how to works ball mill in 210 mw plants

thermal performance and economic analysis of 210mwe coal-fired power plant

thermal performance and economic analysis of 210mwe coal-fired power plant

Ravinder Kumar, Avdhesh Kr. Sharma, P. C. Tewari, "Thermal Performance and Economic Analysis of 210MWe Coal-Fired Power Plant", Journal of Thermodynamics, vol. 2014, Article ID 520183, 10 pages, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/520183

This paper presents the thermal and economic performance of a 210MWe coal-fired power plant situated in North India. Analysis is used to predict coal consumption rate, overall thermal efficiency, mass flow rate of steam through boiler, and Net present value (NPV) of plant for given load. Thermodynamic analysis was carried out using mass and energy equations followed by empirical correlations. Predicted mass flow rate of steam, coal consumption rate, and thermal efficiency give fair agreement with plant operating data. The economic analysis includes operational activities such as equipment cost, fuel cost, operations and maintenance cost, revenue, and plant net present value. From economic point of view, the effect of condensate extraction pump redundancy on net present value is observed to be sensitive than boiler feed pump redundancy.

Thermal power plant working is based on Rankine cycle, where the thermal efficiency of cycle can be thermodynamically improved by increasing the mean temperature of heat addition, that is, by introducing feedwater heating systems. Numerous researchers [13] have reported enhancement in thermal efficiency by dividing overall enthalpy equally via feedwater heaters. It was proposed by [4] that the thermodynamic performance of Rankine cycle power plant can be improved by reducing volumetric flow rate of steam. Later, researchers tried to improve the efficiency of the plant by increasing steam pressure, which resulted in degradation of the steam quality at the turbine exhaust. To overcome such problems, steam reheating was introduced after high pressure turbine exhaust, which leads to decrease of the moisture content at low-pressure turbine exhaust. The effect of reheat pressure on cycle efficiency was investigated [5]. They reported best performance of steam power plant at optimal reheat pressure. All the modifications/improvements in Rankine cycle (like feed water heating and reheating) lead to a substantial improvement in cycle efficiency. The study [6] on energy analysis of 250MWe Hamedan steam power plant suggested that energy loss mainly occurs in the condenser.

The economic analysis of the plant has been carried out in past on the basis of initial capital investment, operating costs, annual revenue, and profit obtained. The Net present value of plant has been evaluated in the literature [7]. The equipment include steam turbine, boiler, generators, and other auxiliary components such as pumps, condensers, and so forth. Researchers reported considerable work on economic analysis using net present worth method in the various process industries. Sensitivity analysis for the capacity improvement of a combined cycle power plant (100600MW) concerning economic performance has been studied [8]. Economic feasibility and financial risk of refuse derived fuel (RDF) production plants have been instead evaluated on the basis of the Net present value index over a capacity range of 25200t/h comparing either single RDF production plants or facilities integrating also compost production and/or electricity generation [9]. The Net present value (NPV) approach was implemented to determine the economic manufacturing quantities for an unreliable production system over an infinite planning horizon [10]. The feasibility of using biomass to provide electricity in combustion and gasification plants was investigated and evaluated [11]. The study of economic feasibility of constructing a 560MW coal-fired power plant in Turkey, using real options theory, was discussed [12]. A parametric study concerning the use of combined cycle technologies for power generation and cost-benefit analysis was carried out using the independent power producers optimization algorithm in which the electricity unit cost was calculated by independent power producers in Cyprus [13]. Performance, cost, and emissions data for coal and natural gas-fired power plants were presented, based on information from studies carried out recently for the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Program by major engineering contractors and process licensors [14]. A new methodology is presented for new design of power plants, which combines the benefits of thermodynamics, economics, and mathematical optimization [15]. In order to account for the cost of the investment required, the total capital cost must be placed on an annual basis. The annual cost consists due to interest accumulated on the investment, depreciation, maintenance, insurance, and taxes. The equipment life deteriorates with time and its depreciation cost is associated with it and thus, loses value [16].

This work presents the thermal and economic analysis of thermal power plant using thermodynamic analysis, and economic analysis based on Net present value approach. The predicted results agree with plant operating data.

