how to use stone crusher

4 types of stone crushers' maintenance and efficient improvement | fote machinery

4 types of stone crushers' maintenance and efficient improvement | fote machinery

There are different types of stone crushers in mining industry such as jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher, and sand making machine. This article will tell you how to maintain the 4 types of rock crushers and how to efficicently improve their performance.

Many stone crusher operators have a common coception that is "don't-fix-it-if-it-isn't-broke". They may want to save cost at the begining while the consequence is that they have to spend more money on repair and face interuption on production. That's why I always say that preventive and predictive is very important for all types of stone crusher.

Preventive means that by making regular checklist and inspections to keep crushers in good condition. Maintenance checklist is usually set up on a daily (8 hours), weekly (40 hours), monthly (200 hours), yearly (2,000 hours). Only doing that, can you prolong the machine's life span and maximize its value in crushing process.

Predictive refers to mornitoring the condition of crusher when it is running. By some maintenance tools such as lubricating oil temperature sensors, lubricating oil filter condition indicator, you can timely draw the machine data so that making a comparison between the real situation and normal state. Predictive can help you find problem early then timely removing thers issues before demage occuring.

Ractive means that even if your crushers have got problems, as long as you adopt correct solutions to respond, you still can get your machine back to normal. Next, I'll introduce important skills to maintain your equipment.

The cone crusher in the secondary or tertiary crushing proccess often fractures medium-hard or hard rocks like pebble, quartz, granite, etc. It is easy to get premature crusher failure, if operators cannot make a correct and timely inspection and maintenance.

Mantle in moveable cone and concave is fixed cone. Due to directly contacting with rock materials, the two wear parts need frequent maintenance and protection. So operators have to know the preparations and maintaining skills.

The working principle of impact crusher is that the spinning rotor under the driving of the motor can genetate strong impact force which make blow bars crush stone material into small pieces. Then the crushed material would be thrown by hammers towards, which makes another crushing process "stone to stone".

The sand making machine is also known as the vertical shaft impact crusher. Its working mode is that the material falls vertically from the upper part of the machine into the high-speed rotating impeller. The impeller is one of the important parts of the sand making machine, and it is also the most vulnerable part.

After the materials collide with each other, they will be pulverized and smashed between the impeller for multiple times and discharged from the lower part. The materials crushed by the device have an excellent particle size and are suitable for aggregate shaping, artificial sand making and highway construction.

In the face of such a dazzling market, how to choose the production equipment suitable for users' actual needs among the numerous equipment brands of many machinery manufacturers is a big problem for many large and small enterprises. Here we list top 4 world's construction equipment manufacturers for you to choose:

As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.

Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.

the complete guide to crushed stone and gravel

the complete guide to crushed stone and gravel

In this article, we are going to take a deep dive into the types of crushed stone and gravel, how they are made, and their basic applications. You may not be a quarry expert at the end, but you will understand the basics for your next concrete or hardscaping project!

Most crushed stone is produced in quarries and is crushed when machinery breaks up and crushes larger rocks. Instead of being shaped or formed naturally, such as in a riverbed or canyon, crushed stone is produced with man-made machinery and processes.

It begins with using a rock crusher in a quarry or site with plenty of large rocks. There are many types of crushers, but their main job is the same: Crush larger rocks into smaller pieces to be used for construction material.

Crushed stone is then passed through different screeners to be organized and stored in different piles according to their size. The screening process starts by removing larger stones, then medium stones, and eventually goes all the way down to the stone dust.

This screening is important because contractors need very specific types of crushed stone to complete different types of projects. For example, you dont want large stones in ready mix concrete, and you dont want stone dust in drainage systems.

After being sorted into different piles depending on the size of the stone, the stone is ready to be shipped from the quarry. Quarries deliver directly to job sites, to concrete plants, or to wholesale distributors who sell the stone through retail to customers.

Because large stones and quarries are hard on tires and require heavy metal, crushed stone was hard to make and transport until heavy machinery with tracks was developed. WW2 expedited the development of this machinery, and crushed stone began to be widely used in construction projects in the 1940s and 1950s.

Large-scale building projects, particularly in infrastructure like the Eisenhower Interstate System, helped usher in an era where crushed stone was used in almost every part of construction. Foundations, concrete, drainage systems, and roads were all needing large quantities of crushed stone.

An example of this often occurs when a road is being replaced or resurfaced. Many road construction companies are beginning to grind and crush the existing road as they remove it. This crushed road, which is essentially crushed stone, then becomes the base for the new road.

The exact amount of crushed stone recycling is unknown due to a lack of reporting. Much of the crushed stone is also recycled right on the construction site, especially with road construction, and this makes it difficult to measure.

