high quality copper mine high frequency screen sell at a loss in livingstone

pasco scientific | science lab equipment and teacher resources

pasco scientific | science lab equipment and teacher resources

Our award-winning, hands-on science tools and datalogging solutions connect your students directly to science and STEM concepts with classroom technology such as sensors, interfaces, and data collection and analysis software. We also design and manufacture high quality lab equipment for physics and engineering and offer curriculum solutions (textbooks, e-books, and integrated lab technology) for physics, chemistry, biology, environmental science, and K-8 Science.

Essential Physics and Essential Chemistry were developed by our team of educators, scientists, and curriculum developers to provide students with modernized textbooks that educators can afford. Both programs include a student textbook, e-book, digital teacher resources, lab manuals, and equipment kits.

As schools across the U.S. chart their pathways forward, an influx of funding is providing a rare opportunity for schools to transform the educational experiences of our nations most vulnerable students.

Physics educator, Alan Bates, shared his take on conservation of momentum, combining a PASCO Smart Cart and an Arduino Microcontroller to create a mobile rubber band launcher that takes conservation of momentum experiments to the next level.

February 11th is International Women and Girls in Science Day! Weve made strides to ensure women are included in science, but there is still work to be done when it comes to ensuring they can thrive at higher levels.

Students use a spectrometer, fiber optics cable, a hydrogen gas spectrum lamp, and the sun to compare emission and absorption lines, study atomic structure, associate light energy and wavelength with electron...

What began as a science fair project has become a trusted source for high quality school laboratory equipment in the United States and around the globe. We carry lab supplies for your physics classroom and chemistry lab, as well as supplies for biology, life science, engineering, and environmental science. Request a catalog!

For the educational physics lab we invented carts and tracks, which are now standard teaching tools used worldwide. Our technology leadership continues with the award-winning Smart Cart, which removes the wires while providing new ways to study kinematics on and off the track. We also carry just about all laboratory supplies, from rods, clamps, and Ohaus balances to mass and hanger sets and laboratory glassware. See our full offering of lab supplies.

For the chemistry lab we have the equipment you need: test tubes, ring stands, pH meters, digital microscopes, and much more. We also have test kits for environmental sciences and science kits for electricity, waves, machines, and more.

the best coaxial cable for your hd tv set up - bob vila

the best coaxial cable for your hd tv set up - bob vila

Even if you have a 4K TV, you need the right coaxial cable to get the best performance. A coaxial cable carries the signal from a satellite, antenna, or cable line to a TV. The wrong coaxial cable can weaken your signal. Without a good signal, you may get an inferior image and those frustrating lags while streaming a show.

A coaxial cable is a copper conductor wire surrounded by layers of insulation that protect the line from being disrupted by surrounding radio frequencies and electromagnetic interference. Electrical signal flows through the conductor, carrying video and data to a TV.

There are three types of coaxial cables: RG59, RG6, and RG11. While RG6 is the most widely used coaxial cable, RG11 and the lower end RG59 are also useful for specific connections. Here are the basics on each type:

A CL rating indicates what devices the coaxial cable can safely wire. While coaxial cables dont present the same fire hazard as a TVs power cables, it is important to consider their CL ratings. Most coaxial cables have a rating of CL2 or CL3. Cables rated CL2 are suitable for installation inside walls and can withstand power surges up to 150 volts without melting or shorting. CL3 is similar to CL2, but can handle surges up to 300 volts.

Coaxial cables are designed to have operating frequencies that minimize signal loss. The higher the signals frequency, the shorter its wavelength and the more likely it is to escape through the cables shields. Most coaxial cables have an operating frequency between 600 and 2,000 megahertz (MHz.) Higher quality R6 and R11 cables, which have more insulation, operate near 600 MHz, while lower quality R59 cables, which have thinner insulation, operate near 2,000 MHz. R6 and R11 cables perform better at longer runs than R59 cables.

Attenuation is the loss of signal strength that happens when a signal from a cable line or antenna travels along a coaxial cable. Attenuation is caused by a range of natural factors inherent to the coaxial cables materials, like resistance and dielectric loss. The longer the coaxial cable, the greater the loss, because the farther a signal must travel, the more strength it will lose.

