how to separate lead zinc ore

how to separate zinc ore from lead ore

how to separate zinc ore from lead ore

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Zinc processing - Zinc processing - Ores: Zinc ores are widely distributed throughout the world, although more than 40 percent of the world's output originates in North America and Australia. The common zinc-containing minerals are the zinc sulfide known as zinc blende or sphalerite (ZnS), a ferrous form of zinc blende known as marmatite [(ZnFe)S], and a zinc carbonate known as calamine or ...

Plants for the production of lead are generally referred to as lead smelters.Primary lead production begins with sintering.Concentrated lead ore is fed into a sintering machine with iron, silica, limestone fluxes, coke, soda ash, pyrite, zinc, caustics or pollution control particulates. Smelting uses suitable reducing substances that will combine with those oxidizing elements to free the metal.

Keywords: froth flotation, lead-copper-zinc sulphide ore, de-zincing, flotation reagent INTRODUCTION Typical ore that has been received in the labora-tory is required to be tested for understanding the characteristics of lead-copper and zinc sulphide minerals flotation. According to the plant practiced that the ore has been extremely difficult to be sepa-rated selectively by froth flotation ...

cooper ore lead zinc flotation separating process-High Recovery Sulfide Copper Processing Plant With Full Engineer .It is good to use flotation machines to separate & recover copper ore, etc. . Initially developed to treat the sulphides of copper, le;

Separate Ore From Lead - kvlv-liezele. Zinc and Cadmium Lead Zinc Ore Process Equipment . Get P ; How do you separate gold from a lead gold mixture . Use a bone ash cupel.. base metals oxidize and actually dissolve in the cupel. this s on lead especially, leaving a ball of precious metals to be.

How To Separate Lead Zinc Ore - tppvlaszak. How To Separate Lead And Other Material Ore. Extraction purification lead zinc titanium chromium the overall process from lead ore to very pure lead is quite complicated and lead ores contain other valuable metals like silver, so there more stages in the process than are described herehe social, economic and environmental impacts of exploiting metal ...

Carbonate-hosted lead-zinc ore deposits are important and highly valuable concentrations of lead and zinc sulfide ores hosted within carbonate (limestone, marl, dolomite) formations and which share a common genetic origin.. These ore bodies range from 0.5 million tonnes of contained ore, to 20 million tonnes or more, and have a grade of between 4% combined lead and zinc to over 14% combined ...

Lead-zinc Ore Crusher Aiming at the properties of lead-zinc ore Fote Machinery develops high efficiency lead-zinc ore crusher for galena sphalerite smithsonite cerusite and other minerals Three stage circled crushing is the up-to-date crushing way suitable for the high hardness lead-zinc ore Lead Zinc Ore On The First Stage:Large lead zinc stones in bin are sent to jaw crusher or mobile jaw ...

Plants for the production of lead are generally referred to as lead smelters.Primary lead production begins with sintering.Concentrated lead ore is fed into a sintering machine with iron, silica, limestone fluxes, coke, soda ash, pyrite, zinc, caustics or pollution control particulates. Smelting uses suitable reducing substances that will combine with those oxidizing elements to free the metal.

Considerable effort has to be made to separate the lead ore from zinc ores. ... and lining of vessels in chemical plants (lead is no longer used for domestic water pipes) ... Smelting is usually a two-stage process as described here, although... Read More. Zinc smelting . This process was developed by the ... where the zinc separates from the lead. The first plant using this design opened up ...

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Home > Products > how to separate zinc ore from lead ore. Mobile Crushing Plant. Stationary Crushing Plant. Grinding Mill. Washing & Screening. Three in One Mobile Crusher. Mobile VSI Crusher. Mobile VSI Crusher & Washer. Mobile Crusher & Screen. Mobile .

how to separate zinc ore from lead ore. how to separate zinc ore from lead ore Source Chemical Reactions of Lead SmeltingBase Metal Smelting This simply shows the general theory of the pyrometallurgy of lead The details are as follows First of all the ore must be concentrated to separate the lead ore from the zinc ore for example Lead and Zinc Department of Energy

Equipment to Separate Zinc. Lead and zinc ore is nearly always mined below the surface of the ground. Some veins of ore lie as deep as several thousand feet but most deposits lie close to the surface. Lead and zinc ore is mined almost exclusively in underground operations, though a few surface operations do exist. The use of underground or surface mining techniques depends on the proximity of ...

Oxidized lead and zinc ore can be recovered by selective flocculation process, especially fines and slime. If using the selective flocculation method to separate the ore, the recovery rate will be greatly improved. Selective flocculation mainly uses high-molecular flocculants to bridge the fine particles into an arbitrary, three-dimensional, loose, porous floc. If more than two kinds of ...

