our response time testing.

Image quality is also a sight to hold. With an edge array backlight with a local dimming feature, the 27GN950-B doesnt quite hit FALD-level HDR but still brought stellar performance with 8,475.3:1 contrast ratio. LG also implemented its Nano IPS panel, the answer to Samsungs Quantum Dot tech, to achieve massive color coverage (94.5% of DCI-P3 and 133.9% of sRGB after our recommended calibration) that really made games pop.

The Asus ROG Strix XG27UQ is the best 144Hz 4K gaming monitor and may be cheaper than you expect. We've seen it listed for $800, but as of writing it's going for $1,000. The XG27UQ doesnt have a premium FALD backlight for beautiful HDR; however, HDR performance is still impressive, thanks to an effective edge-array backlight and the screen's Dynamic Dimming feature.

The ROG Strix XG27UQ stacked up well in our testing when it came to both response time and input lag. In the input lag test, it outperformed other 144Hz monitors, including the Acer Predator X27 and Asus ROG Swift PG27UQ, which went for about $2,000 each. And while the XG27UQ is listed as a FreeSync monitor, we were able to run G-Sync on it successfully.

A little more affordable than the other 144Hz options on this page, the Acer Predator XB273K is the best 4K gaming monitor at that ideal refresh rate for value-seekers. During fast-paced games with settings maxed, there was no blur. G-Sync worked successfully--with both standard and HDR content-- to fight screen tearing when paired with an Nvidia graphics card. The monitor kept up well with other 144Hz displays during our testing and even beat the Asus ROG Swift PG27UQ and Acer Predator X27, which are about $2,000 monitors, when it came to input lag.

In terms of image quality, the Predator XB273K delivers with pro-level color accuracy and contrast that reached over 4,000:1, according to our testing, and over 2,000:1 after our calibration. HDR doesn't look as good as it does on monitors with FALD backlights, but we consider the Predator XB273K the next best thing.

If you want the best 4K gaming monitor for HDR movies and games, the Asus ROG Swift PG32UQX is an expensive, but impressive, buy. This is the first gaming-focused monitor with Mini LED. Thanks to that advanced backlight, we recorded an amazing HDR contrast ratio of 180,820.8:1. And while an OLED screen like the Alienware on this page can offer deeper, purer blacks, the PG32UQX can get much brighter. It hit 1,627 nits with HDR during testing.

We loved watching HDR films on the screen, but theres no Dolby Vision support. This wont affect many games, but 4K Blu-ray discs and content from Netflix and the like often use Dolby Vision. On the other hand, you do get support for 24p film candences.

And as a gaming monitor the PG32UQX is no slouch either. It performed admirably against other 144 Hz screens in our response time and input lag tests, even besting some, including the HP Omen on this page, in the latter. And the nifty OLED screen on the bottom uniquely relays helpful information, like refresh rate adn CPU and GPU temperatures.

You dont often see the word budget associated with a 4K monitor, but the Asus TUF Gaming VG289Q isnt just affordable, its a great gaming monitor too. Despite being available for $349 as of writing, it offers a great amount of performance, making it a fantastic value for gamers looking to get to 4K without breaking the bank.We've even seen 4K monitors at the $400 mark offer lesser gaming performance.

There was no ghosting when we gamed on the VG289Q, and overdrive successfully helped eliminate motion blur. SDR titles looked extra colorful, but there was hardly any improvement when moving over to HDR games.

With the VG289Q priced so low, its not surprising that its refresh rate is limited to just 60 Hz (FreeSync works down to 48 Hz). Hardcore gamers will want more Hz, but casual players can make due with fast-paced scenes showing sufficient detail and great pixel density.

The lines separating the monitor needs of gamers and professionals keeps blurring. Besides that, theres nothing wrong with a photo editor wanting to game during their free time, right? The Acer ConceptD CP271K is the best 4K gaming monitor for professionals because it boasts impressive gaming specs coupled with accurate color space coverage.

Creative professionals can get work done with the monitors 110% coverage of the DCI-P3 color space, although the very meticulous will find that to be slightly too colorful. You can, however, reduce color with a software look-up table. You also get great HDR output with a FALD backlight that reaches 1,000 nits.