Another factor affecting signal attenuation: frequency. The higher the frequency the coaxial cable operates on, the greater the signal attenuation. This is why RG59, which operates at a frequency near 2,000 MHz, is lower quality than RG6, which operates at 600 MHz. A 50-foot coaxial cable with an operating frequency of 1,000 MHz will have less attenuation than a 50-foot coaxial cable operating at 1,500 MHz.

Coaxial cable can connect an external TV antenna to the TV. It also connects high-speed internet from a modem to a cable line, allowing the user to stream content from the web (like Netflix) onto a TV screen. You can run coaxial cable through a homes walls to allow cable and antenna connections in different rooms. Outside the house, coaxial cable can connect the main cable line in the neighborhood to individual homes.

Coaxial cable splitters take a single cable line and separate it into two separate lines. In one side of a small box, a coaxial cable input connects a coaxial cable running from the signal source, such as an antenna, satellite, or cable TV line. The other side of the box includes two or more cable outputs, which send the signal to multiple devices, such as a TV or modem.

With triple shielding and a solid copper inner conductor, this coaxial cable from Mediabridge is one of the best options for maximizing the performance of an HDTV. This cable has three layers of insulationtwo aluminum foil shield layers and a braided aluminum shieldgiving added protection from electromagnetic interference that can reduce signal quality. Many cables have just two layers of insulation.

With its R6 rating, its well suited for connecting to a satellite or cable TV connection. Its CL2 rated, meaning its safe for running inside walls. With a PVC outer covering, this cable is also suitable for outdoor use. Convenient grip caps make installing the F connectors easy, eliminating the need for a pair of pliers to make a tight connection.

With its CL-3 rating and triple shielding, this cable is suitable for a variety of purposes, including connections for cable and satellite TV, modems, routers, and external TV antennas. This cable can safely carry up to 300 volts of current, making it safe for installation inside walls. High-quality gold plated connectors minimize interference and connect securely. This cable is also rust and corrosion resistant, so its suitable for outdoor use.

Triple shielding around the conductor helps minimize electromagnetic interference over longer runs. This cable comes in lengths ranging from 3 feet to 50 feet. It also features a white outer coating, making it a good choice for installations in which the cable must run along the exterior of a wall.

This budget option from Amazon Basics doesnt skimp on quality, making it a worthy choice for HDTVs. This R6 cable provides excellent signal strength for satellite, cable, and antennas, even over longer runs. With three layers of aluminum shielding and a solid-core copper conductor, this cable has excellent resistance to electromagnetic interference, so its a solid choice for longer runs of up to 25 feet.

Grip caps make attaching the connectors easy and tool-free. A CL-2 rating means this cable is suitable for in-wall use in most cities. Amazon Basics coaxial cable comes in 4-foot, 8-foot, and 25-foot lengths.

This R59 coaxial cable is thinner than standard coaxial cable, allowing it to be easily hidden in nooks and crannies between carpeting and baseboards. C2Gs cable is also more flexible than R6 coax, making it a good pick for connecting modems in tight spaces. Although this cable lacks an R6 rating, limiting its range, the cord still provides plenty of high-speed performance, thanks to a braided shield and gold-plated connectors that protect against interference.

With its lighter design, its a good pick for shorter runs from the wall to the modem. With a molded jacket that covers the intersection of the cable and the connectors, this cable is strong enough to handle the bends that come with using them in a tight spot. This cable is available in six lengths, ranging from 3 feet to 50 feet.

Eliminating outside interference is key to getting the best signal possible to support a 4K TV. With its quad shielding, Posttas coaxial cable has some of the most comprehensive protection against electromagnetic interference. Its four insulation layers include aluminum foil and braid shielding to deflect both electromagnetic interference and radio waves.

This RG6 has a solid copper conductor for excellent signal transfer and nickel-plated connectors that provide an optimal connection between the cable and connectors. A PVC outer layer makes this cable suitable for indoor or outdoor use. A reinforced cap prevents the wire from separating from the connector, even when under stress. This coaxial cable is suited for short or long runs and comes in lengths ranging from 4 feet to 75 feet.