Considerable effort has to be made to separate the lead ore from zinc ores. ... and lining of vessels in chemical plants (lead is no longer used for domestic water pipes) ... Smelting is usually a two-stage process as described here, although... Read More. Zinc smelting . This process was developed by the ... where the zinc separates from the lead. The first plant using this design opened up ...

Lead-zinc Ore Crusher Aiming at the properties of lead-zinc ore Fote Machinery develops high efficiency lead-zinc ore crusher for galena sphalerite smithsonite cerusite and other minerals Three stage circled crushing is the up-to-date crushing way suitable for the high hardness lead-zinc ore Lead Zinc Ore On The First Stage:Large lead zinc stones in bin are sent to jaw crusher or mobile jaw ...

zinc ore youtube icas2017conference. how to separate zinc ore from lead ore CopperLeadZinc ores Danafloat metal separating machine lead ore YouTube 17 Feb 2014 Lead and Zinc Magnetic Separation Machine Lead and Zinc Mining Equipment The methods used in the processing of copperleadzinc ore could be classi the copper, lead, and zinc,

Lead and zinc ore is nearly always mined below the surface of the ground. Some veins of ore lie as deep as several thousand feet but most deposits lie close to the surface. Lead and zinc ore is mined almost exclusively in underground operations, though a few surface operations do exist. The use of underground or surface mining techniques depends on the proximity of the ore body to the surface ...

How To Separate Lead Zinc Ore - tppvlaszak. How To Separate Lead And Other Material Ore. Extraction purification lead zinc titanium chromium the overall process from lead ore to very pure lead is quite complicated and lead ores contain other valuable metals like silver, so there more stages in the process than are described herehe social, economic and environmental impacts of exploiting metal ...

Lead and zinc ore is nearly always mined below the surface of the ground. Some veins of ore lie as deep as several thousand feet but most deposits lie close to the surface. Lead and zinc ore is mined almost exclusively in underground operations, though a few surface operations do exist. The use of underground or surface mining techniques depends on the proximity of the ore body to the surface ...

Lead-zinc oreintroduction:. Theprocessingtechnology oflead-zinc oremainly includes three processes: crushing, grinding and beneficiation.In the process of crushing, the three-stage closed-circuit crushing is modern and suitable for the crushing of high-hardnesslead-zinc ore, which can complete the work oforecrushing and partial dissociation, thereby improving the subsequent grinding ...

how to separate zinc and lead from ore. how to separate cadmium from zinc ore apir. The zinc formed by the reduction of its oxide was absorbed into the copper and did .. to separate each constituent mineral of complex lead and zinc sulfides in a. marketing ores and concentrates of gold, silver, copper, lead.

Lead Ore Zinc Ore in Nigeria solidminerals.weebly . Masterminds Integrated Concept LTD is a registered company in Nigeria with RC:736743 with Export Licence REG No: NE/0780/PL/2013, we major in the supply of Nigerian solid minerals Tourmaline, ZINC ORE, LEAD ORE, COLUMBITE ORE, TIN ORE, IRON ORE(MAGNETITE), SILICA SAND.Because our products are sourced directly from mines and .

Considerable effort has to be made to separate the lead ore from zinc ores. In recent years, lead has become one of most highly recycled materials in general use. Uses of lead. Over 80% of all lead produced ends up in lead-acid batteries, with lead metal as the cathode and lead(IV) oxide as the anode. In addition to starter batteries for road ...

Oxidized lead and zinc ore can be recovered by selective flocculation process, especially fines and slime. If using the selective flocculation method to separate the ore, the recovery rate will be greatly improved. Selective flocculation mainly uses high-molecular flocculants to bridge the fine particles into an arbitrary, three-dimensional, loose, porous floc. If more than two kinds of ...

Zinc processing - Zinc processing - Ores: Zinc ores are widely distributed throughout the world, although more than 40 percent of the world's output originates in North America and Australia. The common zinc-containing minerals are the zinc sulfide known as zinc blende or sphalerite (ZnS), a ferrous form of zinc blende known as marmatite [(ZnFe)S], and a zinc carbonate known as calamine or ...

How To Separate Lead And Other Material Ore. Extraction purification lead zinc titanium chromium the overall process from lead ore to very pure lead is quite complicated and lead ores contain other valuable metals like silver, so there more stages in the process than are described herehe social, economic and environmental impacts of exploiting metal ores are discussed on a separate.

Plants for the production of lead are generally referred to as lead smelters.Primary lead production begins with sintering.Concentrated lead ore is fed into a sintering machine with iron, silica, limestone fluxes, coke, soda ash, pyrite, zinc, caustics or pollution control particulates. Smelting uses suitable reducing substances that will combine with those oxidizing elements to free the metal.