The most common use for recycled crushed stone is as a base for roadways, especially when the old road can be torn up, crushed, and reused. Concrete blocks and bricks can also be crushed and recycled as a base.

Crushed stone often has an angular and jagged edge that occurs during the crushing process. Gravel, on the other hand, typically has a very smooth texture and surface because of the natural weathering and wear of being exposed to the effects of running water.

Metamorphic: Metamorphic rocks become changed through intense heat or pressure. Similar to clay hardening in an oven, metamorphic rocks become very hard and crystallized by intense or heat or pressure.

If you go to a creek or river, you see all types of rocks, both large and small. These larger rocks can be used for foundations or other building projects, but typically gravel is screened and only the smaller pieces are used.

Pea gravel: Pea gravel is some of the smallest gravel - typically or smaller in size. Pea gravel is often used in places like fish tanks, walkways, swimming pools, or other places where foot traffic occurs or small gravel is needed.

When thinking of construction, it is important to know what kinds of rock are ideal for specific applications. After all, if a rock type crumbles easily under pressure, you dont want to use it as a component in ready mix concrete or pavement.

Granite: An igneous rock that is durable and is easily polished. Because of the color, grain, and polishing ability; they are often used inside homes for countertops or on the outside of monumental or civic buildings. However, they can also be used on bridge piers and river walls.

Limestone: A sedimentary rock that is the most commonly used to make crushed stone in the United States. One of the most versatile rocks for construction, limestone is able to be crushed easily making it a primary rock used in ready mix concrete, road construction, and railroads. It is widely available in quarries across the country.

Slate: A metamorphic rock typically found in layers. Because it is easily mined and cut in these natural layers, it works well in applications requiring thin rock layers. Common examples are roofing tiles, certain types of chalkboards, gravestones, and some pavement applications.

Laterite: A metamorphic rock with a highly porous and sponge structure. It is easily quarried in block form and used as a building stone. However, it is important to plaster the surface to eliminate the pores.

Stone dust: This is the very fine dust, similar to sand, that is created as the stone is crushed. Stone dust is useful when tamping or packing stone, but it causes problems for applications where water needs to drain, such as behind a retaining wall.

Clean stone: If crushed stone is clean, it has been screened so the majority of the stone dust has been removed, but some dust is still mixed in. This is useful for the top layer of a stone driveway or other places where some minor compaction is not harmful.

Washed clean stone: This is stone that has been screened like clean stone, but then also washed to ensure there is no stone dust on the finished product. This is often used for drainage purposes, for ready mix concrete, or places that need aesthetic appeal, such as curbing or decorative stone.

Crushed stone: If you hear the generic crushed stone term, it usually refers to stone that has a mixture of stone dust in it. This type of stone is best used for a base when heavy compaction is needed. As a result, it is typically used for the base of concrete and paving projects, foundations of structures, and driveway bases.

Or, if we were putting the base down for a patio, we want stone that compacts well and makes a strong base. Therefore, we want our stone to have stone dust, so we would call the quarry and order 2 crushed stone.

When putting down gravel in a flowerbed, make sure you start by laying down a quality landscape fabric, securely stake the fabric in place, and then layer the gravel on top of the fabric, usually 2-3 thick.

Stone dust compacts and hardens, especially when it becomes wet. Since drains need to always be open, it is important to keep stone dust out of drains. Therefore, construction projects needing drainage systems make sure they use only stone that has been cleaned and washed.

Crushed stone and gravel will continue to be a staple in construction, decoration, and industry for years to come. As recycling picks up, mining and quarries may slow down, but we will always need crushed stone in general construction and industry.

If you want to learn more about ready mix concrete and preparing for it, read our blog post on the Beginner's guide to concrete and the complete guide to pouring concrete in different types of weather.

jaw plates: how to choose the right one for different types of jaw crushers | fote machinery

jaw plates: how to choose the right one for different types of jaw crushers | fote machinery

The jaw plate is an important part in the jaw crusher equipment, and its service life directly affects the whole jaw crusher equipment. Therefore, you must consider the hardness and toughness of the jaw plate when you want to choose a correct one.

The wear of jaw plate depends on the types of your material and other variables such as material sizes. Too many fines enter the jaw crusher cavity will accelerate the wear speed of jaw plates because the fines fills the valleys which is necessary for the crusher to crush efficiently.

Generally, a jaw crusher finishes the crushing process by squeezing the material between stationary and moving jaw plates. The peaks and valleys of the jaw plates are offset from one another and use the mechanical advantage of leverage to break the rock.

