history of gyratory crusher

rock crusher history

rock crusher history

History tells us,it was in 1830, the firstUS patent was issued on a rock crushing machine. It covered a device which, in a crude way, incorporated the drop hammer principle later used in the famous stamp mill, whose history is so intimately linked with that of the golden age of mining. In 1840,another patent was issued, which comprised a wooden box containing a cylindrical drum apparently of wood also on which a number of iron knobs, or hammers, were fastened; the expectation was that this drum, when revolved at about 350 RPM, would shatter the rock fed into the top of the box. This device, although it was conceived as an impact crusher and thus would rate as a forerunner of the hammermill, bore a somewhat closer resemblance to the single sledging-roll crusher. There is no evidence that either of these early inventors carried their work through to fruition. Eli Whitney Blake invented the first successful mechanical rock breaker, the Blake jaw crusher patented in 1858. Blake adopted a mechanical principle familiar to all students of mechanics, the powerful toggle linkage. That his idea was good is attested to by the fact that the Blake type jaw crusher is today the standard by which all jaw crushers are judged, and the leading machine of the class for heavy duty primary crushing service.

The gyratory principle was the basis of several rudimentary designs, patented between 1860 and 1878, noneof which embodied practical mechanical details at least, not in the light of our present-day knowledge of the art. Then, in 1881, Philetus W. Gates was granted a patent on a machine which included in its design all of the essential features of the modern gyratory crusher. The first sale on record antedates the patent by several months, a No. 2 crusher, sold to the Buffalo Cement Co. in 1880. That was the first of several thousand gyratory crushers which carried the name of Gates to the far corners of the earth. An interesting sidelight of these early days occurred in 1883 when a contest was staged between a Blake jaw crusher and a Gates gyratory crusher. Each machine was required to crush 9 cubic yard of stone, the feed-size anddischarge settings being similar. The Gates crusher finished its quota in 21 minutes, the Blake crusher in 65 minutes, which must have been a sad disappointment to the proponent of the Blake machine, who happened to be the challenger.

For some years after these pioneer machines were developed, requirements, viewed in the light of present practice, were very simple. Mining and quarrying, whether underground or open-pit, was done by hand; tonnages generally were small, and product specifications simple and liberal. In the milling of precious metal ores, stamp mills were popular as the final reduction machine. These were generally fed with an ore size that could be produced handily by one break through the small gyratory and jaw crushers which served as primary breakers. Even in large underground mining operations there was no demand for large crushers; increased tonnage requirements were met by duplicating the small units. For example, in 1915, at the huge Homestake operation, there were no less than 20 Gates small gyratory crushers sizes No. 5 and 6 to prepare the ore for the batteries of >2500 stamp mills.

Most commercial crushed stone plants were small, and demand for small product sizes practically non-existent. Many plants limited output to two or three products. Generally the top size was about 2.5 to 3 ring-size; an intermediate size of about 1.5 or thereabouts, might be made, and the dust, or screenings, removed through openings of about 0.25. In ballast plants the job was even more simple, one split and an oversize re-crush being all that was needed.

Many small process plants consisted of one crusher, either jaw or gyratory rock crushers, one elevator and one screen. Recrushing, if done, was taken care of by the same machine handling the primary break. The single crusher, when of the gyratory type, might be any size from the No. 2 (6 opening) to the No. 6 with 12-in. opening.

When demand grew beyond the capabilities of one crusher, it was generally a simple matter to add a second machine to take care of the recrushing or secondary crushing work. A popular combination, for example, consisted of a No. 6 primary and a No. 4 secondary, or possibly a 20- x 10-in., or 24- x 12-in. primary jaw, followed by one of the small gyratories. When the business outgrew the capacity of this sort of plant, it was not unusual to double up, either in the same building, or by erecting an entirely separate plant adjacent to the original one. Crusher manufacturers were not standing still during these early years. In the gyratory line, for example, the No. 2 was the first popular size, and larger machines were developed from time to time up to the No. 6, then the No. 7.5

The steam shovel began to change the entire picture of open-pit working. With the steam shovel came the really huge No. 8 crusher, with its 18 receiving opening. Up to this time the jaw crusher had kept pace with the gyratory, both from the standpoint of receiving opening and capacity, but now the gyratory stepped into the leading position, which it held for some 15 years. Once the ice was broken, larger and larger sizes of the gyratory type of crusher were developed rapidly, relegating the once huge No. 8 machine to the status of a secondary crusher. This turn toward really large primary crushers started just a few years before the turn of the century, and in 1910 crushers with 48 receiving openings were being built.Along about this time the jaw crusher suddenly came back to life and stepped out in front with a great contribution to the line of mammoth-size primary crushers: the 84 x 60 machine built by the now Joy Mining Machinery for a trap rock quarry in eastern Pennsylvania. This big crusher was followed by a No. 10 (24 opening) gyratory crusher for the secondary break. Interest created by this installation reawakened the industry to the possibilities of the jaw crusher as a primary breaker, and lines were brought up-to-date to parallel the already developed gyratory lines.