At the same time, the ConceptD CP271K offers gamers accurate sRGB coverage (96.3%), as well as powerful performance that kept up with 144 Hz gaming monitors in our response time and input lag benchmarking.

If youre looking for a big 4K experience, the Aorus FV43U offers excellent image quality and gaming performance at a much cheaper price than screens with slightly lesser image quality. We've seen it for as cheap as $1,000, giving the $1,500 Asus ROG PG43UQ on this page a run for its money by besting it in our contrast (both SDR and HDR) and max brightness tests, as well as color coverage. The Asus beat the Aorus in our response time test by 1ms and in input lag by 7ms, but unless youre an extremely competitive gamer, thats probably worth the price savings and slight image quality advantages.

The Aorus FV43U also offers USB-C connectivity, allowing you to hit 144Hz, two 12W speakers that sound better than most and a remote. HDR performance is also top-of-the-line, with our benchmarks recording 38,888.4:1 contrast and HDR games showing amazing depth and popping textures. A lack of 24p and Dolby Vision support hurt the FV43Us chances as a full TV replacement, but there isnt much else missing in a premium gaming monitor here.

We loved the Asus ROG Swift PG43UQ when we first saw it in June, but its been hard to find online ever since. We reviewed it at $1,500 but have seen it sell for more. If you can find this massive screen at the right price, you wont be disappointed.

At 43 inches, the ROG Swift PG43UQ is juggernaut that makes for a great TV replacement -- it even has a remote. From a 4-foot distance, it lends to a highly immersive experience that rivals a curved ultra-wide. And with DisplayHDR 1000 certification, HDR movies pack a punch. Games looked incredibly realistic and warm in HDR and also natural and vibrant in SDR.

Most importantly, the PG43UQ is specced for high-performance gaming. Response time competed well against other 144 Hz screens in our benchmarks, and input lag was better than the equally priced Acer Predator CG437K.If you can't find the Asus in stock though, the Acer's a fine substitution with a drop less performance for around $1,500.

The Samsung UR59C isnt a gaming monitor exactly, but youd be surprised at the speed it offers compared to other curved 4K so-called gaming monitors. For example, the MSI Optix MAG321CURV, a 32-inch curved 4K gaming monitor, showed a 22ms response time in our testing and 71ms input lag, while the UR59C posted the same response time but a shorter 63ms input lag. Make no mistake, this is not a high-end gaming monitor. But 4K at 60 frames per second (fps) is a lot more attainable than 144 fps, which may make the lack of Adaptive-Sync acceptable, depending on your GPUs capability. And the low price makes this one of the best budget 4K monitors overall too.

We havent seen very many curved 4K gaming monitors but found the UR59Cs 15000mm curve noticeable and effective in upping productivity with multiple windows open. The curve didnt feel as extreme as it would on an ultrawide, but that also meant no distortion.

Games looked tear free and without obvious lag when we paired it with a GTX 1080 Ti, while the VA panels high contrast 2,648.4:1 out of the box, according to our testing) made cut scenes feel like a movie and graphics, like trees and dirt, more realistic.

With a massive 55-inch panel and OLED technology that provides the deepest blacks around and amazing contrast, the Alienware AW5520QF is the best 120Hz 4K gaming monitor, offering a more manageable refresh rate for your GPU than the 144Hz options here, while also being the best 4K gaming monitor you can nab for HDR.

This screen is a great fit for the living room. The first real OLED gaming monitor, it delivered the best image quality we had ever seen at the time, including immeasurable blacks and, therefore, theoretically unlimited HDR and SDR contrast.

But the Alienware OLED still isnt perfect. Max brightness with regular SDR content is just 130 nits, while HDR only bumps it up to 400 nits. That means its potential is best realized in a darker room. But keep in mind that with its large size, 150 nits with SDR would've been acceptable, so the monitor is only a little bit short. But the AW5520QF's also expensive--even by OLED TV standards. And for better audio, consider the HP Omen X 65 Emperium below.

