Depending on the construction requirements, we need to choose different types of stone crusher . Sometimes, we need to use different stone crusher together to crush the materials into desired shape and size. As usual, stone crusher consists of cone crusher, impact crusher, jaw crusher and mobile crusher. We design the production line with different stone crushers based on the needs.
The foundation of stone crusher need to support a heavy weight and bear the vibration force while the machine is operating. In order to make the foundation stable, we need to separate it with the plant base and place rubber pad or timber between the foundation and the machine to reduce the vibration.
Workers must be trained to know the proper methods to operate the stone crusher. Before operating the machine, check every parts of the machine carefully. Turn on the the pump motor and cooling system to make the oil pressure normal before activating the motor of stone crusher. Listen to the noise the machine makes, if there is any weird sound, turn it off and check the machine again.
Make sure the materials you feed into the stone crusher is suitable with the machine's instruction. Once the unable-to-crush materials are poured into the machine, you should find them immediately and pick them out before they are fed into the next machine in the production line.
During the operating system, if the stone crusher is stuck by some materials, you can flip the materials with hooks or other tools. But, remember that never use your hand to remove the materials. Sanme is one of the main supplier of stone crusher in China, we have engaged in this business for several years and all our products are in excellent working condition. If you want to know more information about our company, please visit our website: http://www.sanmechina.com
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The following example demonstrates a method of selecting the components of an aggregate plant. Good component efficiency and part performance pre-evaluation is essential to a solid design. The aggregate production requires the consideration of several crushers, feeders and screens. This is not intended to be a typical situation, though it does involve common crusher and screen units often used in aggregate plants.
Quarry rock of 12 in. maximum size is to be handled in a two-stage crusher plant at the rate of 70 tons per hour. The maximum size of output is to be 1 in., and separation of materials over 1 in. size and the minus 1 in. in the output is required. Select a jaw crusher like those included in this table.
The screens to be considered are a 1-in. screen with an estimated capacity of 2.7 tph/sq ft and a 1-in. screen with a capacity of 2.1 tph/sq ft. The solution will include the selection of adequate and economical crushers for the two stages and the sizes of screens between them and below the secondary stage.
For the primary crusher a jaw crusher will probably be most economical. A jaw crusher, like 2036 in the Jaw Crusher Table here above, would be able to take the maximum 12 in. size quarry stone but it would not have the required 70 tph capacity needed. To have the needed capacity a jaw crusher like the 2042 or 2436 sizeswill have to be selected overloading the secondary crusher.
A grid chart or curve for the selected crusher shows that, for a 2-in. setting, 54% of the material will pass a 1-in. screen, or 46% will be retained (this is like Jaw Crusher capacity table abovewhere 48% passes a 1 in. screen). The 46% of 70 tph gives the 32 tph fed to the secondary crusher shown in Figure below as a roll crusher.
A twin-roll crusher is selected, like those given inthe Roll Crusher capacityTable above, to serve as the reduction crusher. The smallest, 24 x 16 roll crusher shown in theRoll Crusher capacity Table above has enough capacity with a setting of 1 in. but the maximum size feed will be too large, that is, the stage of reduction is not large enough. The maximum size of feed coming from the discharge of the primary crusher with a setting of 2 is about 3 in. as may be found in this Table.
Considering a 30-in. diameter roll crusher the maximum size particle that can be nipped with the roll crusher set at 1 in. according to this Equation is F = 0.085(15) + 1.0 = 2.28 in. <3 in. feed. It will take larger than a 40-in. diameter roll crusher. A better solution would be to use a larger jaw crusher set at 1 in., then a roll crusher from the Roll Crusher capacityTable above could be used. If the output of this crushing process should have less material of the +1-in. size, the larger crusher could be operated with a closed circuit. That is, the oversize in the output could be recirculated through the roll crusher without exceeding the rated capacity of the crusher. Then all material leaving that crusher with a 1-in. setting would be of a minus 1-in. size.