A schematic diagram of 210MWe unit of a coal-fired power plant is shown in Figure 1. In power plants, several physical, chemical, and mechanical processes are conducted to transfer the energy, stored in fossil fuel, into electrical energy. This energy conversion is divided into several stages. Thermal power plant (Figure 5) uses coal as feedstock to convert it into mechanical energy through the expansion of steam from a high pressure in a suitable prime mover called steam turbine. Generator coupled with turbine produces electrical energy. Coal received from collieries in the rail wagons is mechanically unloaded by wagon tippler and transported by belt conveyor system to the boiler raw coal bunkers. The crushed coal, when not required for raw coal bunkers, is carried to coal storage area through belt conveyor and telescopic chute. The quantity of coal from coal bunkers to coal mill is regulated through raw coal chain feeder, where coal is pulverized into the fine powder form. The pulverized coal is then sucked by vapor fan and finally stored in the pulverized coal bunkers. The pulverized coal is then pushed to the boiler furnace, which is comprised of water tube walls all around through which water circulates. This chemically treated water running through the walls of boiler furnace gets evaporated at high temperature into steam by getting furnace heat. This steam is further heated in the superheater (SH). The superheated steam produced in the superheater enters into the high pressure Turbine (HPT). After expansion in HPT, cold reheat steam is divided into two streams, one is sent for reheating in reheater (RH), and another is sent towards high pressure feedwater heater (HP-1). Steam then passes through intermediate pressure turbine (IPT) and low pressure turbine (LPT) respectively. The incoming stream of steam towards IPT from HPT after RH is divided into three streams. One is sent towards intermediate pressure feedwater heater (HP-2), and the other two are sent towards Deaerator (DR) and LPT respectively. Similarly the incoming stream of steam towards LPT from IPT is divided into four streams, and out of these four streams, three streams are sent towards low pressure feedwater heater (LP-1, LP-2 and LP-3) and one stream is sent towards condenser, respectively. The steam after doing useful work in the turbine is condensed in condenser. The condensate is sent by condensate extraction pumps (CEP) towards gland steam cooler (GSC), drain cooler (DC) and remaining is sent towards low pressure feedwater heaters. Since the extracted steam upon condensation gets subcooled so the drain cooler (DC) is used. From the last low pressure feedwater heater (LP-1) outlet, the condensate enters in deaerator shell. Boiler feed pump (BFP) supplies this condensate quantity from deaerator (DR) to Low Pressure Feedwater Heaters and High Pressure Feed Water Heaters respectively. Boiler feed pump (BFP) is a multistage pump provided for pumping feedwater (FW) to economizer. Three pumps each of 50% of total capacity are provided out of which two pumps work in parallel and third will be reserve. After HP-1 the condensate passes through economizer (ECO) and finally it enters into the boiler drum. Hence the cycle is completed.

High pressure feedwater heater receives superheated steam bled from the turbine at state 1, the steam is first desuperheated then condensed and finally subcooled, whereas the feedwater gets heated as shown in Figure 2. The schematic diagram of high pressure feedwater heater HP-1 (for ) is shown in Figure 3.

Energy balance: where and . is the fractional mass flow with total steam flow from boiler. TTD and ETD are terminal and entry temperature difference of feedwater heaters. The value of TTD and ETD is taken to be 5C and 2C, respectively. The pressure for each turbine extraction is supplied empirically using design data of 210MWe thermal power plants (see Table 1) as given by (3) as The formulations of high pressure feedwater heater (HP-2) (Figure 13), deaerator (Figure 14), low pressure feedwater heaters (LP-1, LP-2, LP3) (Figures 15, 16, and 17), drain cooler (Figure 18), gland steam condenser (Figure 19), and ejector (Figure 20) are detailed in Appendix A.