Although his machines never came into general use in the industry, Thomas A. Edison ranks as a pioneer in the development of the large primary breaker and credited with the announcement of a very interesting and constructive bit of reasoning, which was the basis of his development. Concerned at the time with the development of a deposit of lean magnetic iron ore where he was using a number of the small jaw crushers then available for his initial reduction. Realizing that to concentrate this ore at a cost to permit marketing it competitively meant cutting every possible corner, he studied the problem of mining and crushing the ore as one of the steps susceptible of improvement.

In approaching the problem, Edison reasoned that the recoverable energy in a pound of coal was approximately equal to the available energy in one pound of 50% dynamite; but the cost per pound of the dynamite was about 100 times that of the coal. Furthermore, a large part of the dynamite used in his mining operation was consumed in secondary breaking to reduce the ore to sizes that the small primary crushers would handle. The obvious conclusion was that it would be much cheaper to break the large pieces of ore by mechanical rather than by explosive energy.

With that thesis as a starting point, he set out to develop a large primary breaker, a development which culminated several years later in the huge and spectacular 8 x 7 Edison rolls. A description of the action of this machine will be found in a later section of this series. During the early years of the present century these giant machines created considerable interest, and several were installed in this country. However, they never became popular, and interest swung back to the more versatile gyratory and jaw types. Edison rolls were also developed in smaller sizes for use as secondary and reduction crushers. In his own cement plant Edison used four sets of rolls operating in series to reduce the quarry-run rock to a size suitable for grinding.

gyratory crusher - an overview | sciencedirect topics

gyratory crusher - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Gyratory crushers were invented by Charles Brown in 1877 and developed by Gates around 1881 and were referred to as a Gates crusher [1]. The smaller form is described as a cone crusher. The larger crushers are normally known as primary crushers as they are designed to receive run-on-mine (ROM) rocks directly from the mines. The gyratory crushers crush to reduce the size by a maximum of about one-tenth its size. Usually, metallurgical operations require greater size reduction; hence, the products from the primary crushers are conveyed to secondary or cone crushers where further reduction in size takes place. Here, the maximum reduction ratio is about 8:1. In some cases, installation of a tertiary crusher is required where the maximum reduction is about 10:1. The secondary crushers are also designed on the principle of gyratory crushing, but the construction details vary.

Similar to jaw crushers, the mechanism of size reduction in gyratory crushers is primarily by the compressive action of two pieces of steel against the rock. As the distance between the two plates decreases continuous size reduction takes place. Gyratory crushers tolerate a variety of shapes of feed particles, including slabby rock, which are not readily accepted in jaw crushers because of the shape of the feed opening.

The gyratory crusher shown in Figure 2.6 employs a crushing head, in the form of a truncated cone, mounted on a shaft, the upper end of which is held in a flexible bearing, whilst the lower end is driven eccentrically so as to describe a circle. The crushing action takes place round the whole of the cone and, since the maximum movement is at the bottom, the characteristics of the machine are similar to those of the Stag crusher. As the crusher is continuous in action, the fluctuations in the stresses are smaller than in jaw crushers and the power consumption is lower. This unit has a large capacity per unit area of grinding surface, particularly if it is used to produce a small size reduction. It does not, however, take such a large size of feed as a jaw crusher, although it gives a rather finer and more uniform product. Because the capital cost is high, the crusher is suitable only where large quantities of material are to be handled.

However, the gyratory crusher is sensitive to jamming if it is fed with a sticky or moist product loaded with fines. This inconvenience is less sensitive with a single-effect jaw crusher because mutual sliding of grinding surfaces promotes the release of a product that adheres to surfaces.

The profile of active surfaces could be curved and studied as a function of the product in a way to allow for work performed at a constant volume and, as a result, a higher reduction ratio that could reach 20. Inversely, at a given reduction ratio, effective streamlining could increase the capacity by 30%.