Another possible solution to this problem would be to use a gyratory crusher for the primary crushing stage. A gyratory like Telsmith model1110 could be set at 1 in. in an open circuit with a capacity for 260 tph. The maximum size of stone in the output is estimated to be approximately 2 1/8 in. Then all the output from the primary crusher could be nipped by a 40 in. diameter twin-roll crusher with a 1-in. setting according to the Roll Crusher capacityTable above. The specifications and manufactured limitations, rather than economy, generally govern the selection of crushers.
To find the required areas of screen, the rate of feed of material as well as gradation of the feed must be known. The 1-in. screen under the jaw crusher is the top deckno deck correction factor will be necessary. Therefore, the 1-in. screen will need to be at least 70/2.7 = 29.9 sq ft in area. It must be at least 36 in. wide for an 18 x 36 jaw crusher. So a 4-ft by 8-ft screen would be acceptable. The 1-in. screen is a second deck for the 38 tph from the jaw crusher, so the deck correction factor is 0.90 and that screen capacity is 2.1 x 0.9 = 1.89 tph/sq ft.
The screen area needed under the jaw crusher is 38/1.89 = 20.1 sq ft. For the 1-in. screen below the roll crusher the capacity has no correction factor and the area needed is 32/2.1 = 15.2 sq ft. To handle the output from a 40 x 24 roll crusher the screen will have to be at least 24 in. wide. Perhaps it will be more effective to use one continuous screen of at least 20.1 + 15.2 = 35.3 sq ft. A 4-ft by 10-ft 1 in. screen should be satisfactory.
Crushing equipment is the heart of an industrial material-processing system. The size reduction choice you make will have a profound impact on the profitability of your business. When the right choice is made, you should expect many years of profitable operation.
Crushers are not glamourous. They are brute force workhorses and what they do is simple, really. Size-reduction equipment in all forms is adding energy to a material to make big pieces smaller. Simple, right?
When the above costs are all accounted for, they are used to quantify the production costs related to size reduction and are expressed in cost per unit of measure production. For example, $0.50 per tph.
There are always opportunities to buy a machine at a lower upfront cost. This usually translates into paying higher operating costs over the life of the equipment. Higher service labor cost. Higher wear parts costs. Higher energy costs.
Often there is a justifiable case to spend additional capital dollars for the better machine. When evaluating crushing equipment suppliers, crusher manufacturers should quantify both costs: purchase price and operating costs. Before you purchase, ask for reference customers to visit.
Why are there so many types of equipment? Our team brainstormed this question, and we came up with more than 50 tools or machines that are used for size reduction. What we are addressing here is industrial size reduction of dry, solid materials, which are grown, mined or chemically synthesized, and need to have a physical dimension alteration to be put to use.
The variables above all affect your costs. Lets take the first question as an example. How long do you plan to operate? There are times when mines reserves, stockpiles, permits, project contract terms affect expected life.
If a project is limited by any factor, then good enough could be the best choice. As long as the equipment is safe and there are machine wear parts and service available, then going cheap may be the best choice. Another factor to consider with low-cost is limited post-sale assistance if there is some process change or major equipment problem. You dont want to be hung out to dry.
Aggregate producers typically expect to be running and profitable for many years. Always buy a crusher from an established company, develop a relationship, and expect ongoing service and personal contact. Ask before you buy about how they approach post-sale parts sales and service.
Ask the company quoting how they intend to offer service for their crusher. How many field service people do they have? Are they local, regional or too far away? Not having responsive suppliers will have a significant impact on your plant profitability.
Cost-effective aggregate production begins with employees who are knowledgeable about the maintenance requirements and operational parameters of the cone crushers they operate. There are certain proven methods and practices industry experts use to ensure a smooth crushing operation. This article presents key tips that will help you maximize your cone crushing operation.