A steam turbine is one module that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and converts it into useful mechanical work. Steam turbine is condensing, tandem compounded, horizontal, reheat type, and single shaft machine. It has got separate high pressure, and intermediate and low-pressure parts. The HP part is a single cylinder and IP & LP parts are double flow cylinders. The condensate which is leaving the first HP-1 feedwater heater is mixed with the subsequent feedwater heater and then the total condensate is mixed with the next closed feedwater heater and then the resultant is normally dumped into the deaerator. In the modern thermal power plants, the modeling of steam turbine is carried out along with feedwater heaters. Thus, steam turbine-feedwater heater can be treated as mathematical element to describe the thermal power plant. The schematic diagram of steam turbine-cum-high pressure feedwater heater is shown in Figure 4.

In the analysis, it was assumed that the balance steam from turbine after subtraction of bleeds is condensed all in condenser. Thus mass balance can be written as Mass consumption rate of coal can be written in terms of unit mass flow rate of water as is the boiler efficiency; it is fixed at 0.86 in the present calculations [17].

The economic analysis of the plant has been carried out on the basis of initial capital investment, operating costs, and annual revenue. The equipment cost include boiler, steam turbine, condenser, generator, and auxiliary equipment such as condensate extraction pump, feed water pump, and so forth. Thus, fixed (equipment) cost, , can be written in terms of redundancies of respective components (if any) as represents fixed cost. The coal storage, ash handling, electrical works, civil works, and fumes treatment costs are neglected in the present work. The initial cost for each equipment/component has been obtained from [11] empirically in following form where the values of constants and are taken from Table 2.

The total operating costs include maintenance, insurance, and general costs, total operating labor, and purchase of coal feedstock as [11] where is cost in (INR), while subscripts OP, maint, ins, coal, ep, and lab correspond to operating, maintenance, insurance, coal feedstock, electricity/MWe, and individual labour cost, respectively. Here maintenance and insurance costs are taken to be 3% and 2.5% of the total fixed cost [11]. Average personnel salary on annual basis is deduced from plant data as given in Table 3.

Annual revenue obtained from the electricity can be evaluated as Thus, Net present value (NPV) can be written as All reference values of data collected for the analysis are tabulated in Table 4. The taxes and financial charges have been neglected in this work.

The above analysis was used to predict the coal consumption rate, overall thermal efficiency, mass flow rate of steam through boiler, and Net present value of thermal power plant for given plant capacity and redundancy on pumps. The predictions of mass flow rate, overall plant efficiency, and coal consumption rate were compared with operating plant data from plant for validation as shown in Figures 6, 7, and 8. The coal consumption rate and mass flow rate of steam increase with electric power output of plant. However, overall efficiency is not showing any significant increase with electric power output. A fair agreement between predictions and operating data has been shown graphically at wide range of load conditions of plant.

The effect of employing redundancy (excessive) units to boiler feed pumps and condensate extraction pump on annual cost of plant and Net present value is shown in Figures 9, 10, 11, and 12, which reflects that equipment, maintenance, insurance, operating, coal, and revenue increase with any increase in pump redundancy in various subsystems. The Net present value decreases with any addition of boiler feed pump redundancy in water circulation subsystem (Figure 10), while it shows marginally increasing trend with condensate extraction pump redundancy in condenser unit (Figure 12).

The effect of condensate extraction pump redundancy on Net present value is comparatively higher as compared with case of boiler feed pump. It is expected due to lower initial cost of condensate extraction pump as compared with the cost of boiler feed pump.

The thermal and economic analysis of a 210 MWe coal-fired power plant was carried out to predict the coal consumption rate, overall thermal efficiency, mass flow rate of steam through boiler, and Net present value of thermal power plant for given plant load and redundancy of boiler feed pump and condensate extraction pump. Thermodynamic modeling was carried out for evaluating the thermal performance. Predictions of mass flow rate of steam, coal consumption rate, and thermal efficiency were compared against plant operating data for validation. Economic analysis includes equipment cost, fuel cost, operations and maintenance cost, revenue, and plant Net present value. The redundancy due to condensate extraction pump is sensitive to Net present value.