If you're looking for the best 4K gaming monitor for the PS5 and Xbox Series X, opt for something with HDMI 2.1, like the Gigabyte Aorus FV43U. With the AW5520QF's HDMI 2.0 port, you'll be limited to 60Hz.

If youre a couch gamer, you need a monitor thats fit for replacing your TV. With a 64.5-inch display, the HP Omen X 65 Emerpium is amply equipped to do just that. This juggernaut of a gaming monitor offers larger-than-life gaming. In testing, performance matched its high price tag with zero gaming hiccups and high frame rates at high settings.

HP also included some unique bonuses that make this monitor even more fitting for the living room. An included soundbar featuring four 4-inch woofers, two 1-inch tweeters and two passive radiators add to the feeling of immersion. The monitor also comes with Nvidia Shield Android-based streaming interface, which means gaming, TV and movie-streaming options are built right into your gaming display. A remote completes the living room package.

Whether you're shopping for one of the screens that made our list of best 4K gaming monitors above or something else, you may find savings by checking out our best monitor deals page, along with our lists of Dell coupon codes, Lenovo coupon codes, LG coupon codes, HP coupon codes, Monoprice coupon codes and Newegg promo codes.

Scharon Harding is a Senior Editor at Tom's Hardware. She has a special affinity for gaming peripherals (especially monitors), laptops and virtual reality. Previously, Scharon covered business technology, including hardware, software, cyber security, cloud and other IT happenings, at Channelnomics, with bylines at CRN UK.

spectrum: most advanced eye tracking platform | find out more

spectrum: most advanced eye tracking platform | find out more

Screen-based eye tracker capturing gaze data at speeds up to 1200 Hz. This high-performance research system provides superior data quality and is designed for extensive research into behavior and eye movements from fixation-based studies to micro-saccades.

The Tobii Pro Spectrum is our latest and most advanced eye tracking platform, designed for extensive studies into human behavior and the mechanics of the fastest eye movements. The system can capture data in high sampling frequency, while still allowing for natural head movement. This opens up new possibilities in fields like psychology, developmental studies, neuroscience, reading research, and ophthalmology.The Pro Spectrum is designed to ensure the highest data quality and reproducibility through evolving, patented eye tracking algorithms from Tobii, sophisticated hardware design, and premium hardware components.View the Specifications and Data Quality Test Report for Pro Spectrum

The Pro Spectrum provides exceptional flexibility, accommodating a wide array of research scenarios and study designs.This system can be used with the provided screen or with the eye tracker alone, enabling both on-screen and real-world stimuli, such as physical objects or people. Multiple sampling rate options accommodate everything from fixation-based research to studies with more intense requirements on data granularity and time-based measurements.The TTL port and precise timing enable seamless synchronization capabilities with external biometric data sources, providing a holistic view of behavior.

The Tobii Pro Spectrum is the best device in the market for our research. We want the equipment to have high resolution but also to be relatively simple to use. The Pro Spectrum is very flexible to multiple settings and can be used for different purposes.

This unique combination of capabilities allows researchers to deeply explore human behavior and cognitive processing, as well as the mechanics of the fastest eye movements (e.g. saccades, tremors, and micro-saccades), without interfering with the natural behavior of the subject.With its ability to track freely-moving subjects, the Pro Spectrum easily facilitates research with children and other participants who would otherwise need a chinrest to control their movement.

The Tobii Pro systems offer an unobtrusive means to collect data which ensures a more comfortable experience for our participants. The data is extremely rich and often provides insights into cognitive processes that cannot be attained from standard behavioral responses such as reaction time and choice.

The Pro Spectrum's simple setup, configuration, and automation allow you to add advanced eye tracking to your research with little effort. Researchers at all levels of expertise can use the system without needing extensive training.The eye tracker comes fully assembled in the supplied travel case and doesn't require manual configuration with the setup of cameras, lenses, etc. Researchers can rely on quick, stable calibration of subjects and productively track the subjects they have attained for their study.

It is essential that eye trackers can tolerate head movement while providing high level eye tracking capacity to enable tasks that better reflect real-world scenarios. Fast processing eye tracking with freedom of head movement opens up new opportunities for innovative mental health research.