Maintenance of the wear components in both gyratory and cone crushers is one of the major operating costs. Wear monitoring is possible using a Faro Arm (Figure 6.10), which is a portable coordinate measurement machine. Ultrasonic profiling is also used. A more advanced system using a laser scanner tool to profile the mantle and concave produces a 3D image of the crushing chamber (Erikson, 2014). Some of the benefits of the liner profiling systems include: improved prediction of mantle and concave liner replacement; identifying asymmetric and high wear areas; measurement of open and closed side settings; and quantifying wear life with competing liner alloys.

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100mm. They are classified as jaw, gyratory, and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear, and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake. A Fritsch jaw crusher with maximal feed size 95mm, final fineness (depends on gap setting) 0.315mm, and maximal continuous throughput 250Kg/h is shown in Fig. 2.8.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes. Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor. Crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough to pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of the product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure, forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions. A design for a hammer crusher (Fig. 2.9) essentially allows a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, the circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A and B zones is established and the high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100 mm in size. They are classified as jaw, gyratory and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing of hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes.

Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor and crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around of the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions.

A design for a hammer crusher (Figure 2.6) allows essentially a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A- and B-zones is established and high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

Jaw crushers are mainly used as primary crushers to produce material that can be transported by belt conveyors to the next crushing stages. The crushing process takes place between a fixed jaw and a moving jaw. The moving jaw dies are mounted on a pitman that has a reciprocating motion. The jaw dies must be replaced regularly due to wear. Figure 8.1 shows two basic types of jaw crushers: single toggle and double toggle. In the single toggle jaw crusher, an eccentric shaft is installed on the top of the crusher. Shaft rotation causes, along with the toggle plate, a compressive action of the moving jaw. A double toggle crusher has, basically, two shafts and two toggle plates. The first shaft is a pivoting shaft on the top of the crusher, while the other is an eccentric shaft that drives both toggle plates. The moving jaw has a pure reciprocating motion toward the fixed jaw. The crushing force is doubled compared to single toggle crushers and it can crush very hard ores. The jaw crusher is reliable and robust and therefore quite popular in primary crushing plants. The capacity of jaw crushers is limited, so they are typically used for small or medium projects up to approximately 1600t/h. Vibrating screens are often placed ahead of the jaw crushers to remove undersize material, or scalp the feed, and thereby increase the capacity of the primary crushing operation.

Both cone and gyratory crushers, as shown in Figure 8.2, have an oscillating shaft. The material is crushed in a crushing cavity, between an external fixed element (bowl liner) and an internal moving element (mantle) mounted on the oscillating shaft assembly. An eccentric shaft rotated by a gear and pinion produces the oscillating movement of the main shaft. The eccentricity causes the cone head to oscillate between the open side setting (o.s.s.) and closed side setting (c.s.s.). In addition to c.s.s., eccentricity is one of the major factors that determine the capacity of gyratory and cone crushers. The fragmentation of the material results from the continuous compression that takes place between the mantle and bowl liners. An additional crushing effect occurs between the compressed particles, resulting in less wear of the liners. This is also called interparticle crushing. The gyratory crushers are equipped with a hydraulic setting adjustment system, which adjusts c.s.s. and thus affects product size distribution. Depending on cone type, the c.s.s. setting can be adjusted in two ways. The first way is by rotating the bowl against the threads so that the vertical position of the outer wear part (concave) is changed. One advantage of this adjustment type is that the liners wear more evenly. Another principle of setting adjustment is by lifting/lowering the main shaft. An advantage of this is that adjustment can be done continuously under load. To optimize operating costs and improve the product shape, as a rule of thumb, it is recommended that cones always be choke-fed, meaning that the cavity should be as full of rock material as possible. This can be easily achieved by using a stockpile or a silo to regulate the inevitable fluctuation of feed material flow. Level monitoring devices that detect the maximum and minimum levels of the material are used to start and stop the feed of material to the crusher as needed.

Primary gyratory crushers are used in the primary crushing stage. Compared to the cone type crusher, a gyratory crusher has a crushing chamber designed to accept feed material of a relatively large size in relation to the mantle diameter. The primary gyratory crusher offers high capacity thanks to its generously dimensioned circular discharge opening (which provides a much larger area than that of the jaw crusher) and the continuous operation principle (while the reciprocating motion of the jaw crusher produces a batch crushing action). The gyratory crusher has capacities starting from 1200 to above 5000t/h. To have a feed opening corresponding to that of a jaw crusher, the primary gyratory crusher must be much taller and heavier. Therefore, primary gyratories require quite a massive foundation.