Without this, the crusher has to rely on energy and friction to crush the rock. The compaction will also impose increased loads on the jaw crusher plates as much as five times the normal crushing force.

If the feeding material is over-sized, it also seriously affects the service life. In most applications, the reduction ratio of a jaw crusher is 6 to 1. Exceeding the reduction ratio will generate the crushing forces that break the crushers design limits and affect your overall production and machine performance.

That the jaw plate is severely worn can lead to uneven particle size and low efficiency, which indicates that you have to replace the jaw plates. If you want to choose a correct one, you should consider their different materials according to the purpose and real situation.

High manganese steel contains a relatively high carbon content which plays an important role in wear resistance. In general, the hardness increases with the growth of carbon content. Under non-strong impact conditions, increasing the carbon content is beneficial to improve the wear resistance of steel. And this is why high manganese steel has good deformation hardening ability.

Medium manganese steel has strong hardening ability and stable performance, which creates the function of self-protection when the law plates are subjected to impact and wear. The medium manganese steel jaw plate has achieved good results in the actual production process, and improves service life by 20% compared with that of the high manganese steel jaw plate.

Medium-carbon-low-alloy cast steel is a widely used wear-resistant material at present. Mainly because of its high hardness and suitable toughness, it can resist fatigue spalling caused by repeated extrusion of materials, and shows good wear resistance.

It can also be adjusted by composition and heat treatment to make the hardness and toughness be changed within a large range. That shows high flexibility strong adaption to the requirements of different working conditions.

The hardness of the material-The hardness of the material is also an important factor in choosing the jaw plate. The material hardness determines the toughness and strength requirements of the corresponding jaw plate.

For large jaw crushers, the crushed material is huge-block, which forces the jaw plate to accept strong impact and wear. For that situation, the high manganese steel can give full play to the advantages of good toughness and hardness.

Note: If the flare angle between the moving and fixed jaw plates is too large, it is easy to cause the sliding of the abrasive, deformation and insufficient hardening of the high manganese steel. So sometimes you should adjust the appropriate flare angle during use.

If you need to deal with materials with high hardness such as granite, quartz stone, concrete, etc., the medium manganese steel is the most suitable because of its strong hardening ability. Besides, it has a self-protection mechanism when crushing high hardness materials, which can greatly reduce the wear rate.

Medium and small sized jaw crushers usually bear a low impact load, so under such conditions, medium-carbon-low-alloy steel materials are more suitable. Not only can the disadvantages of high manganese steel difficult to reach the application hardness be avoid, but it also bring good technical and economic benefits.

Fote crusher manufacturer is committed to producing various types of high-quality crushers, and also sell jaw plates and other parts of various materials. You only need to leave some simple information on our website, such as crusher model and specifications, materials, or other requirements, and we will quickly match the jaw plate suitable for your jaw crusher machines.

As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.

Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.

aqw stone crusher ultimate guide ~ aqw world

aqw stone crusher ultimate guide ~ aqw world

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stop using limestone screenings / crusher dust / stone dust for pavers how to hardscape

stop using limestone screenings / crusher dust / stone dust for pavers how to hardscape

As an industry, we always need to be focusing on how we can improve our business for the benefit of our clients, employees, and ourselves for the long term. Adapting the best practices in the industry that have been embraced by manufacturers and other business owners alike help to move our industry forward. When it comes to the installation process and the materials used for the installation process, there are a few different systems that have been embraced by some in the industry.

For example, the synthetic base using paver base panels or open graded bases have been growing in popularity in recent years. These systems help to improve our efficiency on site and help to bring our client the best possible system to meet their site needs. In reality, there is not one system that can be applied to every single application. It is best to choose the installation system that suits your site and application.

However, there is one material that should NEVER be used with hardscapes yet we still see it being stocked by suppliers and used by some contractors. Even when we search online, we see some information recommending this material to be used. This material is stone dust, limestone screenings, crusher dust, or whatever it is that you may call it. This post is dedicated to convincing you to STOP using this material for your base preparation in order to ensure that you are providing your customers with the best possible end product. If you are still using this material, now is the time to stop using it in your installs.

Stone dust, limestone screenings, crusher dust, or whatever you may refer to it as is the byproduct of crusher run creating a dust and chip combination. Because it is basically the remains of the processing of gravel, it is typically the least expensive option of aggregate to use which is one of the advantages of using it. It is also beneficial for those that manufacture it to be able to sell it, as it is basically just the leftovers, scraps, remains of their processing. Though with many aspects of life, you get what you pay for and stone dust is not what you should be using for your hardscape installation.