1. Operate at a consistent closed-side discharge setting. Producing a consistent product quantity, quality, uniformity and attaining a balanced circuit begins with operating the cone crusher at a consistent closed-side discharge setting. If a crusher is allowed to operate at a wider-than-optimum setting for even a short period of time, the result will be less product and an increase in oversized material.
Keep in mind that oversized product almost always creates circuit flow problems within the aggregate plant. An example of the effect that crusher setting has on the product gradation is as follows: If the target crusher setting is 3/8 in. (10 mm) but the setting is not checked and it wears open to 1/2 in. (13 mm), then the end result is a 15 percent decrease in the minus 3/8-in. (10 mm) material size. This is a substantial decrease in productivity.
Most aggregate producers would be amazed at the revenue lost each year due to the simple fact that crushers are not being operated at consistent closed-side settings. The crusher setting should be checked on a per-shift basis.
2. Operate at a consistent choke-fed cavity level. If a crusher operates at varying cavity levels throughout the shift, the result will be an inconsistent product shape and inconsistent production rate. Operating a cone crusher at a low cavity level (half cavity) will result in a significantly coarser product gradation, and this low cavity level will also produce more flat and elongated product particles.
Efforts should be made to operate the crusher at a proper choke-fed cavity level, as the favorable end result will be increased crusher throughput tonnage and a more cubical-shaped product. This tip is particularly important for the tertiary (short head) crushers in the circuit, as they produce the vast majority of an aggregate operations salable products.
3. Do not trickle feed the crusher. Trickle feeding a cone crusher should be avoided because it not only results in poor productivity and poor product shape, but it can also adversely affect bearing alignment within said crusher. Due to the operational characteristics of a cone crusher, when crushing, it should never be operated below 40 percent rated horsepower. To obtain a proper loaded bearing alignment and to maximize productivity, the crusher should be operated above 40 percent rated horsepower yet below 100 percent rated horsepower of the drive motor.
A power draw of 75 to 95 percent is a great target range to stay within while crushing. Excessive power peaks, particularly above 110 percent rated horsepower, should be avoided as this could lead to premature crusher failure.
4. Ensure the feed is evenly distributed. The incoming feed material should be directed on a vertical plane into the center of the crusher. When the incoming feed is not directed into the center of the cone, one side of the crushing cavity could be quite full while the opposite side of the cavity could be low or empty. This will always result in a low crusher throughput tonnage, the production of more flat and elongated product particles and oversized product.
This typically prompts crusher operators to tighten the crusher setting in order to get the crusher to make the smaller product size that they are trying to produce. This in turn can result in an overload condition in the form of adjustment ring movement on the side of the crusher that is heavily loaded. Over the long term, this can cause the adjustment ring to become tilted on the main frame, resulting in an even larger loss of productivity.
5. Ensure the feed is not segregated. All incoming feed material should be well mixed and homogeneous. A segregated feed condition exists when large stones are directed to one side of the crushing cavity and small stones are directed to the opposite side.
The side of the crusher receiving the small stones will have a higher-than-normal bulk density, and this can lead to something known as packing or pancaking. This in turn leads to adjustment ring movement on the side of the crusher receiving the smaller feed stones. Adjustment ring movement forces the operator to open the crusher setting to avoid this overload condition. This results in the production of oversized product due to the increase in crusher setting. In addition, segregated feeding and the resultant adjustment ring movement can lead to a tilted adjustment ring, resulting in larger loss of productivity.
6. Minimize surge loading for a more efficient circuit. Surge loading of any crusher is a production enemy. Surge piles or feed hoppers, along with variable-speed feeding devices, can be used to provide a better and more consistent feed control to the crusher. This allows the operator to run the crusher at a very consistent cavity level for extended periods of time. Providing better crusher feed control for the cone crusher through the use of surge piles, hoppers and variable-speed feeding devices such as belt conveyors or vibrating pan feeders can easily increase crusher productivity by a minimum of 10 percent.