The cone crusher is a modified gyratory crusher. The essential difference is that the shorter spindle of the cone crusher is not suspended, as in the gyratory, but is supported in a curved, universal bearing below the gyratory head or cone (Figure 8.2). Power is transmitted from the source to the countershaft to a V-belt or direct drive. The countershaft has a bevel pinion pressed and keyed to it and drives the gear on the eccentric assembly. The eccentric assembly has a tapered, offset bore and provides the means whereby the head and main shaft follow an eccentric path during each cycle of rotation. Cone crushers are used for intermediate and fine crushing after primary crushing. The key factor for the performance of a cone type secondary crusher is the profile of the crushing chamber or cavity. Therefore, there is normally a range of standard cavities available for each crusher, to allow selection of the appropriate cavity for the feed material in question.

Depending on the size of the debris, it may either be ready to enter the recycling process or need to be broken down to obtain a product with workable particle sizes, in which case hydraulic breakers mounted on tracked or wheeled excavators are used. In either case, manual sorting of large pieces of steel, wood, plastics and paper may be required, to minimise the degree of contamination of the final product.

The three types of crushers most commonly used for crushing CDW materials are the jaw crusher, the impact crusher and the gyratory crusher (Figure 4.4). A jaw crusher consists of two plates, with one oscillating back and forth against the other at a fixed angle (Figure 4.4(a)) and it is the most widely used in primary crushing stages (Behera etal., 2014). The jaw crusher can withstand large and hard-to-break pieces of reinforced concrete, which would probably cause the other crushing machines to break down. Therefore, the material is initially reduced in jaw crushers before going through any other crushing operation. The particle size reduction depends on the maximum and minimum size of the gap at the plates (Hansen, 2004).

An impact crusher breaks the CDW materials by striking them with a high-speed rotating impact, which imparts a shearing force on the debris (Figure 4.4(b)). Upon reaching the rotor, the debris is caught by steel teeth or hard blades attached to the rotor. These hurl the materials against the breaker plate, smashing them into smaller particle sizes. Impact crushers provide better grain-size distribution of RA for road construction purposes, and they are less sensitive to material that cannot be crushed, such as steel reinforcement.

Generally, jaw and impact crushers exhibit a large reduction factor, defined as the ratio of the particle size of the input to that of the output material. A jaw crusher crushes only a small proportion of the original aggregate particles but an impact crusher crushes mortar and aggregate particles alike and thus generates a higher amount of fine material (OMahony, 1990).

Gyratory crushers work on the same principle as cone crushers (Figure 4.4(c)). These have a gyratory motion driven by an eccentric wheel. These machines will not accept materials with a large particle size and therefore only jaw or impact crushers should be considered as primary crushers. Gyratory and cone crushers are likely to become jammed by fragments that are too large or too heavy. It is recommended that wood and steel be removed as much as possible before dumping CDW into these crushers. Gyratory and cone crushers have advantages such as relatively low energy consumption, a reasonable amount of control over the particle size of the material and production of low amounts of fine particles (Hansen, 2004).

For better control of the aggregate particle size distribution, it is recommended that the CDW should be processed in at least two crushing stages. First, the demolition methodologies used on-site should be able to reduce individual pieces of debris to a size that the primary crusher in the recycling plant can take. This size depends on the opening feed of the primary crusher, which is normally bigger for large stationary plants than for mobile plants. Therefore, the recycling of CDW materials requires careful planning and communication between all parties involved.

A large proportion of the product from the primary crusher can result in small granules with a particle size distribution that may not satisfy the requirements laid down by the customer after having gone through the other crushing stages. Therefore, it should be possible to adjust the opening feed size of the primary crusher, implying that the secondary crusher should have a relatively large capacity. This will allow maximisation of coarse RA production (e.g., the feed size of the primary crusher should be set to reduce material to the largest size that will fit the secondary crusher).

The choice of using multiple crushing stages mainly depends on the desired quality of the final product and the ratio of the amounts of coarse and fine fractions (Yanagi etal., 1998; Nagataki and Iida, 2001; Nagataki etal., 2004; Dosho etal., 1998; Gokce etal., 2011). When recycling concrete, a greater number of crushing processes produces a more spherical material with lower adhered mortar content (Pedro etal., 2015), thus providing a superior quality of material to work with (Lotfi etal., 2017). However, the use of several crushing stages has some negative consequences as well; in addition to costing more, the final product may contain a greater proportion of finer fractions, which may not always be a suitable material.

The first step of physical beneficiation is crushing and grinding the iron ore to its liberation size, the maximum size where individual particles of gangue are separated from the iron minerals. A flow sheet of a typical iron ore crushing and grinding circuit is shown in Figure 1.2.2 (based on Ref. [4]). This type of flow sheet is usually followed when the crude ore contains below 30% iron. The number of steps involved in crushing and grinding depends on various factors such as the hardness of the ore and the level of impurities present [5].