Despite what will be discussed in this article, there are still many hardscape contractors that use and stand by this product in their installation. This is because for a long time this is what has been used and passed down from one contractor to the next. Though in the recent decade, using this material for your installs has come into question by governing bodies and manufacturers in the industry for good reason.

Now a common rebutle to using stone dust is, Well I have used stone dust for years and have had no issues with it. Just because you have not had issues that have been reported to you, does not mean that you should stick with a product that has so many proven disadvantages. Additionally, not all issues are reported by clients. If you have the referrals that allow you to cherry pick clients you likely are not choosing the clients that are picky and willing to report a small issue that arises. Also, not every project installed on stone dust is going to fail. Though it is easy to pick out those projects installed on stone dust that have failed and why.

It is time to embrace other installation methods that will allow you to improve efficiency, increase the lifetime of the project, and provide your customer with the best possible end product while making you the most money. Living in an area where we experience numerous frost cycles a year and see projects that are built improperly fail when we inevitably get those phone calls from clients wanting us to come fix their project that another contractor installed, I can almost always know what caused that issue. The use of stone dust that caused heaving, efflorescence, or polymeric sand problems is confirmed by simply lifting one stone and seeing that chip dust underneath it. It is also important to note that it does not matter the climate where you are installing it, there are still reasons why you should not use stone dust whether or not you experience frost cycles.

Stone dust uses do not include being used for pavers, retaining walls, or other hardscape products. There may be areas in which this material could be used, but not under any hardscape products. If you are thinking of using stone dust for a bedding layer under a patio, walkway, or driveway, here are the compelling reasons why you should not.

Does stone dust get hard? Yes, it does and this is one of the reasons people use for wanting to apply it in their installations. But this is not a good reason to use it. Stone dust does not drain well, keeping water sitting above it and below the product installed while the water very slowly if ever drains through. This causes the next two problems that are listed below, but for those that experience frost-thaw cycles will know that this water will cause a major problem. These cycles will cause shifting, heaving, and sinking of pavers.

With water not being drained properly underneath the product that is installed because of the stone dust, the bottom of pavers will slowly disintegrate over time. Unfortunately, this may not be an issue until pavers are lifted when a repair needs to be made. In this case, a major issue arises in which the same pavers will not be able to be used again. In worst case scenarios, this disintegration presents a major problem in the structural integrity of the installation. In best case scenarios, the pavers that your client wanted to reuse now need to be disposed of and new product needs to be purchased.

One of the main selling points of pavers is their durability and the fact that your client is investing in a product that is going to last them much longer than several other products on the market. But when they disintegrate from the bottom up, you are removing that selling point with the use of stone dust underneath them.

Along with the moisture problems presented above comes the issue of efflorescence. This is a salt deposit that occurs with the presence of water in concrete. With proper drainage, efflorescence should not be an ongoing concern with your install even though it may be apparent in some of the product you are installing. With a quick cleaning of the product, you can resolve this problem and it should not reoccur if installed correctly. However, if it is installed on top of stone dust then the problem will only get worse. This is because stone dust does not allow that drainage to occur, the water will sit on top of it, and the product will remain saturated creating an efflorescence problem on the surface of the stone. This is an extremely unsightly problem. It may just be a little bit, enough for your customer to brush off, but it is a problem nonetheless. One that will not go away unless the stone dust is removed.

Various jointing compounds on the market require there to be a moisture-free joint to be installed or at least to allow the compound to cure. This is definitely the case for polymeric sands. The joint needs to be dry for the installation and the bedding layer needs to be able to allow the water to drain after wetting to activate the sand in order for the sand to cure. With stone dust, this process cannot be achieved. Even though you may be able to achieve it because you get a dry spell in the weather and you used the perfect amount of water that it reached the bottom of the joint without over watering, water will still find its way to the bedding layer over time even with the low penetration rate of polymeric sand and will cause issues in the future. The same thing goes for sealers. When using a solvent based sealer, there cannot be any moisture present otherwise it has no way to work its way up to the surface and through the film that this sealer creates. This will only create an unsightly project.

If none of these problems that can be caused by stone dust have deterred you away from ever using the material again, then this one should. If it does not, then you cannot possibly be a client focused in your business. The use of stone dust voids the product warranty of paver manufacturers and jointing compound manufacturers. This may be worded in the warranty as being installed according to the Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute (ICPI) standards or to the manufacturers standards which both include not using stone dust according to their cross-sections or installation standards. That warranty is a major selling point to your client and whether or not you discuss this with them in the selling process, they may already be aware of it through their research of the manufacturer. If a problem arises with the project and they want to reach out for a warranty claim, you will be held responsible even if you did not provide your own warranty of the project. At the very least, this will hurt your reputation as a contractor to your client and the manufacturer. If you are in business for the long term, this should definitely have you questioning if you should still be using stone dust.