Schematic owchart of mining and beneciating a typical lead-zinc ore . .... process to separate the zinc-bearing particles from the waste rock... >> Get Quotation. 6 PROCESSES TO PRODUCE ZINC AND CADMIUM ... - Eurometaux . Jul 3, 2014 ... Zinc and cadmium are often associated withtogether in ores and concentrates and a ... techniques are used to extract and separate the metals. >> Get ...

copper lead concentrate separation

copper lead concentrate separation

The ways to obtain successfulSeparation of Copper and Lead into individual Concentrates, several process approaches can be examined;bulk copper-lead flotation with a reverse flotation stagedepressing copper, the same bulk flotation with a reverse flotation to depress lead and asequential copper-lead-zinc flotation circuit as well as a simple cleaning of the bulk Cu/Pb concentrate by Pb depression.

Here is a case study, depicting the various Cu-Pb Separation methods used in Laboratory tests which, for this sample, indicated that separate copper and lead concentrates could be produced. The ore tested in a Copper/Lead/Zinc ores hosted in acid generating pyrite.

At the end, theuse of a sequential copper-lead-zinc flotation circuit produced the most efficient copperand lead separation. A bulk flotation process followed by a reverse flotation wherecopper was depressed and lead was floated from the bulk concentrate also producedseparate concentrates, butat lower efficiency than the sequential circuit.

Successful treatment of poly metallic deposits using flotation requires a thoroughunderstanding of the sulphide mineral suite present and how these mineralsfragment from each other during the grinding process.

Master Composite sample contained nearly 40percent by weight sulphides. Iron sulphides**were the most abundantcategory of sulphide mineral, accounting for nearly one quarter of thesample mass. The remaining sulphides, in order of relative abundance,were sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena. The mineralization of the MasterComposite arelow iniron sulphide content. The ratio of galena to chalcopyrite will make itdifficult to efficiently recovery high grade lead concentrates.

Chalcopyrite and galena had two dimensional liberation levels of 58 and50 percent, respectively. Interlocking between these two minerals wasrelatively rare; however, both chalcopyrite and galena had significantinterlocking with sphalerite and pyrite. Due to the nature of thisinterlocking, separation of chalcopyrite and galena is viable at this grindsize, but additional regrind power would be required to liberate pyrite andsphalerite from chalcopyrite and galena.

The limiting grade recovery curves for chalcopyrite and galena aredisplayed belowat the nominal grind sizing of P80 of 48 microns. To achievegrade and recovery points above the curve require regrinding, only pointsdirectly under the curve can be theoretically achieved.

This Copper Lead Concentrate Separation study includes the performing of 3 rougher tests and 18 batch cleaner tests. These tests were used to assess the metallurgical performance ofseveral copper and lead separation processes. The initial rougher tests were usedto determine general response of the sample and batch cleaner tests were used toexamine the various reagent schemes and flowsheet configurations. Only thebatch cleaner tests are discussed in the following subsections.

Thissample provided for this study contained 2.1 percentchalcopyrite, 0.5 percent galena, 14.3 percent sphalerite and 23 percent ironsulphides, present as mostly pyrite. The measured mineral content low in iron sulphidecontent.The fragmentation characteristics of the sample were measured at a nominal grindsize of P80 = 50um. At this grind, chalcopyrite and galena were sufficientlyliberated for recovery into a bulk rougher concentrate. More importantly, therewas very little interlocking between copper and lead sulphide, indicating aseparation of these minerals is possible at this grind size.

Chalcopyrite and galena were interlocked with mainly sphalerite and pyrite.Therefore, these minerals would require significant regrinding in advance ofdilution cleaning to achieve efficient concentration and recovery to finalconcentrates.

The sequential flotation process produced the best batch test results: The test hadthe highest selectivity between copper and lead. Copper in the feed was, onaverage, 63 percent recovered into a copper concentrate grading 24 percentcopper and 1.6 percent lead. On average, lead in the feed was 36 percentrecovered into a concentrate grading 55 percent lead. Only 0.3 percent of thecopper in the feed was recovered to the lead concentrate. This process used MBSin the copper circuit and relatively low doses of cyanide in the lead circuit.

A close second was the bulk flotation process with lead flotation reverse andcopper depression. For the best three tests, copper in the feed was 57 percentrecovered to a concentrate grading 27 percent copper and 5 percent lead. For thesame three tests, lead in the feed was 39 percent recovered into a concentrategrading 52 percent lead and 7.8 percent copper. This process requires very highdoses of cyanide, which would increase the operating cost and impose apotential environmental cost to the operation.

The other flowsheet variants and reagent schemes produced much poorer results.The tests for these flowsheets had high lead recovery to the copper concentrate.The batch cleaner test data demonstrated that separate copper and leadconcentrates could be produced from this composite sample. Itwas also demonstrated that the production of separate copper and leadconcentrates would result in reduced copper metal recovery to the copperconcentrate when compared to the bulk flotation process.

The separation by flotation of copper from lead or zinc minerals can hardly be said to be standardized at present, and no more than a brief account of the usual procedure will therefore be given. The methods in general use have a more or less similar basis in that they are variations of the standard process for the treatment of lead-zinc ores described in the previous paragraph.