Jaw and gyratory crushers are used for initial size reduction to convert big rocks into small stones. This is generally followed by a cone crusher. A combination of rod mill and ball mills are then used if the ore must be ground below 325 mesh (45m). Instead of grinding the ore dry, slurry is used as feed for rod or ball mills, to avoid dusting. Oversize and undersize materials are separated using a screen; oversize material goes back for further grinding.

Typically, silica is the main gangue mineral that needs to be separated. Iron ore with high-silica content (more than about 2%) is not considered an acceptable feed for most DR processes. This is due to limitations not in the DR process itself, but the usual customer, an EAF steelmaking shop. EAFs are not designed to handle the large amounts of slag that result from using low-grade iron ores, which makes the BF a better choice in this situation. Besides silica, phosphorus, sulfur, and manganese are other impurities that are not desirable in the product and are removed from the crude ore, if economically and technically feasible.

Beneficiation of copper ores is done almost exclusively by selective froth flotation. Flotation entails first attaching fine copper mineral particles to bubbles rising through an orewater pulp and, second, collecting the copper minerals at the top of the pulp as a briefly stable mineralwaterair froth. Noncopper minerals do not attach to the rising bubbles; they are discarded as tailings. The selectivity of the process is controlled by chemical reagents added to the pulp. The process is continuous and it is done on a large scale103 to 105 tonnes of ore feed per day.

Beneficiation is begun with crushing and wet-grinding the ore to typically 10100m. This ensures that the copper mineral grains are for the most part liberated from the worthless minerals. This comminution is carried out with gyratory crushers and rotary grinding mills. The grinding is usually done with hard ore pieces or hard steel balls, sometimes both. The product of crushing and grinding is a waterparticle pulp, comprising 35% solids.

Flotation is done immediately after grindingin fact, some flotation reagents are added to the grinding mills to ensure good mixing and a lengthy conditioning period. The flotation is done in large (10100m3) cells whose principal functions are to provide: clouds of air bubbles to which the copper minerals of the pulp attach; a means of overflowing the resulting bubblecopper mineral froth; and a means of underflowing the unfloated material into the next cell or to the waste tailings area.

Selective attachment of the copper minerals to the rising air bubbles is obtained by coating the particles with a monolayer of collector molecules. These molecules usually have a sulfur atom at one end and a hydrophobic hydrocarbon tail at the other (e.g., potassium amyl xanthate). Other important reagents are: (i) frothers (usually long-chain alcohols) which give a strong but temporary froth; and (ii) depressants (e.g., CaO, NaCN), which prevent noncopper minerals from floating.

superior mkiii series primary gyratory crushers - metso outotec

superior mkiii series primary gyratory crushers - metso outotec

Superior crushers are most often used in mining operations. The product family was developed especially to meet the needs of customers facing ever-changing ore grades and conditions in mining operations.

Tools such as VisioRock and VisioTruck along with expanded sensors on the equipment and bin/hopper, enabling intelligent measurement and automated-control of crushing operation for optimal ore processing and distribution.

Get the maximum potential out of your size reduction process to achieve improved crushing performance and lower cost per ton. By using our unique simulation software, our Chamber Optimization experts can design an optimized crushing chamber that matches the exact conditions under which you operate.

metso superior gyratory crushers - metso automation - pdf catalogs | technical documentation | brochure

metso superior gyratory crushers - metso automation - pdf catalogs | technical documentation | brochure

Metso SUPERIOR primary gyratory the first step in high-capacity crushing Years of experience and thousands of primary gyratory installations combine to create the best gyratory the industry has to offer. Metso SUPERIOR gyratory crushers are built to help you meet the challenges of highcapacity primary crushing. With thousands of units operating in mines and quarries around the world, Metso has the experience and capabilities to provide the top performance, throughput and efficiency. Low cost per ton In todays competitive market, environmental concerns and energy costs are on the rise....

The perfect blend of experience and innovation The SUPERIOR gyratory crushers combine Metsos trusted technology with the latest advancements in metallurgy to achieve peak efficiency and high output by offering: Easy maintenance and service Designed for low service requirements and ease of operation, the SUPERIOR primary gyratory will readily fit into any existing or proposed crushing plant. steep crushing chamber and long crushing surfaces for A exceptionally high capacity and maximum liner life Automatic spider lubrication extra heavy-duty frame, large diameter integral mainshaft An...