Regarding the volume limit, each crushing cavity has a volumetric limit that determines maximum throughput, and a choke-fed crusher is operating at its volumetric limit. The volume limit is exceeded when feed material overflows the top of the crusher. As for the horsepower limit, each crusher has been designed to operate at maximum power draw, and power draw will increase as the feed rate increases and as the feed material is crushed finer. The horsepower limit is exceeded when the crusher draws more power than it is rated for.
Lastly, dont forget about the crushing force limit of the crusher. As with the horsepower limit, crushing forces being applied between the mantle and bowl liner increase as the feed rate increases, and as the feed material is crushed finer. The crushing force limit of the crusher is exceeded when the adjustment ring bounces, wiggles or moves on top of the main frame.
An ideal operational condition exists when the crusher is operating at its volumetric limit while still being slightly below both the horsepower limit and crushing force limit. Operating any crusher outside of its designed parameters with either excessive power draw or excessive crushing force results in a very serious crusher overload. These overloads create something known as fatigue damage, which is permanent, irreversible and cumulative. Without a doubt, frequent overloads will shorten the life cycle of any cone crusher.
8. Operate within the crusher design limitations. If you find the crusher operating in a crushing force overload condition (ring movement) or a power overload condition (excessive amperage), open the crusher setting slightly, but try to stay choke fed. The advantage of staying choke fed is the fact that there will still be rock-on-rock crushing and grinding taking place in the crushing cavity. This helps to maintain good cubical product even though the setting is slightly larger than optimum.
The other option, of course, is to decrease the feed rate to the crusher. But the downside is that product shape tends to suffer. Typical reasons for adjustment ring movement or excessive power draw are tramp events, poor feed distribution, segregation of the feed, too many fines in the feed, high-moisture content, wrong mantle and bowl liner being used or simply trying to operate at an unrealistically small closed-side setting.
9. Monitor and maintain a proper crusher speed. If proper drive belt tension is not maintained, the belts will slip and the crusher will slow down. A slowing crusher will cause incredibly high power peaks at a very low crusher throughput tonnage. Improper or neglected drive maintenance will result in a high-horsepower consumption at a low crusher throughput tonnage, and this inefficient use of connected horsepower will result in a higher-than-normal energy cost per ton of material crushed.
A speed sensor can be used to monitor the crusher countershaft speed, which will send a warning signal of a slowing crusher to the programmable logic controller, or it could be wired to simply turn on a warning lamp. When a warning is detected, the maintenance department can be dispatched to re-tighten the drive belts. When a speed sensor is used, drive belt life is extended and proper production levels can be maintained.
10. Determine the percentage of fines in the feed. Fines in the crusher feed is defined as material entering the top of the crusher, which is already equal to or smaller than the crushers closed-side discharge setting. As a rule of thumb, the maximum number of fines in the crusher feed should not exceed 25 percent for secondary crushers or 10 percent for tertiary crushers.
When there is an excessive quantity of fines in the feed, it is typically the result of a vibrating screen problem. This problem could be due to the fact that the screen is insufficient in size, or a screen that is sufficient in size yet is inefficient in operation. Re-crushing and re-handling product size material due to an insufficiently sized screen, inefficiencies due to the way the screen is set up or due to improper vibrating screen maintenance will lead to an excessive quantity of fines in the crusher feed. This will lead to inefficient use of connected crusher horsepower and a higher energy cost per ton of material crushed.
11. Limit the height from which the feed material drops. The maximum distance from which the feed material should fall from into the top of a small to mid-size cone crusher is 3 ft. When the feed material drops from a much greater distance, the stones tend to slam into the V-shaped crushing cavity with such velocity that it subjects the crusher to shock loads and extremely high stress levels. This situation is referred to as high-velocity wedging, and it can result in power overloads or force overloads or both. This action puts undue stress and strain on the crusher components, and it results in increased maintenance repair costs and poor productivity.