When copper-bearing minerals are to be separated from galena, the first step generally consists of the bulk flotation of both classes of mineral in one copper-lead concentrate by the use of reagents very similar to those employed in the lead flotation section of a lead-zinc plant. Any zinc and iron sulphides are depressed with sodium cyanide and/or zinc sulphate and floated in subsequent zinc and iron sections in the ordinary way. The addition of cyanide for this purpose must be kept to a minimum, since not only does it depress copper-bearing sulphides if present in sufficient strength, but an excess may also result in the formation of copper cyanide in solution with consequent activation of the zinc sulphides. The depressing effect, however, is so much more pronounced on the zinc and iron than on the copper minerals that a reasonable recovery of the latter is usually possible.

The lead-copper concentrate is cleaned if necessary, diluted to a suitable pulp density, and treated in a conditioner with sodium cyanide in sufficient strength to depress the copper minerals, the galena remaining unaffected, and with enough soda ash to make the pulp distinctly alkaline; a pH value of 9.0-10.0 is usual. The pulp then passes to a flotation machine where a lead concentrate more or less free from copper is taken off after the addition of the minimum amount of frothing reagent and little or no promoter. The tailing of this operation, substantially free from galena, constitutes the copper concentrate. It is often possible by the above method to make a lead concentrate containing 50% of lead and 5% or less of copper, and a copper concentrate containing 20% or more of copper and 5% or less of lead. Higher grade concentrates than this are not common as the ores usually carry pyrite, from which it is difficult to keep the products entirely free.

Another method, which is often more effective than the preceding one, consists of the oxidation and depression of the galena by means ofsodium dichromate with subsequent flotation of the copper minerals. A bulk lead-copper concentrate is made as before and run without dilution into a conditioning tank where it is treated with sodium dichromate for the requisite period. The amount of reagent necessary varies with the percentage of lead in the concentrate. One rich in lead often requires as much as 4 lb. of dichromate per ton of original ore with a 20-minute period of contact, while a concentrate consisting mainly of copper mineral may only need 0.25 lb. per ton with a 5-minute contact. The pH value of the pulp must not fall below 7.5; it normally ranges from 7.5-8.5. After being conditioned, the pulp is diluted and pumped to a flotation machine with the addition of a small quantity of pine oil or cresylic acid. The copper sulphides can then be floated off, the galena passing out in the tailing which thus comprises the lead concentrate. The copper and lead concentrates obtained by dichromate treatment are generally of rather better grade than those made by the cyanide method.

The separation of copper-bearing from zinc sulphides is effected by two-stage selective flotation, the zinc minerals being depressed and the copper minerals brought up in the first stage with reagents similar to those required in the lead flotation section of a lead-zinc plant; the zinc sulphides are floated in the second stage in the ordinary way. The ores treated by this process are mainly those containing chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and marmatite in a very pyritic gangue. On account of the presence of pyrite, the cyanide addition must be kept to a minimum for the same reasons that make it necessary for copper-lead ores. Lime is generally employed to regulate the alkalinity on account of its action in preventing the pyrite from floating. Aerofloat and dithiophosphates are useful as promoters, since xanthates often have too great a tendency to bring up zinc and iron sulphides. One or two stages of cleaning are usually needed for the copper concentrate on account of the presence of pyrite.

When the copper mineral is chalcopyrite, it should be possible to make a copper concentrate running 20% of copper or slightly more with less than 5% of zinc, and a zinc concentrate running 40 to 50% of zinc, depending on whether the mineral is mainly marmatite or sphalerite, with less than 5% of copper.

how to process copper lead zinc ore with gold and silver by flotation

how to process copper lead zinc ore with gold and silver by flotation

The flowsheet in this study was designed to treat 500 tons per day of a complex base metal ore containing gold and silver values. The presence of free gold offers opportunity to recoverthese values in the grinding circuit so that the gold could be amalgamated, and marketed directly to the mint. The ore as mined is very wet and sticky and presents certain handling problems.

Every effort is made to recover the minerals as soon as free. Over-grinding causes slime losses which are both unnecessary and costly. The flowsheet is designed for a compact mill of a size that provides economical treatment at this tonnage.

The wet ore is delivered to the coarse ore bin directly from the mine and dumped through a grizzly to prevent any large rocks from lodging in the bin and causing subsequent problems in feeding the crusher. The stored coarse ore is crushed in two stages to produce a -inch product. The reciprocating feeder, overhead eccentric-type jaw crusher, and oversize vibrating screen were selected to alleviate problems in handling a wet and sticky ore. All chutes and transfer points should be of maximum slope to minimize sticking. In some cases chutes should be lined with Teflon if the sticky ore is a severe problem.