Copyright 2014 Ravinder Kumar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

grinding mills - an overview | sciencedirect topics

grinding mills - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Grinding circuits are fed at a controlled rate from the stockpile or bins holding the crusher plant product. There may be a number of grinding circuits in parallel, each circuit taking a definite fraction of the feed. An example is the Highland Valley Cu/Mo plant with five parallel grinding lines (Chapter 12). Parallel mill circuits increase circuit flexibility, since individual units can be shut down or the feed rate can be changed, with a manageable effect on production. Fewer mills are, however, easier to control and capital and installation costs are lower, so the number of mills must be decided at the design stage.

The high unit capacity SAG mill/ball mill circuit is dominant today and has contributed toward substantial savings in capital and operating costs, which has in turn made many low-grade, high-tonnage operations such as copper and gold ores feasible. Future circuits may see increasing use of high pressure grinding rolls (Rosas et al., 2012).

Autogenous grinding or semi-autogenous grinding mills can be operated in open or closed circuit. However, even in open circuit, a coarse classifier such as a trommel attached to the mill, or a vibrating screen can be used. The oversize material is recycled either externally or internally. In internal recycling, the coarse material is conveyed by a reverse spiral or water jet back down the center of the trommel into the mill. External recycling can be continuous, achieved by conveyor belt, or is batch where the material is stockpiled and periodically fed back into the mill by front-end loader.

In Figure 7.35 shows the SAG mill closed with a crusher (recycle or pebble crusher). In SAG mill operation, the grinding rate passes through a minimum at a critical size (Chapter 5), which represents material too large to be broken by the steel grinding media, but has a low self-breakage rate. If the critical size material, typically 2550mm, is accumulated the mill energy efficiency will deteriorate, and the mill feed rate decreases. As a solution, additional large holes, or pebble ports (e.g., 40100mm), are cut into the mill grate, allowing coarse material to exit the mill. The crusher in closed circuit is then used to reduce the size of the critical size material and return it to the mill. As the pebble ports also allow steel balls to exit, a steel removal system (such as a guard magnet, Chapters 2 and 13Chapter 2Chapter 13) must be installed to prevent them from entering the crusher. (Because of this requirement, closing a SAG mill with a crusher is not used in magnetic iron ore grinding circuits.) This circuit configuration is common as it usually produces a significant increase in throughput and energy efficiency due to the removal of the critical size material.

An example SABC-A circuit is the Cadia Hill Gold Mine, New South Wales, Australia (Dunne et al., 2001). The project economics study indicated a single grinding line. The circuit comprises a SAG mill, 12m diameter by 6.1m length (belly inside liners, the effective grinding volume), two pebble crushers, and two ball mills in parallel closed with cyclones. The SAG mill is fitted with a 20MW gearless drive motor with bi-directional rotational capacity. (Reversing direction evens out wear on liners with symmetrical profile and prolongs operating time.) The SAG mill was designed to treat 2,065t h1 of ore at a ball charge of 8% volume, total filling of 25% volume, and an operating mill speed of 74% of critical. The mill is fitted with 80mm grates with total grate open area of 7.66m2 (Hart et al., 2001). A 4.5m diameter by 5.2m long trommel screens the discharge product at a cut size of ca. 12mm. Material less than 12mm falls into a cyclone feed sump, where it is combined with discharge from the ball mills. Oversize pebbles from the trommel are conveyed to a surge bin of 735t capacity, adjacent to the pebble crushers. Two cone crushers with a closed side set of 1216mm are used to crush the pebbles with a designed product P80 of 12mm and an expected total recycle pebble rate of 725t h1. The crushed pebbles fall directly onto the SAG mill feed belt and return to the SAG mill.

SAG mill product feeds two parallel ball mills of 6.6m11.1m (internal diameterlength), each with a 9.7MW twin pinion drive. The ball mills are operated at a ball charge volume of 3032% and 78.5% critical speed. The SAG mill trommel undersize is combined with the ball mills discharge and pumped to two parallel packs (clusters) of twelve 660mm diameter cyclones. The cyclone underflow from each line reports to a ball mill, while the cyclone overflow is directed to the flotation circuit. The designed ball milling circuit product is 80% passing 150m.