Metso Services Make the most of your investment Achieve your goals with a partner who will be there wherever and whenever you need them. Metso offers a host of value-added services that can enhance your bottom line and help you make the most of your SUPERIOR primary gyratory. Whether youre installing an entire customized system, a complete circuit, or simply replacing or updating a single piece of equipment, you can count on us to help you make sure your crusher is running at peak efficiency. Life cycle thinking Using our long-term experience in crushing equipment and processes, Metso has...

Plant diagnostics and upgrade Engineering analysis of your crushing circuit can substantially increase production. Metso experts can determine the correct set up of your primary and downstream crushers for optimum equipment application and plant productivity. Training Metso training can ensure that your operators are familiar with all the features of the crusher they are using. Properly trained operators gain knowledge of proper procedures, all feature functions, productivity tips, and important safety measures. We offer a broad range of training courses coached by experienced professionals...

Advanced features Metso has optimized the SUPERIOR design with one thing in mind to be the most productive, reliable and efficient primary gyratory crushers on the market. The SUPERIOR range provides innovative, exclusive features with the power and performance to operate in the most demanding conditions. Mainshaft position control The mainshaft position system successfully used for decades is a hydraulic method of vertical adjustment to compensate for wear. It consists of a pump, controlled by a push-button, and a heavy-duty hydraulic cylinder that supports and adjusts the mainshaft...

SUPERIOR gyratory crusher features 1 Crushing chambers are matched to each individual application, optimizing crushing performance 7 Patented headnut with burning ring allows for simple removal of the mantle 2 Manganese wearing parts are standard chrome alloy option is available for concaves and bottomshell liners 8 High-strength shell design, proven in the toughest applications, provides trouble-free operation and long life 3 Effective dust seal is equipped with an overpressure air blower to keep dust out of the eccentric and drive, increasing crusher bearing life 9 Mainshaft and head...

Proper installation is key Feed and discharge arrangements can greatly affect crusher reliability and performance. Basic recommendations are: Proper feeding will result in the following: Position spider arm in line with truck discharge. The arm will split material flow into the crushing chamber for more even feed distribution Increased crushing chamber wear life Construct a stone box around the spider so material discharge from truck dumping falls on dead stone bed before entering the crushing chamber Avoid direct impact of dumped material on the spider cap or mainshaft assembly ...

Total crusher and process control Metsos TC1000-C automation system contributes to a higher return on your investment by improving overall crusher control, maximizing availability, and minimizing maintenance and energy costs. Total crusher control Every aspect of the crusher is controlled by the TC System. The entire lubrication system is controlled, including the air blower, immersion heaters, lube pump, and oil coolers. The TC1000-C automation system (available as an option) simplifies operation and provides real-time information about the condition of the crusher: Asset protection...

Capacities Open side settings of discharge opening The above capacities are based on an assumed feed where 100% of the feed passes 80% of the feed opening. 80% of the feed passes 60% of the feed topsize, and 50% of the feed passes a sieve size that is 10% of the topsize. The capacities are for feed materials with a bulk density of 1.6 metric tons per cubic meter (100 pounds per cubic foot). All capacities are calculated at a maximum throw for each respective machine. All capacities are relative to individual application. Material characteristics, feed size, distribution, work index, percent...

Expect results It is our promise to our customers and the essence of our strategy. Metso Minerals Industries, Inc., 20965 Crossroads Circle, Waukesha, WI 53186, USA, tel +1 262 717 2500, fax +1 262 717 2501, www.metso.com SUPERIOR Gyratory Crushers Brochure 2012.indd 2 It is the attitude we share globally; our business is to deliver results to our customers, to help them reach their goals.

buyer's guide: crushers - equipment & contracting

buyer's guide: crushers - equipment & contracting

Reducing the size of material for transport, building, and recycling is critical. Crushers were invented to make the task of breaking down rocks and other materials much easier. Although crusher technology is not particularly sophisticated, selecting the right crusher can take some time. In this article we discuss the different types of crushers and what you need to consider before you buy.

The first viable crusher (known as a mechanical rock breaker) was invented by Eli Whitney Blake in 1858. Another inventor, Philetus W. Gates, patented the first gyratory crusher in 1881. There were crushers patented before Whitneys, but they never made it into production. Since the late 1800s, the size of crushers has greatly increased, but the engineering principles that make them work have remained the same. Both jaw crushers and gyratory crushers are still used today.