The ore is ground to 60% minus 200 mesh using two stages of grinding. The crushed ore is reduced to approximately 10-mesh in open circuit using a Rod Mill. This product is pumped to a cyclone using a SRL-C Pump. The cyclone underflow represents feed to the Ball Mill which operates in closed circuit with the same pump-cyclone installation. The cyclone overflow is the feed to flotation.

A duplex Mineral Jig is installed between the ball mill and pump-cyclone. The jig recovers the free gold and also produces a high grade lead concentrate that is very low in zinc content. After amalgamation of the jig concentrate using a Amalgamation Unit, the gold is recovered in the form of amalgam and the residue is considered as a final lead concentrate. Recovery of the gold as amalgam minimizes problems encountered in assaying mill products containing erratic free gold values and increases the over-all gold recovery.

A complex sulphide ore of this type requires a high degree of selectivity in the flotation process. The lead and copper must be removed in bulk as a mixed concentrate and then the zinc floated as a separate concentrate because of marketing requirements. A further separation of the lead-copper into their respective products by flotation is often economically advantageous if the crude ore contains 0.8% copper (16 pounds per ton) or more. In the case of this study, it is assumed that a separate lead-copper circuit is not warranted.

The flotation section consists of two 10-cell Sub-A Flotation Machines, one for the lead-copper and the other for the zinc. The launder arrangement and pulp flow is the same for both machines and provides double cleaning of the rougher concentrates. This intricate arrangement of pulp flows is accomplished without the use of pumps and is possible with the distinctive cell-to-cell design of the Sub-A Flotation Machine. A Conditioner is included between the two banks of flotation machines for activating the zinc and preparing it for flotation.

Conventional reagents are used in the selective flotation separation. These consist of zinc and iron sulfide depressants which are added to the grind and a collector and frother for the lead-copper sulfides. The zinc is floated with additional quantities of a collector and frother after conditioning with lime and copper sulfate. The pH of the lead circuit is approximately 8.0 and the zinc is 10.5 to 11.0.

The two concentrates are thickened using Spiral Rake Thickeners. The thickened concentrates (thickener underflows) are metered from the thickeners using Adjustable Stroke Diaphragm Pumps which feed the two Disc Filters.

The lead-copper concentrate also contains the major part of the gold and silver values present in the ore. The high gold recovery possible by a flowsheet of this type is augmented by the Mineral Jig which recovers the coarse free gold. The amalgamation residue, which is high grade lead, is combined with the lead-copper flotation concentrate in the thickener.

how to process oxidized lead-zinc ore by flotation

how to process oxidized lead-zinc ore by flotation

The problem of treating oxidized lead-zinc ores for theproduction of high-grade lead zinc concentrates is a complex problem due to the nature of the ores and to the soft sliming characteristics of the lead and zinc minerals.

The ore for treatment is a lead-zinc carbonate ore in a mixed siliceous-lime carbonate gangue. The association of the minerals and gangue requires a 65 mesh grind for liberation. The problem is to produce marketable grades of lead and zinc concentrates.

This flowsheet was developed from an exhaustive study of the minerals involved. Many theories were explored to answer the objective of producing marketable grades of lead and zinc economically. The simplicity and flexibility of this flowsheet make it particularly desirable in a period of low base metal prices. The use of a sulphidizer to activate the oxidized lead minerals and control and/or removal of reagent consumingslimes is provided ahead of the oxidized zinc flotation section.

The flowsheet uses a two- stage open circuit crushing section with a capacity of 100-275 tons per 24 hours to reduce the ore to minus inch for feed to the ball mill. The size of crushing equipment will depend on the size of ore and tonnage of material delivered to the crusher.

The classifier overflow passes to a Conditioner where sodium sulphide is added to sulphidize the oxidized lead minerals. The sulphidized lead minerals are subjected to flotation using xanthates or mercaptans and pine oil to produce a flotation concentrate which is cleaned two times to produce a high grade marketable lead concentrate.

The flotation tailing from the lead section passes to a wet cyclone to make a primary sand-slime separation. The cyclone overflow passes to a Hydroclassifier which is operated to overflow a turbid overflow which contains the minus 20 micron slimes. This step is often necessary to remove the fine slimes which interfere in the flotation of the oxidized zinc minerals.

The combined underflows from the Hydroclassifier and cyclone represent the feed to the zinc flotation section. The combined products flow to a zinc conditioner where soda ash, sodium silicate and an organic colloid are added to disperse the pulp and complex the slimes which might interfere with flotation. The additional reagents required for the zinc flotation consist of sodium sulphide, primary amines and a frother which are added to the conditioner discharge in the order stated and prior to entering the flotation machines. The rougher zinc concentrate is cleaned two times to produce a high grade zinc concentrate.

The lead and zinc flotation was conducted in Sub-A Flotation Machines which provides for the maximum grade of concentrates and the maximum flexibility for the continuous retreatment of the cleaner middlings.