Several large tonnage copper porphyry plants in Chile use an open-circuit SAG configuration where the pebble crusher product is directed to the ball mills (SABC-B circuit). The original grinding circuit at Los Bronces is an example: the pebbles generated in the two SAG mills are crushed in a satellite pebble crushing plant, and then are conveyed to the three ball mills (Mogla and Grunwald, 2008).

Pulverizer systems, which integrate drying, grinding, classification, and transport of the ground fuel to the burners, can present the greatest problems when switching coals/fuels (Carpenter, 1998). Low quality fuels may have grinding properties that are markedly different from the pulverizer design coal (Kitto and Stultz, 2005; Vuthaluru et al., 2003). Consequently, problems are experienced with pulverizer capacity, drying capacity, explosions, abrasive wear of the pulverizer grinding elements, erosion of the coal classifiers and/or distributors, coal-air pipes, and burners.

Whenever there is a loss of a pulverizer, the operator should light oil burner/s to help the operating group of pulverizers to stabilize the flame. At the same time, the operator should bring down the load matching to the capability of the running puverizer/s. Effort should be made to cut in standby pulverizer/s depending on draft fan group capability. Faults in electric supply, if there are any, can then be inspected and rectified. In the case of jamming in the pulverizer internals, the affected pulverizer should be cooled and cleaned and prepared for the next operation.

a pulverizer that is tripped under load will be inerted as established by equipment manufacturer, and maintained under an inert atmosphere until confirmation that no burning or smouldering fuel exists in the pulverizer or the fuel is removed. Inerting media may be any one of CO2, Steam or N2. For pulverizers that are tripped and inerted while containing a charge of fuel, following procedure will be used to clear fuel from the pulverizer:1.Start one of the pulverizers2.Isolate from the furnace all shut-down or tripped pulverizers3.Continue to operate the pulverizer until empty4.When the operating pulverizer is empty, proceed to another tripped and inerted pulverizer and repeat the procedure until all are cleared of fuel

NFPA 85 recommends the pulverizer system arrangement should be such as to provide only one direction of flow, i.e., from the points of entrance of fuel and air to the points of discharge. The system should be designed to resist the passage of air and gas from the pulverizer through the coal feeder into the coal bunker. To withstand pulverizer-operating pressures and to resist percolation of hot air/gas, a vertical or cylindrical column of fuel at least the size of three coal-pipe diameters should be provided between the coal-bunker outlet and the coal-feeder inlet as well as between coal-feeder outlet and the pulverizer inlet. Within these cylindrical columns there will be accumulation of coal that will resist percolation of hot air/gas from the pulverizer to the coal bunker. All components of the pulverized coal system should be designed to withstand an internal explosion gauge pressure of 344kPa [9].

Number of Spare Pulverizers: To overcome forced outage and consequent availability of a number of operating pulverizers it is generally considered that while firing the worst coal one spare pulverizer should be provided under the TMCR (Turbine Maximum Continuous Rating) operating condition. In certain utilities one spare pulverizer is also provided even while firing design coal, but under the BMCR (Boiler Maximum Continuous Rating) operating condition. Practice followed in the United States generally is to provide one spare pulverizer for firing design coal, in larger units two spare pulverizers are provided. However, provision of any spare pulverizer is not considered in current European design [5].

Pulverizer Design Coal: The pulverizer system should be designed to accommodate the fuel with the worst combination of properties that will still allow the steam generator to achieve the design steam flow. Three fuel properties that affect pulverizer-processing capacity are moisture, heating value, and HGI, as discussed earlier.

Unit Turndown: The design of a pulverizer system determines the turndown capability of the steam generator. The minimum stable load for an individual pulverizer firing coal is 50% of the rated pulverizer capacity. Normally in utility boilers, the operating procedure is to operate at least two pulverizers to sustain a self-supported minimum boiler load. Thus, the minimum steam generator load when firing coal without supporting fuel is equal to the full capacity of one pulverizer. Therefore, a loss of one of the two running pulverizers will not trip the steam generator because of loss of fuel and/or loss of flame.

Pulverizer Wear Allowance: A final factor affecting pulverizer system design is a capacity margin that would compensate for loss of grinding capacity as a result of wear between overhauls of the pulverizer (Figure 4.6). A typical pulverizer-sizing criterion is 10% capacity loss due to wear.