Changing the material you use under your pavers may not seem like a major issue if you have not experienced problems. But this is a much larger discussion than just that. This is about your reputation and relationships that you have with your manufacturers and clients. You want to be able to provide your clients with the best possible end product that is going to last, you want that to build your reputation for the long term, and you want to create relationships with manufacturers that you can stand behind and they can stand behind your work.

The Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute (ICPI), the governing body for best practices in the industry, does not approve of using stone dust under pavers. Their recommendation is to use a coarse-grained sand that complies with ASTM C33 standards. When comparing stone dust vs sand, this sand is definitely an acceptable material to use under pavers. It provides drainage, wont eat away at the pavers, and it compacts well. With the compaction of the pavers, the sand will work its way into the joints of the pavers from below creating that interlock that is required in an interlocking system.

This is not the only material that we recommend, as we cannot remember the last time we actually used this sand for the bedding material to seat our pavers in. These days we prefer a 3/8 or 1/4 clear angular chip, sometimes referred to as High Performance Bedding (HPB) for this. This allows us to work in the rain and not worry about washout, not to mention any washout that may occur over years in that project. It provides excellent drainage that prevents many of the problems discussed in this article.

This material works incredibly well in an open graded base system or as the leveling layer in a synthetic base application, both of which are systems that we have almost exclusively moved to in our business for numerous reasons. If you want to learn more about these systems and their benefits, click the links to see if they have applications in your business model.

Ultimately this article is meant to educate, not to offend. The hope is that you can approach this with an open mind and understand that you are actually doing your clients, your business, and the industry a disservice by using stone dust in your installs. Instead of sticking to what you are used to, take the time to learn new systems that will make your business more efficient. In turn this will keep more money in your pocket which will allow you to grow your business. Your reputation and relationships will grow with your clients and manufacturers. Not to mention that you can use this education as a selling point to future clients, educating them the different systems you use for the different applications and why you do so in order to bring them the most value possible.

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how to choose stone crusher - zhongde heavy industries co.,ltd

how to choose stone crusher - zhongde heavy industries co.,ltd

Stone crusher is the preferred equipment for sand and gravel production. As there are many types of sand and gravel equipment, many friends in the sand and gravel industry are not very clear about the types and production capacity of sand and gravel equipment even if they have been in the industry for many years. With the vigorous expansion of the sand and gravel industry now, more and more new friends have begun to join and old friends have begun to expand the scale. There is more and more demand for stone crushers, and the need to know stone crushers is also increasing and more urgent.

Sand making machinehas two functions of sand making and shaping. It can effectively make marble, pebbles, iron ore, limestone, and other stones into small stones and sand of different sizes. This equipment has always been a popular machine to make artificial sand. It is often used in the last process of a sand making production line. By shaping the stone, it has better quality in line with relevant national standards.

Stone crushers used for crushing stones include jaw crushers, hammer crushers, compound crushers, impact crushers, etc. If the particles you need are slightly smaller, use a sand making machine. Generally, a stone crusher is used for crushing stones.

Coarse crushing equipment-jaw crusher. In the coarse crushing stage of stone crushing, the main function of the jaw crusher is to crush the original and large materials into suitable specifications for use in the second stage of crushing. Various ores such as granite, limestone, cobblestone, bluestone, calcite, etc. can be used.

Medium and fine crushing equipment-impact crusher, impact crusher is usually used in the medium crushing stage. It uses impact energy to crush materials, and the finished materials are mostly cubes. It is ideal processing equipment for aggregates for high-level road surface and hydropower construction. It should be noted that the impact crusher is more suitable for crushing materials below medium hardness, such as limestone, coal gangue, weathered rock, etc., and is more suitable for processing and using small and medium-sized stone production lines.

Medium and fine crushing equipment-hydraulic cone crusher, in addition to impact crusher, cone crusher is also commonly used medium and fine crushing equipment, there are different options such as spring cone crusher and hydraulic cone crusher. Hydraulic cone crusher is a new generation of cone crusher, which is superior to other cone crushers in terms of technology and crushing performance.

In addition to the above-mentioned crushing equipment, a complete stone crushing production line also requires feeders, conveyors, vibrating screens, and other auxiliary equipment. How to use each piece of equipment together is closely related to the types of crushed materials and the use of materials. It is recommended that you choose a reliable company to design the plan, and the overall design of the production line, the selection of equipment, the quality of finished materials, the output, and other factors will be taken into consideration, so there is a high probability that there will be no mistakes.

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