The final lead and zinc concentrates are pumped by concentrate pumps to Thickeners for dewatering prior filtration. The thickener underflow at approximately 50% solids is pumped to a Disc Filter by means of a Diaphragm pump. The filter cakes pass to concentrate bins for storage.

Automatic Samplers are used to sample the feed, concentrate and tailings. A portion of the tailing from the lead flotation section is removed and treated on the Visual Sampler. The flotation results and conditions can be controlled easily by observing the concentrate streak on the table.

The OreTesting Laboratory isavailable to help youdetermine the properflowsheet for your Ore. There is no substitutefor experience.Consultation is without obligation.Charges for test work represent out out-of-pocket expenses only and are recommended as a means of eliminating risk in mining investments.

oxide lead treatment & extraction by flotation & gravity methods

oxide lead treatment & extraction by flotation & gravity methods

The problem of treating oxidized lead ores and many other oxides is complex due to the nature of the ore and to the soft, sliming characteristics of the lead oxides. These ores are usually of a sticky nature, being high in primary slimes, and are difficult to handle and feed. The lead carbonate as cerussite is very soft and tends to slime readily in crushing and grinding circuits. Soluble sulphates, particularly iron salts together with aluminum compounds, are detrimental to subsequent treatment by flotation, leaching and filtering. It is therefore necessary to recover the lead minerals at coarse sizes, as soon as free, by gravity means to affect maximum recovery. The lead sulphate as anglesite responds readily to flotation when sulphidized and can be recovered at finer sizes.

The flowsheet is designed to provide for continuous operation of the washing and crushing sections. This is done to eliminate some of the troublesome factorsinvolved in the handling, crushing and storage of sticky ores of this type. Extensive washing and disintegration is used to free the mineral from the primary slimes ahead of screening. The real merit of this flowsheet is to separate the primary slimes from the ore and then to remove any freed coarse mineral by jigs or tables and avoid further sliming by using the proper type of grinding mill with the quick removal of the fines before and after each stage. Jigging is used on all -3/8 material of the original washed ore, recovering a large percentage of both the fine and coarse freed mineral. The washed oversize feed is hand picked to remove either waste material or high grade ore prior to crushing. Note the sampling arrangements provided for accurate sampling are required for mill control. Special attention is called to the jig in the rod mill classifier circuit, and to the return and treatment of the middling products to produce the highest recovery and grade.

Oxidized ores give trouble from the time the ore enters the mill ore bin until the tailings reach the tailings pond. The ore is removed from the primary bin by means of an oversize apron feeder of the heavy duty type. Louvers should be available on the front or sides of the ore bin to enable the operator to poke the ore down into the apron feeder and thus prevent bridging. The feeder is positive and can plow through a sticky, gummy ore to give a constant, even feed to the washing scrubber trommel screen. The trommel has a washing section to disintegrate and pulp all fine materials by means of baffles, lifter bars and spray water. This is no easy task for this disintegration is essential and requires a heavy duty trommel mechanism. The washed material is screened to 3/8 in the first screening section and to 1 in the second screen section of the trommel. The plus 1 material is discharged to a picking belt which in turn feeds a Jaw Crusher, set at 1 opening. Any free mineral or even clean gangue removed from the picking belt is a low cost factor and thus the importance of the thorough washing of the ore. The 3/8 fraction goes by gravity to a Mineral Jig which produces a final jig concentrate from the slimy 3/8 mill product. This jig, due to its selective action saves the fine mineral as well as the coarse sizes. Very coarse lead minerals, if present, can be discharged by means of a center draw- off attachment on the jig.

The mineral jig tailings discharge over a Vibrating Screen and are wet screened to give a minus 6 or 8 mesh product. This is a critical point in the circuit and ample screen surface with efficient vibration is needed. The plus 6 or 8 mesh material from the vibrating screen joins the plus 3/8, minus 1 from the trommel together with the minus 1 product from the jaw crusher and is conveyed and then elevated to a small storage or surge bin. This small surge bin with its feeder is provided only to give a constant feed to the grinding section and is not intended for the storage of any large amount of ore. The minus 6 or 8 mesh from the vibrating screen is put through a Hydroclassifier for the removal of the colloidal slimes. The deslimed sand product from the hydroclassifier is pumped to the Spiral Classifier in the rod mill circuit. In some cases the slime overflow from the hydroclassifier may go to rag tables to recover contained values. Even though on some ores these primary slimes may be floated in a separate circuit or shipped direct, we must, in most cases, be careful not to allow these primary slimes to enter the main mill circuit.

The crushed ore and the screened products discharged by the bucket elevator are fed from the small surge bin to insure a uniform feed to the grinding circuit by means of a Adjustable Stroke Ore Feeder. The rod mill is provided with grate discharge liners and Spiral Screen with openings. The grate discharge rod mill reduces overgrinding and sliming of the lead minerals. The rod mill discharge passes over a Mineral Jig and to a Spiral Classifier. Most oxides and carbonates are easily broken down in any type of grinding unit and care should thus be given to the removal of the freed mineral as quickly as possible. The mineral jig, due to its selective action and low water consumption, produces a high grade concentrate.