With its durable design and heavy insulation, PHAT SATELLITEs RG6 coaxial cable is well suited for long runs outdoors, like connecting a TV antenna to a TV. To reduce interference from electromagnetic and radio frequencies over long runs, it uses two shields: a foil one that provides total coverage and a braided shield that provides 60 percent coverage. Theres also a separate copper grounding wire to protect the TV against lightning strikes.

A solid copper conductor provides excellent signal transfer for those long runs from the antenna to the TV. All-brass connectors with rubber o-rings create a secure connection thats watertight and corrosion resistant. This coaxial cable is also available in lengths up to 200 feet, making it ideal for connecting a roof antenna to a first-floor TV.

High-quality construction and an affordable price make this a great pick for splitting a cable signal. This model will split a signal from an antenna, cable TV line, or satellite TV line to two devices. Gold-plated connectors provide optimal connections, reducing signal loss from the signal split while resisting rust and corrosion.

This connector is compatible with both R56 and R6 cable. At just 2 inches by 2 inches, its small size allows for inconspicuous cable splitting. Mounting brackets on the side of the splitter enable easy wall mounting for a cleaner installation.

Longer runs of cable across lawns require a cable that can carry a signal a long way while resisting interference. With a thicker size and ample shielding, this RG11 cable is a good pick for the job. It features a solid-core copper conductor insulated with a braided shield that provides 77 percent protection and two foil shields with 100 percent protection. A thick PVC jacket and heavy-duty connectors can stand up to the elements and are suitable for burying in the ground.

The ability to maintain signal quality over long distances makes this cable good for HD digital cable, high-speed internet, satellite TV, and outdoor TV antennas. PHAT SATELLITEs RG11 Cable cable comes in 50-foot rolls.

Yes. The length will weaken signal strength. A 50-foot cable will experience a noticeable signal loss, while a 100-foot cable can lose as much as a third of its signal. To offset the loss, choose a coaxial cable with more insulation. An RG11 cable with more insulation can reduce signal loss over distances of 50 feet or more.

Select a coaxial cable that best meets your set up. Most RG6 coaxial cable is suitable for sending a quality signal from source to device. If the run between the signal source and the TV is longer than 50 feet, consider using an RG11 cable. If you live in a densely populated area, consider using a coaxial cable with quad shielding to protect your signal from the surrounding interference.

Disclosure: BobVila.com participates in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for publishers to earn fees by linking to Amazon.com and affiliated sites.

art.com | wall art, framed prints, canvas paintings & decorative artwork for sale online

art.com | wall art, framed prints, canvas paintings & decorative artwork for sale online

PromoURL:/gallery/id--d207238/canvas.htm###PromoID:3645412451112527###Brand:ART###Zone:ART US###Channel:SITEWIDE###Sub-channel:###AID:NULL###Coupon:NULL###Offer:40% off Everything###MSG:40% OFF EVERYTHING###CMS:banner-todayonly

a fast fabrication of copper nanowire transparent conductive electrodes by using pulsed laser irradiation | scientific reports

a fast fabrication of copper nanowire transparent conductive electrodes by using pulsed laser irradiation | scientific reports

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Copper nanowires have shown promise for use in next-generation conducting materials for transparent electrodes owing to their low sheet resistance, natural abundance, and high transmittance properties. Additionally, copper nanowires can be easily synthesized via low-cost solution-based processes. However, copper requires a uniform film to coat the nanowires on the substrate and removing film former residue in the post-treatment process remains a challenge. This lead to the high cost and complexity of fabricating transparent electrode. In this study, we demonstrate a simple, time-saving production method using a combination of laser irradiation and acid dipping to fabricate high-quality copper nanowire transparent electrodes. Preparation of electrodes was achieved by scanning pulsed laser on a copper nanowire film and then dipping in glacial acetic acid. The electrode exhibited excellent properties and the film former was totally erased from the electrode surface. Moreover, to demonstrate their capability, the as-fabricated electrodes were applied in touch-sensor fabrication.