The grinder consists of a body with a conical inner surface in which is arranged an internal moving milling cone. The two cones form the milling chamber. On the axle of the internal moving milling cone a debal-ancing vibrator is fitted, which is driven through a flexible transmission. During vibrator rotation, the centrifugal force is generated, leading the internal cone to roll along the inner cone surface of the grinder body without clearance, if material is absent in the milling chamber or across a material layer. Such innercone movement difference is possible owing to the absence in these machines of kinematic limitation of inner cone amplitude. Thus, KID does not have a discharging gap as for eccentric crushers, therefore, the diametric annular between cones is received by coincidence of their axes.

The idea of using the vibrator drive of the cone crusher appeared as long ago as 1925 (US Patent 1 553 333) and then its later versions (German Patent 679 800, 1952; Austrian Patent 200 598, 1957; and Japanese Patent 1256, 1972) were published. In the Soviet Union, the first experimental KID specimens had been created by the early 1950s. Now, in the various branches of industry in the Commonwealth of Independent States, KIDs with capacity from 1 to 300 t/h are produced.

The basic KID feature absence of rigid kinematic bondings between the cones allows the inner moving cone to change its amplitude depending on the variation of grindable material resistance or to stop if a large non-grindable body is encountered; but this is not detrimental and does not lead to plugging. Another KID feature is the nature of the crushing force. In KID, the crushing force is the sum of the centrifugal force of debalance of the inner cone by its gyrating movement. Such force is determined by mechanics and does not depend on the properties of the processed material. The crushing force acts as well on idle running as the result of gapless running in of cones. Therefore, the stability of the inner cone on its spherical support during idle running is ensured.

The grinder consists of a body with a conical inner surface in which is arranged an internal moving milling cone. The two cones form the milling chamber. On the axle of the internal moving milling cone, an unbalanced vibrator is fitted, driven through a flexible transmission. During vibrator rotation, centrifugal force is generated, leading the internal cone to roll along the inner cone surface of the grinder body without clearance if a material that is being grinded is absent in the milling chamber or on this material layer. Such inner cone varying movement is possible owing to the absence in these machines of kinematic limitation of inner cone amplitude. KID does not have a discharging gap as do ordinary cone crushers; therefore, the diametric annular between cones is received by coincidence of their axes.

The idea of using the vibrator drive of the cone crusher appeared as long ago as 1925 (US Patent 1,553,333) and then its later versionsGerman Patent 679,800 (1952), Austrian Patent 200,598 (1957), and Japanese Patent 1256 (1972)were published. The first experimental KID specimens were created in Russia in the early 1950s. Subsequently, in the various branches of industry in the Soviet Union, KIDs with a capacity from 1 to 300t/h were produced. The manufacture of KIDs under license from Soviet Union was developed in Japan in 1981.

The basic KID featurethe absence of rigid kinematic bonding between the conesallows the inner moving cone to change its amplitude, depending on the variation of grindable material resistance, or to stop if a large nongrindable body is encountered. This is not detrimental and does not lead to stopping the debalance. Another KID feature is the nature of the crushing force. In KID, the crushing force is the sum of the centrifugal force of debalance and the inner cone by its gyrating movement. Such force is determined by mechanics and does not depend on the properties of the processed material. This characteristic in combination with the resilient isolation of KID from the foundation allows a two-fold increase in the inner cone vibration frequency.

triveni engineering & industries limited

triveni engineering & industries limited

Booker Brothers, McConnell and Co, in partnership with the Sawhney Family, established Triveni Engineering Works to manufacture sugar machinery under George Fletcher and Duncan Stewart Licences. The manufacturing facility was set up at Naini near Allahabad in 1961.

Agri Business: The Ramkola Sugar Mills Company Ltd. merged with The Ganga Sugar Corporation Ltd and the Company acquired the sugar unit at Ramkola, District Padrauna (now Khushi Nagar) in eastern Uttar Pradesh.