The selection of any major piece of equipment entails having a detailed understanding of your job requirements. In choosing the right crusher you must know these key aspects of the material youll be handling:

Dimensions. What is the thickness, length, and width of the material you will feed into the crusher. A large crusher can process rocks up to three feet in diameter. A hydraulic hammer is used to break up larger pieces before they are fed into the crusher.

Obviously, dimension is in essence just measuring the maximum size of the material that will be fed into the crusher. The granulometric requirement is based on how the final product will be used. However, abrasiveness and hardness factor are known through testing and calculation.

The Rock Abrasiveness Index (RAI), introduced in 2002, is often used to categorize abrasiveness. This informs a rocks resistance to crushing as well as its wear and tear on the crusher. Highly abrasive rocks include granite, quartzite, and basalt.

As discussed in our article Get to Know the Common Types of Mining Equipment there are three classifications of crushers: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Crushers are further categorized by how they crush the material.

To understand the difference between the crushing phases, typical examples include reducing topsize from 900 to 300 mm for primary, 300 to 100 mm for secondary, and under 5mm for fine crushing, such as manufactured sand.

A jaw crusher is the most commonly used primary crusher. It uses simple technology to break down large blocks into smaller pieces. Their simplicity requires little engineering expertise to operate. A jaw crusher is reliable and needs less maintenance than other types of crushers.

A jaw crusher has one fixed and one moving surface in a V-shaped configuration. The moving jaw is mounted on an eccentric shaft. The reciprocal motion of this jaw presses the material against the fixed jaw. Rotational movement is achieved via a motor and a belt. The space between the jaws narrows as the material moves downward. Once crushed to the desired size, the material falls through the bottom of the jaw crusher.

An impact crusher (also called a hammer crusher) is quite versatile. It can be used as a primary, secondary, or tertiary crusher. Impact plates and beaters or hammers are used to break down the material. The material is fed through the upper part of the crusher then hit by hammers. Next, the pieces are thrown toward the plates. This further breaks the material. The pieces bounce back to the hammers. The material is thrown back and forth between the plates and hammers until it is reduced to the target size.

Impact crushers can handle an array of materials, including clay, dirt, and metal that may be mixed in with the feed material. An impact crusher can have a horizontal shaft or a vertical axis. This type of crusher may not be as effective for producing smaller pieces. The force needed to break down the material depends, in part, on the energy generated by the broken pieces. The smaller the piece the less energy its impact against the hammer produces. Impact crushers have a high production capacity, low energy consumption, and produce a uniform grain size. However, their operating costs are often higher than jaw crushers.

A cone (or conical) crusher breaks down material with the use of an eccentric rotating head and a bowl. It is often used as a secondary or tertiary crusher. It is best for crushing material 200 mm and less. Advantages of a cone crusher include high productivity and low operating costs. However, a cone crusher does not generate evenly sized pieces that are often required.

A gyratory crusher has a mantle that rotates within a concave bowl. Gyratory crushers and cone crushers are quite similar. A gyratory crusher has a higher angle at the apex of the cone. Its name refers to the constant back and forth motion that compresses the material against the chamber walls. They are often used as primary crushers.

There are mobile crushers that can maneuver around a job site. On some projects it is more cost-effective to not have to transport material to a centralized crusher for processing. Or a site is just too small for a large piece of equipment and requires a crusher with a smaller footprint.

The eccentric throw range is related to how much the crushers mantle veers away from its axis. This determines the rate the material will fall through the chamber. Crushers with a high eccentric thrown will allow particles to fall farther in a single revolution. This results in a coarser product.

Crusher technology keeps evolving in terms of automation and safety. Some of todays crushers are equipped with systems that will adjust the CSS (Closed Side Setting) without your having to shut the machine down. The crusher can ensure the bearings are not exceeding normal operating temperature. There are also safety features that will automatically shut down the machine when it encounters out-of-spec material, such as rubber or steel. This protects the shaft or bearing against damage. If youre working on a tight budget, we recommend machine power and brand name over bells and whistles. Larger organizations can usually justify high-cost automation features.

Eagle Crusher claims they sell the number one portable crusher worldwide. Their UltraMax Impactor line offers Horizontal Shaft Impactors (HSIs) that handle primary and secondary crushing in one unit. These units come in stationary, skid-mounted, or portable configurations. Eagle Crusher offers financing and 24/7 service. Made in the USA.

Powerscreen began as Ulster Plant in 1966 in Ireland. Its changed hands through the years but became Powerscreen in 2009. Its parent company is Terex. They manufacturer in several countries, including the US (in Louisville, Kentucky). They offer a wide variety of jaw, cone, and impact crushers. Their Metrotrak model is a compact, mobile unit offering an output of about 200 tph. It weighs around 60 thousand pounds. The Metrotrak is only 12.5 feet wide and a just under 41 feet long. Its low height of 10 foot, 6 inches gives you the ability to handle crushing in tight spaces.