In recent years, the demand for touchscreens has increased rapidly, from large flat panels for televisions and laptops to small devices such as smartphones, smartwatches, and navigation devices. Currently in the touchscreen industry, indium tin oxide (ITO) films coated on glass hold the major market share for transparent conducting electrode (TCE) materials. However, ITO has some inherent drawbacks, such as the unstable supply of indium, the substantial material wastage in the coating process (only 30% ITO is deposited onto the substrate), and its brittle nature1,2,3,4,5,6. Hence, various types of transparent electrodes based on nanoscale materials have been developed to overcome these shortcomings7,8,9,10,11. Currently, copper nanowires (Cu NWs) have attracted the most attention for use in TCEs because Cu has high electrical conductivity, low cost, and stable global supply12,13,14,15. In addition, the synthesis and material deposition of the Cu NWs on the film are well-known solution processes that are not only time saving (up to 1000 times faster than ITO sputtering), but also cost effective. In 2005, Yu et al. reported that high-quality ultra-long copper nanowires can be synthesized at a large scale with a facile aqueous reduction route at low temperatures16. Later, Wiley et al. developed a nitrocellulose-based ink to optimize the Meyer rod coating of Cu NWs. Although the studies showed the remarkable performance of Cu NW thin films, toxic chemicals and expensive, complex post treatments were used as part of the synthesis process17,18. Recently, we reported the fabrication of Cu NW electrodes using Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-based ink as a simple, low cost, and green synthesis method. The Cu NWs were coated onto substrates and were placed in an oven at 105C for 3060min and then immersed in acetic acid for 17.5min to remove any chemical residue and the film former in a simple and effective process17,19. In these studies, the post-treatment is time consuming and energy intensive. More importantly, the ink is not totally removed from the final products, and many nanowires remain embedded in the PVP-based ink. Therefore, the wire-wire connections are limited, and consequently, the sheet resistance of the Cu NW network is extremely high. In addition, in the fabrication of touchscreens or solar cells, the contact area between the Cu NW layer and the other coating layer is highly reduced. Hence, the efficiency of the electrode drops, making this method unsuitable for commercial manufacturing. Many attempts have been made to reduce the junction resistance using different fabrication techniques such as mechanical pressing20,21, thermal annealing22, and optothermal heating23.

Recently, it has been found that laser irradiation can be used to modify the nanowire structure by plasmonic welding at the junctions, resulting in increased electrical conductivity12,23. However, in these studies, the metal nanowires treated by these processes were distributed on the substrates without any adhesive agents. In the coating method, the film former must be used to facilitate an even distribution of Cu NWs on the substrate. The synthesized nanowires usually coalesce together with the film former, so it is difficult to fuse the wires owing to inhibition of the contact between the individual nanowires.

In this study, a novel combined post-treatment using laser irradiation and acid dipping was developed to decrease the fabrication time of Cu NW-containing transparent electrodes. First, the Cu NWs were dispersed in PVP-based ink and then coated on a substrate by a Meyer rod. Next, the coated Cu NW film was irradiated by a pulse laser to weld the nanowire junctions and to partially remove the film former. After that, to guarantee that the Cu NW network was free from unwanted chemicals, the film was dipped in acetic acid for 1min. The prepared Cu NW-based electrodes displayed excellent performance. Furthermore, to demonstrate the performance and practical use of the as-fabricated electrodes, a simple capacitive touch screen panel was built using laser patterning.

Owing to its simplicity and speed, the Ethylenediamine (EDA)-mediated method developed by Duong et al. was used to synthesize the Cu NWs17. The length and diameter of the as-synthesized Cu NWs were measured via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images (see Supplementary Fig.S1). The average diameter and length of the as-synthesized Cu NWs were approximately 150nm and 53 m, respectively. Furthermore, XRD analysis showed that CuO and Cu2O were not formed during the synthesis, as shown in Supplementary Fig.S2.