Jaw Crusher is a kind of mining equipment used for primary and secondary crushing. It is widely used in medium-sized crushing of various ores and bulk materials in mining, smelting, building materials, highway, railway, water conservancy, and chemical industries. It has a wide variety and a wide range of uses, making it the perfect choice for mining and quarrying.
Of course, for the customers, in addition to the brand and quality of jaw crusher, the installation and use methods also make them particularly concerned. In order to meet the needs of users and help them solve the most concerned issues, we will talk about how to install and use it next.
From its basic structure, we can easily see that its structure is complicated with many parts. Therefore, during the installation, the user should pay more attention to it and must be installed under the guidance of the manufacturer's technical personnel and in conjunction with the installation and use instructions of the equipment. Pay more attention to the details to ensure that nothing is lost.
Since the working area of the jaw crusher is mostly mountainous, it is necessary to thoroughly investigate whether the topography of the mine is suitable for concrete piling before installation, and according to the site topographic conditions, foundation soil conditions, pile arrangement, and length, and pile frame factors such as ease of movement determine the piling order, and it should also be considered that the depth of the piles should be basically the same, and the foundation soil is even and tight.
The jaw crusher is mainly installed on the concrete foundation. Therefore, the stability of the foundation will affect the stability of the machine. If the foundation is stable, the vibration will be less during the production process, and the equipment can stably run. If not, the jaw crusher will easily generate loud noise and vibration when it is working, which not only affects the production process but also causes the equipment to break away from the foundation. It will have a bad influence on service life, and more importantly, cause personal safety hazards for workers, so the pouring of the foundation is very important.
The jaw crusher is installed on the concrete foundation. In order to reduce vibration and hum, a layer of hardwood, rubber or other vibration-absorptive material should be placed between the frame and the concrete. The horizontal and vertical levels of the frame mounted on the wooden base shall be in accordance with the requirements, and the backing between the frame foot and the soil shall be flat, uniform and stable. Before installing, the sliding bearing is researched and placed and then placed in the bearing housing. The horizontal value and the eccentricity deviation value are measured by the level meter. If the inner diameter is within the allowable range, the eccentric shaft can be placed on the bearing.
Before the shaft and bearing assembly, the sliding bearing needs to be researched and then placed in the sliding bearing housing, and the horizontality and coaxiality of the placement are detected by the level meter. If the measurement result meets the requirements, then install the eccentric shaft on the bearing and check the fit between the shaft and the bearing by applying red dan powder on the journal.
If the surface of the plain bearing is too high, further scraping is required until the high point between the contact surfaces disappears. Finally, a certain amount of lubricating oil is applied between the bearing housing and the bearing to reduce shaft wear. The contact area between the eccentric shaft sliding and the frame should be no less than 80%, and the gap between them should be less than 0.07 mm.
The rod bolt should be assembled after the main bearing and the eccentric shaft are ground. Before assembly, check it carefully, and then use the crane to place the rod bolt slightly lower than its normal position in the crusher. Wash the upper and lower bearings of the rod bolt and lubricate them with thin oil, and then install the bearing, main shaft, upper bearing, and upper shell. Lifting the rod bolt, then install the bolts and tighten them. The bracket should be added when the oil leakage occurs due to poor fitting. When conditions permit, it is best to assemble the complete set of rod bolts and main shaft outside and load them into the frame once with the crane.
The smash or installation of toggle plate can be removed by loosening the tension spring nut, removing the spring, and then using a chain or a wire rope to tie the lower part of the movable jaw plate, and then pulling the wire rope with the driving, so that the movable jaw is close to the fixed jaw, and the rear toggle plate automatically drop off, just inverted repeat the above steps in the installation.
The movable jaw plate is assembled by using the pre-assembled parts, that is, the movable jaws, the movable shaft, the movable dental plate, and the bracket are assembled in advance, and then hoisted in the frame by a crane. The sliding bearing is first ground and placed in the frame bearing housing to measure the deviation of the slope and the coaxiality. Then apply oil to the bearing and journal surfaces and place the movable jaw in the bearing.