The Spiral Classifier overflows a product of about 65 mesh directly to a Conditioner where Sulphidizer, sodium bicarbonate and a frother are added. This reagent combination produces nascent hydrogen sulphide, which is most active when initially produced. The sulphidized minerals are then subjected to quick flotation in a Sub-A Flotation Machine where a cleaned mineral concentrate is made. Naturally the coarser the mineral is floated the better, and here the Sub-A with its distinct gravity flow principle is most efficient and essential. The flotation concentrate is dewatered in a Thickener and filtered by a Disc Filter. The flotation tailings are classified to give sized products, which are then tabled to give a final tailing, a middling product and a table concentrate. The table middlings are pumped to a dewatering sand cone prior to regrinding in the rod mill to effect further recovery of the lead values from the middling product.

This flowsheet provides for the thorough washing and disintegration of the ore for the recovery of the lead minerals at a coarse size by gravity, and for the removal of colloidal primary slimes ahead of further treatment by flotation and gravity means. The grinding circuit is designed to avoid the sliming of the mineral which is so essential in the concentration of lead oxide ores. The age old principal of removing the mineral as soon as freed is surely applicable on these oxide ores.

zinc processing | britannica

zinc processing | britannica

Zinc (Zn) is a metallic element of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal structure and a density of 7.13 grams per cubic centimetre. It has only moderate hardness and can be made ductile and easily worked at temperatures slightly above the ambient. In solid form it is grayish white, owing to the formation of an oxide film on its surface, but when freshly cast or cut it has a bright, silvery appearance. Its most important use, as a protective coating for iron known as galvanizing, derives from two of its outstanding characteristics: it is highly resistant to corrosion, and, in contact with iron, it provides sacrificial protection by corroding in place of the iron.

With its low melting point of 420 C (788 F), unalloyed zinc has poor engineering properties, but in alloyed form the metal is used extensively. The addition of up to 45 percent zinc to copper forms the series of brass alloys, while, with additions of aluminum, zinc forms commercially significant pressure die-casting and gravity-casting alloys. In sheet form, zinc is used to make the cans of dry-cell batteries, and, alloyed with small amounts of copper and titanium, an improved-strength sheet is formed that has applications in the roofing and cladding of many buildings.

The separation of metallic zinc from its ores by pyrometallurgy is much more difficult than with other common metals, such as copper, lead, and iron, because the reduction of zinc oxide by carbon (C) proceeds spontaneously only above the zinc boiling point of 907 C (1,665 F). Efficient methods of condensing the vapour to liquid metal were not discovered until the 14th century. As an alloy constituent, however, zinc was in use well before that time. Brass, an alloy of copper and zinc, was produced by the Romans as early as 200 bce by heating copper, zinc oxide (ZnO), and carbon together. The zinc formed by the reduction of its oxide was absorbed into the copper and did not appear as a separate phase.

Evidence suggests that zinc was first produced in quantity in India and China. At Zawar in Rajasthan, India, the remains of a smelting industry dating from the 14th century have been found. Although no written record exists, the process appears to have involved large numbers of small clay retorts, which were charged with zinc oxide and charcoal, placed in a setting, and heated. The exact method of condensing and collecting the zinc can only be surmised.

Subsequent commercial procedures for zinc production all involved retort processes, the key overall reaction being initiated by external heat and involving the reduction of ZnO to zinc vapour by carbon, which was itself oxidized to carbon monoxide (CO). Important advances were made by William Champion in Bristol, England, in the mid-18th century, by Johann Ruberg in Silesia in the late 18th century, and by Jean-Jacques-Daniel Dony in Lige, Belgium, in the early 19th century. Belgian-type horizontal retorts were operated in Britain as the main zinc-producing process for about 100 years starting in the mid-19th century. The daily output of each retort was about 40 kilograms (90 pounds), and several hundred retorts were banked together and fired by gas. The process was physically arduous in the extreme and suffered all the disadvantages of small-scale batch operation with high energy and labour costs.

In the late 1920s a continuous vertical-retort process was developed in the United States. The retort was constructed of silicon carbide brick for high heat conductivity, with a rectangular cross section of two metres (six feet) by one-third metre and a height of 11 metres. The charge of roasted sulfide concentrate and anthracite coal was sized, briquetted, and preheated in a coking furnace prior to charging to the heated retort. Zinc vapour, removed with CO at the top of the retort, was condensed in a stirred molten-zinc bath. The output of each retort was about eight tons per day, and a typical plant operated about 20 retorts.

A variant of the vertical retort, known as the electrothermic furnace, was also developed in the United States at about the same time. In this process, heat was supplied through the direct electrical-resistance heating of the coke in the charge.