The Pro Spectrum's high data quality has been confirmed through extensive testing. We use well-documented test methods that span from systematic variations of the environmental conditions to a general assessment of the eye tracker performance with a large population of individuals.

Consistent reproducibility in studies is guaranteed with quality control procedures throughout the entire production process, including camera focus and the calibration of each unit. Multiple product certifications ensure that quality and user safety requirements are met.

The Tobii Pro SDK provides a comprehensive toolkit for researchers and partners who wish to develop analytical applications or scripts to use with the Pro Spectrum and other screen-based eye trackers from Tobii Pro.This SDK gives access to the full set of advanced gaze data streams that are relevant to your research, and advanced timing support automatically compensates for time differences in real time, providing millisecond synchronization accuracy.The Pro SDK offers multi-platform support (including the latest versions of Windows, Linux, and Mac) and API bindings for several programming languages (.NET, Python, and Matlab).

I recommend the Tobii Pro SDK highly for anyone who wants to develop custom applications for eye trackers from Tobii Pro. In less than 10 hours of work, I was able to create a fully-functioning and flexible python script that does essentially everything I would want done with an eye tracker.

The eye tracker unit can be used together with the provided monitor, or it can be used alone with other screens or real-world stimuli.This unit, without the monitor, measures 55 cm x 18 cm x 6 cm (22" x 7" x 2"). The eye tracker is mounted on a stand, which raises it from the surface with 9 cm (approx. 4").

The removable high-resolution 24" monitor accommodates the display of on-screen stimuli and has been carefully selected from a high-quality display manufacturer to meet the highest demands on stimuli presentation. A low and stable response time of less than five milliseconds makes it suitable for studies where control of the timing of the stimuli presentation is essential. The IPS panel has a 178-degree viewing angle, which ensures a consistent experience of the stimulus presented, independent of where the subject is positioned.We recommend using this monitor, but optionally other monitors can be used too.

Video-based pupil- and corneal reflection eye tracking with dark and bright pupil illumination modes.Two cameras capture stereo images of both eyes for robust accurate measurement of eye gaze and eye position in 3D space, as well as pupil diameter.

1Tobii Pro uses an extensive test method to measure and report performance and quality of data. Please download the Data quality test report for more detailed information. 2Applying Savitzky-Golay filtering (settings in Tobii Pro Data quality test report) 3For the complete list of available data and the supplementary data stream, download the Pro SDK documentation. Tobii Pro Spectrum Eye Tracker Data Quality Test Report

4Describes the region in space where the participant can move his/her head and still have at least one eye within the eye trackers field of view (trackbox) at the specific distance. 5Tracker mounted on stand, allows for even larger screens and physical objects to be tracked.

Researchers are seeking to find meaningful analysis of eye movement information to accurately identify and treat ocular disease and disorders such as autism, ADHD, Parkinsons disease and more. Read more

guided ultrasonics technology you can trust | guided ultrasonics, guided wave inspection specialists

guided ultrasonics technology you can trust | guided ultrasonics, guided wave inspection specialists

This fully loaded instrument is capable of working with all of the pipe and tube transduction systems produced by GUL. It is suitable both the the lower frequencies that are used for buried and coated pipes and the higher frequencies that are used sith HD rings for support inspection and higher sensitivity to pitting. With one button press, the instrument can be placed into gPIMS Collector mode to allow a minimally trained operator to collect repeat data from a permanently installed gPIMS sensor.

This fully loaded instrument is capable of working with all of the pipe and tube transduction systems produced by GUL. It is suitable both the the lower frequencies that are used for buried and coated pipes and the higher frequencies that are used sith HD rings for support inspection and higher sensitivity to pitting. With one button press, the instrument can be placed into gPIMS Collector mode to allow a minimally trained operator to collect repeat data from a permanently installed gPIMS sensor.

The G4mini Base is compatible with the default 'Solid', 'Compact', 'EFC', and 'High Temperature' rings that are normally used for screening uncoated above ground pipes to detect areas of corrosion.

The G4mini Base is compatible with the default 'Solid', 'Compact', 'EFC', and 'High Temperature' rings that are normally used for screening uncoated above ground pipes to detect areas of corrosion.

Related Equipments