Cu NWs in a PVP-based ink were coated onto glass substrates (7.52.5cm) using Meyer rod coating. As shown in Supplementary Fig.S1, the Cu NWs distributed evenly on the substrate surface. After coating on the glass substrates, the Cu NWs were covered by residual synthesis chemicals and PVP-based ink, resulting in a non-conductive film. If the acid treatment is used directly, the Cu NWs will be washed away immediately when removed from the acid solution. In the report by Willy et al., a solution to this problem was developed based on placing the coated Cu NW film on a hot plate and quick dipping in acetic acid. In a major advance in 2016, Duong et al. found that the Cu NWs moved downward and settled on the bottom of the PVP layer after heating in an oven for 1h. Herein, we discovered that after irradiation by the pulse laser, the Cu NW electrodes could be dipped in glacial acetic acid for a long time without any network deformation, as illustrated in Fig.1. The laser irradiation enhanced the nanowire contacts even for the Cu NWs buried in the PVP-based ink. Normally, the wire-wire contacts are established with local nanowelding because the plasmonic heating effect can be significantly augmented at the junction of metallic nanowires12. The fusing of the two nanowires at the intersection can be clearly seen in the SEM image shown in Fig.2(a). Figure2(b) and (c) compare the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of Cu NW before and after laser irradiation. Similar to the SEM image, the TEM analysis proves that the nanowelding was established at the cross of Cu NWs together. There are two main advantages of this laser irradiation process. First, because the wires were connected through nanowelding at the intersections, the conductivity of the electrode was improved remarkably. Second, nanowelding linked all the nanowires to create a solid network. Hence, the mechanical durability of the nanowire network was improved significantly, which prevented the loss of Cu NWs from washing with acetic acid (Fig.3(a,b)). In addition, the thermal effect of laser irradiation can burn the film former covering the wires (Fig.4(b,c)), which speeds up the removal of the film former by acid treatment.

(a) The SEM image of the nanowelding by laser irradiation at the junction of two nanowires, the TEM images of (b) Cu NWs crossing before laser irradiation and (c) a fused Cu NWs junction after laser irradiation.

The effect of acetic acid treatment on the Copper nanowires. The transparent electrodes after (a) direct immersion in acid and (b) laser irradiation and subsequent immersion in acid. The cross-section of the (c) as-coated Cu NWs and (d) Cu NWs after acid dipping. (e) The sheet resistance of Cu NWs films with various dipping duration.

To understand the behavior of the Cu NW network formed with the laser treatment, the as-synthesized Cu NWs were dispersed in a PVP-based ink to create a coating solution with a concentration of 20.9mg/mL and were then coated using a Meyer rod bar. Next, the coated film was irradiated by a pulse laser. A range of pulse energies from 4 J to 20 J as well as the on/off (z=3.5 mm) focal plane of the laser beam were investigated. After the coating process, the Cu NWs were embedded in the PVP-based ink, which is a transparent material, and the Cu NWs, which have a reddish color, can be seen in Figs3(c) and 4(a). In case of focusing on the electrode surface, even with the minimum pulse energy, Cu NWs were ablated. The Cu NWs remained and turned to a darker color after being irradiated with defocusing at distance z=3.5 mm from the focal plane and 4 J of pulse energy (Fig.4(b)). Under the incident laser beam, only the nanowires were heated owing to the optical absorption properties of copper24. During rapid pulse laser heating on a nanosecond time scale, the Cu NWs absorbed the electromagnetic energy, and the nanowire temperature quickly increased, followed by heat diffusion from the wires to the surrounding ink12,25. As a result, the PVP-based ink around the Cu NWs melted and burned, and its color turned very dark. When the laser power was increased, the irradiated area expanded because of the lengthened Gaussian distribution of the laser beam. When the power of laser source rose above 12 J, the Cu NWs in the center of the laser beam were vaporized. This explains the brighter color of the center of the scanned line in Fig.4(e).