The most serious disadvantage of the improved retort processes was that they were restricted to ore concentrates with a low iron content, because high iron content in the feed caused plates of iron to form in the retorts. For this reason, zinc production by this means is now obsolete.

Early attempts to devise a blast-furnace process for zinc production failed because of the difficulty of condensing zinc vapour from a gas containing substantial quantities of carbon dioxide. This difficulty was finally overcome in the mid-20th century by the development of the lead-splash condenser, a means of shock-cooling furnace gases and absorbing zinc vapour into solution in molten lead. This allowed the zinc blast furnace to become the main pyrometallurgical means of producing zinc.

The zinc blast furnace should actually be referred to as the zinc-lead blast furnace, since, beginning with the first successful recycling of lead drosses from the condenser, blast-furnace operations evolved to the handling of mixed zinc-lead feed materials up to a ratio of 2:1 zinc to lead.

The major zinc-recovery process, electrolysis, made steady progress after commercial operation commenced around 191518. Prior to this, numerous attempts had been made, without success, following a patented method of sulfate electrolysis by the Frenchman Lon Letrange in 1881. The discovery that a high-purity sulfate electrolyte was required led to the eventual success of the process.

lead zinc mining process | equipment | flow | cases - jxsc

lead zinc mining process | equipment | flow | cases - jxsc

Description Lead and zinc are widely used in electrical industry, machinery industry, military industry, metallurgical industry, chemical industry, light industry, pharmaceutical industry, nuclear industry, petroleum industry, etc. More than 80% of the world's lead is used in the production of lead-acid batteries. Zinc is an important non-ferrous metal raw material, it is second only to copper and aluminum in the consumption of non-ferrous metals. It has good calendering, wear resistance and corrosion resistance.

Relation to Mining Zinc is recovered from a number of different zinc minerals. The most significant of these is sphalerite. Other minerals, such as smithsonite (ZnCO3, zinc carbonate), and zincite (ZnO, zinc oxide) are also zinc ores. Zinc is also recycled from scrap.

In the U.S., six lead mines in Missouri, plus lead-producing mines in Alaska and Idaho, accounted for all domestic mine production. Significant amounts of lead are recovered as a by-product or co-product from zinc mines, and silver-copper deposits. Primary refined lead was produced at one smelter-refinery in Missouri. Of the plants that produced secondary lead at year end 2013, 12 had capacities of 30,000 tons per year of refined lead or greater and accounted for more than 95% of secondary production.

According to the degree of oxidation, lead-zinc ore divide into lead-zinc sulfide mine (oxidation rate <10%), lead-zinc oxide ore (oxidation rate >75%) and mixed lead-zinc ore (oxidation rate is 10%~75%) ).

1 Lead-zinc sulfide ore 1. Beneficiation process of lead-zinc sulfide ore: The main constituent minerals of lead sulphide ore are galena and sphalerite, all of which are primary ore. Galena has good floatability. In most lead-zinc mines, zinc is higher than lead. Most of the lead-zinc sulfide mine uses preferential flotation technology, floating lead and zinc-suppressing, which is often reasonable both technically and economically.

2 Lead-zinc oxide ore In the lead-zinc oxide ore, lead is mainly present in the state of leucite and lead bismuth, and zinc is mostly present in the state of smithsonite and willemite. Oxidized ore is gradually formed by the action of long-term weathering and groundwater containing carbonate. Regarding the flotation of lead-zinc ore, the lead oxide ore is generally applied by the flotation of xanthate, and the zinc oxide ore is generally applied by the method of flotation of ammonium sulfide.

Jaw Crusher, Cone Crusher: crush ore to a smaller size, make the target minerals and gangue minerals dissociated. Vibrating screen: The mixture material is divided into different grades according to the particle size, and the qualified particle size products are sorted to avoid excessive pulverization of the ore and improve the productivity of the crusher. Ball mill: grind ore to a finer particle size. Hydrocyclone: Distribute qualified products in time to avoid over-grinding, and at the same time, separate unqualified coarse sand and return to grinding. Flotation machine: The slurry is aerated and agitated, so that the ore particles whose surface has been subjected to the collector are attached to the bubbles, scraped off with a scraper to obtain a concentrate. Thickener: The process of precipitating and concentrating the slurry to separate the thinner slurry from the clarified liquid and the slurry. Filter: Remove most of the capillary water from the material.

15TPH Tailings Lead & Barite Extraction Plant in Iran Material: tailings contain lead 2% and barite 20% Capacity: 15TPH Country: Iran Feeding size: 1mm Raw mineral description: Mineral composition: 12,000 tons of tailings which contain lead 2% and barite 20%

Mining Equipment Manufacturers, Our Main Products: Gold Trommel, Gold Wash Plant, Dense Media Separation System, CIP, CIL, Ball Mill, Trommel Scrubber, Shaker Table, Jig Concentrator, Spiral Separator, Slurry Pump, Trommel Screen.

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