They sell many types of crushers including several stationary cone crushers. Their CS420 is a high-production, compact stationary cone crusher. Sandvik offers their proprietary Automatic Setting Regulation control system (ASRi) This real-time performance management system will automatically adjust based on feed conditions. They also offer crushers that offer safety features and a system to streamline settings adjustment.

You can buy new or used directly from the manufacturer or a local equipment dealer. Financing options may be available. We recommend putting together a requirements document and letting the dealer tell you which crusher (or crushers) will meet your needs. Then you can shop it around for estimates.

Leasing is a great idea to try before you buy. However, depending on the size of your organization, it may make sense to take advantage of contract services that a company like Metso:Outotec offers. Compare it to the total cost of ownership. Its not just the cost of the machine its maintenance and repairs, hiring operators, and storing the equipment.

Buying used is only risky if you dont work with a reputable dealer. Youll want an experienced and knowledgeable operator to perform the inspection. Warranty and service agreements must be in writing. Be sure to understand what the resale value might be. Some brands and models hold their value more than others.

When youre inspecting a used crusher, take a close look at the wear parts. These are parts of the machine that are expected to be replaced periodically. For example, manganese liners protect the mantle and concaves of a cone crusher. The fixed jaw of a jaw crusher is subject to the most wear and tear. (In fact, Hardox offers cheek plates made of a material that they claim can greatly increase the life of your jaw crusher.) Take an inventory of worn parts and get quotes for replacements. There are companies that specialize in spare crusher parts such as Norther Crusher Spares.

Selecting the right crusher is highly dependent on your job requirements. Crushing rock and other hard materials is not a complicated process but selecting the wrong machine for the job can be dangerous. Low production or results of the wrong size grain can have a negative impact on your bottom line. Work with your local equipment dealer to select a machine that will meet your documented requirements. Explore safety and other automation features that will protect your workers and reduce production costs.

Affiliated with PileBuck.com, the leading source of deep foundations and marine construction information for 35+ years, EandCmag.com is the most trusted source for heavy equipment guides pertaining to earthmoving/excavation, concrete/paving, cranes/lifting, trucks/hauling, and mining/tunneling.

getting to know the stone crusher

getting to know the stone crusher

Stone crushers have played a pivotal role in the history of America since its creation in the mid-1800s. Since then millions of tons of stone have been crushed to make everything from houses to roads and everything in between.

The first stone crusher was invented by Eli Whitney Blake, the nephew of Eli Whitney, the creator of the cotton gin. After five years, Blakes stone crusher roared to life, thanks in part to a challenge laid before him by the town of Westville, Conn. The purpose was to put down a rock surface on the roads so wagons wouldnt get stuck in the mud. Blake went further with the design and developed it for the railroads to create ballast.

Its no easy feat turning giant walls of stone into small, uniform rocks. Take the Metso Minerals 4265 Superior Gyratory Crusher, for example. Its total weight of 264,000 pounds is housed in a 10-story high reinforced steal tower. The powerhouse is pushed by a 500-horsepower electric motor. Because of that, the gyratory crusher is capable of handling 2,557 tons of stone per hour.

In 1881, Philetus W. Gates was granted a patent on the gyratory crusher. Its given that name because of the motion that actual does the crushing. A relentless back and forth gyration compresses the stone against the chamber walls.

You have two hard surfaces closing together with a soft surface in the center in this case, the rock is the soft surface. So, the two metal parts come together and compress the rock into a smaller size.

All of the crushers are designed to work in the choke-fed position because the rocks on top of the crusher help push down the rocks through the crushing chamber. The rocks will actually crush against themselves. Thats called rock-on-rock crushing. Larger crushers can handle rocks up to 3 feet in diameter. Anything bigger gets broken up by a hydraulic hammer.

The main shaft of the Metso 42X65 crusher weighs 52,000 pounds. As the main shaft rotates, it moves in an eccentric pattern, which crushes the rocks. It rotates 170 times a minute against the chamber walls which are solid, reinforced steel.

Today, some of the technology thats available is quite amazing, said Blake. The technology today checks the temperature of bearings and measures the overall force of the crusher. One dangerous event is when uncrushable materials - such as a piece of wood, rubber, or steel - enters the crusher. When that happens, today's crushers have a built-in safety mechanism as to not damage a shaft or bearing."

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