Next, to optimize the laser power in the irradiation process, five Cu NW coating solutions with different concentrations were prepared and each was coated with ink on five glass substrates using a Meyer rod. These samples were irradiated under a range of pulse powers from 4 to 20 J and then their sheet resistances and transparencies were measured. As shown in Fig.5, after laser irradiation, all the Cu NWs coated on the glass substrates were conductive, proving that the wires were connected over the entire film. However, at 4 J, because the laser beam energy was too low to fuse the nanowire junctions completely, the conductivity of those electrodes was lower. When the pulse energy increased, the sheet resistance decreased significantly. All Cu NW films obtained the lowest sheet resistance at 12 J of laser pulse power. Above that energy level, the sheet resistance rose quickly, owing to the vaporization of the Cu NWs. The optical images shown that the coverage area of Cu NWs irradiated at 12 J of laser power is equivalent to the as coated Cu NWs. However, in case of the Cu NWs irradiated at 20 J of laser power (see Supplementary Fig.S3), it can be clearly seen that the nanowires concentration was decreased dramatically, which leads to reducing of the number of nanowire junction. As shown in Fig.5, the sheet resistance declined from 58 /sq to 34 /sq for the sample with 81.2% transparency and from 390 /sq to 199 /sq for the sample with 87.3% transparency. Meanwhile, when the Cu NW films fabricated with higher Cu NW concentration was irradiated, there were more contact points, resulting in a lower sheet resistance and lower transparency. In addition, the transparency of TCEs was affected by laser scanning. As stated above, the burned film former causes a 1015% decrease in electrode transmittance after the irradiation process. Based on the above results, to achieve the highest conductivity, the laser power was kept at 12 J during further experimentation.

Moreover, optimization of the dipping time was performed for the acid dipping process. A total of six Cu NW electrodes were prepared with different transparencies and irradiated by the laser beam for 4ns, at a 120kHz frequency, with 12 J of pulse power. The electrodes were immersed in glacial acetic acid for 10 to 600s and then dried in air. It can be seen from Fig.3(e) that the sheet resistance of electrode was reduced after dipping in glacial acetic acid. The lowest sheet resistances were obtained when the immersing time was longer than 1min. Similarly, the transmittance values of the dipped films were significantly increased as the dipping time was raised up to a maximum at 60s. Figure3(c,d) show the SEM micrographs of the Cu NWs before and after acid dipping for 1min. These images show that the PVP-based ink was entirely removed from the Cu NWs and substrates. Therefore, we determined that the optimum dipping time was 60s. While the post-treatment technique of Stewart et al. takes 15min and requires N2 gas and an oven19, and the Duong et al. method takes 76min and requires an oven, our novel approach can treat a 5 mm2.5 mm electrode in 15min under ambient conditions. More importantly, the film former was entirely removed.

Next, to compare the performances of the oven heating and laser treatments, the Cu NWs synthesized with concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 18.7mg/mL were used to fabricate the TCEs. The relation between sheet resistance and specular transmittance of the prepared electrodes is shown in Fig.6. All the electrodes prepared by laser irradiation were superior to those fabricated by oven heating. For instance, at a specular transmittance of 85%, the laser irradiation electrode exhibited a sheet resistance of 60 /sq while that of oven heating electrode was 70 /sq. These results suggest that the combined laser illumination and acid treatment improves the quality of the prepared TCEs.

Additionally, to determine the oxidation rate of fabricated Cu NW electrodes, four Cu NW transparent electrodes with different transparencies were fabricated using different concentrations of coating solution. The conductivity was examined daily, and after five days, the sheet resistances of all 4 samples increased to nearly 3 times the original value (Fig.7). By the support of laser illumination process, the PVP-based ink was totally removed and only Cu NWs remained on the substrate surface after acid treatment. Hence, the nanowires were easily oxidized due to the direct contact to the oxygen in the air.

To exhibit the applicability of our TCEs, a touch sensor was made from the as-fabricated electrodes. First, two Cu NW transparent electrodes (25 /sq of sheet resistance and 81.2% specular transmittance at 550nm) were fabricated. Then the conductors were patterned with diamond shapes by maintaining the optimized laser parameters from the irradiation process and changing the focus point from defocused to on-focused. The total time required for the ablation was less than 1min. After that, the electrodes were sandwiched with a 125m Polyethylene terephthalate film as a dielectric film and connected to a flash microcontroller (ATSAMD20J18, Atmel). As illustrated in Fig.8, through the testing module, the sensor can detect the finger approaching the surface of the patterned conductors.

It can be concluded that a highly conductive and transparent copper nanowire film was produced via the combined post-treatment of laser irradiation and acid dipping. This method only took 15min to treat the Cu NW transparent electrodes under ambient conditions and completely removed the film former on the substrate. By creating nanowelds at the wire-wire junctions, which was previously difficult to achieve owing to the embedding of the Cu NWs in the film former, the overall resistivity of the TCEs was reduced and the deformation of the network after dipping in acid was suppressed. Furthermore, the laser pulse energy as well as the dipping duration were optimized to obtain maximum performance. Finally, a touch sensor was fabricated using the prepared materials to confirm the potential of our approach in the touch screen industry.