The dental plate is the fastest worn part of the crusher and requires frequent replacement. The dental plate is fixed on the front wall and the movable jaw by bolts or wedges. The contact surface must be straight, and no lifting phenomenon is allowed. Otherwise, it should be solved in time. Since the inside of the front wall of the frame is not machined, it is better to lay a layer of the soft metal gasket between the back of the fixed dental plate and the forearm of the frame to ensure that the two are closely fitted.
The above is the installation method for the parts of the jaw crusher. However, in order to make the equipment run stably and maximize the benefits for the user, in addition to the correct installation of the jaw crusher, the rational use is also crucial, which is related to whether the assembled jaw crusher will run in long-term stable production and create a constant value for customers.
Before the jaw crusher is started, the equipment must be thoroughly inspected, for example, to check if the connecting bolts are loose; whether the protective cover of the pulley and the flywheel is intact; whether the tension of the V-belt and the tension spring is appropriate; whetherallthe oil is filled; whether the lubrication system is integrated; whether the electrical equipment and signal system are normal, etc. In addition, before starting the crusher, the oil pump motor and cooling system should be started first. After 3-4 minutes, when the oil pressure and flow indicator are normal, the motor of the crusher can be started.
During operation, attention must be paid to increase ore uniformly, and the ore is not allowed to be filled with crushing chambers. The maximum size of the ore should not be greater than 0.85 times the width of the ore. At the same time, the non-crushing objects such as the shovel teeth of the shovel and the drill bits of the rig are strictly prevented from entering the crusher. Once it is found that these non-broken objects enter the crushing chamber and pass through the discharge port of the machine, the relevant personnel should be immediately notified to take them out in time to avoid entering the next section of the crusher, causing serious equipment accidents;
During the operation, you should always pay attention to prevent the large nuggets from getting stuck in the feeding port of the crusher. If it happens, be sure to use iron hooks to turn the ore; if it needs to be taken out of the crushing chamber, special equipment should be used. It is strictly forbidden to carry out these tasks by hand;
If the crushing chamber is blocked, the ore should be suspended. After the ore in the crushing chamber is broken, the ore can continue to be fed, but the crusher is not allowed to stop running at this time;
Regular inspections should be taken to observe the working conditions and bearing temperatures of the various components of the crusher by means of viewing, listening, and touching. Usually, the bearing temperature must not exceed 60 to prevent the alloy bush from melting or being burnt tile accident. When it is found that the bearing temperature is very high, do not stop the operation immediately. Effective measures should be taken to reduce the bearing temperature in time, such as increasing the oil supply, forced ventilation or water cooling. After the bearing temperature drops, it can be stopped for inspection and troubleshooting;
When the crusher stops, it must be stopped in the order of the production process. First of all, it is necessary to stop feeding the mine. After the ore in the crushing chamber is completely discharged, the crusher and the belt conveyor should be stopped, and then is the motor of the oil pump. It should also be noted that the crusher suddenly stops for some reasons. Before the accident is processed and ready to drive, the accumulated ore in the crushing chamber must be removed. The installation of the jaw crusher and the method of use directly affects the quality of the finished product and the smooth progress of production. Mastering the correct installation and use of the jaw crusher is an effective guarantee for improving the efficiency of crushing work and product quality.
Crusher Type Production Size 6x6 Base Cost 7 Pulsar Ingot15 Ash Plank5 Zinc Ingot Function Grinding Unlocked by Expert Blueprint Station Products Inputs Outputs RocksSugar CaneSunflower SeedOliveCorn PowdersSugarSunflower OilOlive OilCorn Flour
Stella can interact with the Crusher to start a minigame to produce powders and oils. Up to five of the same item can be processed at a time. After the chosen item and amount is selected and confirmed, Stella will continue to crush until all items have been processed or she leaves. Leaving the Crusher before grinding all added items will leave the remaining items in the Crusher.