Potassium hydroxide (KOH, 65974400), acetic acid (10024400), isopropyl alcohol (IPA, 50354400), and copper chloride (CuCl2) were purchased from Daejung Chemical & Metal (South Korea), Ethylenediamine (EDA, E1521), 35 wt.% hydrazine (N2H4) in water, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, MW=90000) were procured from Sigma-Aldrich (USA). Copper (II) chloride dihydrate (CuCl2.2H2O) was purchased from Junsei (Japan).

KOH (40mL, 15M), CuCl2 (2mL, 0.1M), and EDA (266L) were added to a reaction flask and heated to 60C and stirred at 700rpm for 3min. Next, N2H4 (35wt%, 21L) was added to the mixture. After 2min, the growth solution was stored at room temperature for 15min without stirring. Later, a Cu NW disk formed and floated to the top of the solution. It was then transferred to a 50-mL tube for washing 3 times with 10mL deionized water and centrifugation at 2000 rpm for 5min.

To prepare the coating ink, 2.5g of PVP-K90 was dissolved in 97.5g of IPA. The as-synthesized Cu NWs in 1mL of IPA solution were then transferred to a 1.5mL tube. Next, the nanowires were dispensed in IPA by vortex for 30s to create a homogeneous solution, then centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 5min to remove IPA. Lastly, depending on the desired concentration, the required amount of 2.5 wt.% PVP-k90 in IPA (from 0.6 to 1.2mL) was pipetted into the copper nanowire tube to prepare the final coating solution (concentration from 12.5 to 18.7mg/mL).

The prepared Cu NWs were mixed with a PVP-based ink and dispersed randomly on a glass substrate by Meyer rod coating (30.8 m of wet thickness) to form a percolation network. After drying in air, the Cu NW network was scanned by a 1064nm ytterbium pulsed fiber laser. The laser had an f-theta lens with f=100 mm. The two electrically driven galvanometer mirrors inside the scan head (SCANcube 10 ID# 116028) changed the laser direction, and adjusted the scanning speed and moving direction. The controllable Z-axis of a CNC stage enabled us to obtain an accurate focal point of the laser pulse focused or defocused on the nanowire network. Table1 gives the scanning parameters used for the laser irradiation and ablation steps. The pulse frequency was controlled at 120kHz to generate overlapped scanning. The laser pulse energy was varied from 4 J to 20 J to find the optimum value for the irradiation and ablation processes.

The synthesized Cu NWs were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, Hitachi S-4800), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the Cu NWs was measured in the range of 2=2080 by step scanning on the Rigaku D/MAX-2500 diffractometer (Rigaku Co., Japan). The T60 UV-visible spectrophotometer and the NI cDAQ 9178 were used to measure the optical transmittance and the sheet resistance of the Cu NW electrode, respectively.

Rathmell, A. R., Bergin, S. M., Hua, Y. L., Li, Z. Y. & Wiley, B. J. The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films. Adv. Mater. 22, 35583563 (2010).

Chen, J. J. et al. Solution-processed copper nanowire flexible transparent electrodes with PEDOT:PSS as binder, protector and oxide-layer scavenger for polymer solar cells. Nano Res. 8, 10171025 (2015).

Prokes, S. M., Alexson, D. A., Glembocki, O. J., Park, H. D. & Rendell, R. W. Effect of crossing geometry on the plasmonic behavior of dielectric core/metal sheath nanowires. Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 14 (2009).

This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education and MSIP(Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning) (2017R1D1A1B03029074, 2017R1C1B5014970).

Nguyen-Hung Tran and Thanh-Hung Duong conceived of the presented idea and prepared material for experiment. Hyun-Chul Kim supervised the findings of this work. All authors discussed the results and contributed to the final manuscript.

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the articles Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the articles Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Tran, NH., Duong, TH. & Kim, HC. A fast fabrication of copper nanowire transparent conductive electrodes by using pulsed laser irradiation. Sci Rep 7, 15093 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15559-3

Related Equipments