Project Division: Successfully installed one of the largest wastewater treatment plants in India, constructed on turnkey basis for Vizag Steel Plant with capacity of 182 MLD. Commenced operations in Mini Micro Hydro Power Plants and machinery.

The National Productivity Council of India awarded the Company a "Certificate of Merit" for outstanding performance during the 1987-88 season. Hon'ble Shri J. Vengala Rao, then Minister of Industries, Govt. of India, and President of NPC, presented the award.

Turbine Business: Turbine unit successfully produced a Frame 2 model 6000 KW straight back pressure steam turbine and supplied the TG set to PT South Pacific Viscose, Indonesia owned by LENZING, an Australian company.

Agri Business: The sixth sugar mill was commissioned at Rani Nangal in western Uttar Pradesh with a crushing capacity of 5,500 TCD, and the 7th was commissioned at Milak Narayanpur in western Uttar Pradesh with a crushing capacity of 6,000 TCD. A distillery was commissioned in Muzaffarnagar, with a capacity of 160 kiloliters per day (KLPD).

Water Business: Successfully commissioned and put in operation the Sea Water RO Desalination Plant of 16.2 MLD, at Udupi Power Corp Ltd. This project was also awarded as "Desalination Project of the Year" by UNESCO/PHDCCI/Water Digest.

Power Transmission Business: For the first time, the Company commissioned indigenously manufactured drop-in replacement unit for LM6000 Gas Turbine load gearbox for India's leading petrochemical company.

Water Business: Secured first order on turnkey basis for complete Water treatment system including UF-RO based Boiler Feed Water from NTPC for their 3 X 800 MW Kudgi Super Critical Thermal Power Plant.

Secured order for long term Operation & Maintenance (O&M) for Municipal Utilities covering Water and Sewerage including upgradation of existing Assets for city of Bathinda from Punjab Water Supply & Sewerage Board (PWSSB).

Water Business: Secured a contract for construction of water supply and sewerage facilities on the Island of Naifaru, and a sewerage facility on the Island of Veymandoo, Maldives for Lucky Exports / LE - Triveni JV.

Secured first PPP job for Mathura city (UP) from UP Jal Nigam under one-city-one-operator program under Namami Gange schemes of Ministry of Jal Shakti through National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG).

Power Transmission Business: ISO-45001:2018 (OHSAS) certification was awarded to the Power Transmission Business. The 500th gearbox was dispatched for the thermal project for booster pump drive. Highest power indigenous 63.5MW STG Gearbox for installation in West Africa.

Power Transmission Business: Another milestone was achieved with a total of 10000 new gearboxes supplied globally to around 600 customers. Completed retrofitting, replacement, overhauling of 1000+ gearboxes for 80+ global brands.

IMIL Business: Alcoholic beverages vertical, part of the distillery operating segment, started producing Indian Made Indian Liquor at its bottling facility in the premises of its existing distillery in Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, to facilitate forward integration of distillery operations.

Triveni brings together the best of diverse worlds; we are a fast-growing conglomerate with market leadership across businesses and a culture that emphasises the constant development of every individual. The end objective for everyone is to attain personal milestones and contribute to winning teams.

how to calculate the coal quantity used in a power plant - bright hub engineering

how to calculate the coal quantity used in a power plant - bright hub engineering

Very often, the Power engineer is required to perform some basic calculations regarding the key parameters of a power plant. Most important is the quantity and cost of fuel that is required.This article gives the simple calculation method. (A detailed calculation required in the context of a contract, tender, performance repor,t or a legal document may require more accurate input data.)

We take the example of a 100 MW Coal Fired Power Plant.Energy Content in CoalThe basic function of the power plant is to convert energy in coal to electricity. Therefore, the first thing we should know is how much energy there is in coal. Energy content of coal is given in terms of KiloJoules (kJ) per Kilogram (kg) of coal as the Gross calorific value (GCV) or the Higher Heating value (HHV) of coal. This value can vary from 10500 kJ/kg to 25000 kJ/kg depending on the quality and type of the coal.You should have an idea of the type of coal, or the source or mine from where the the plant gets the coal. Published data about the sources, mines, regions or the procurement data gives an idea about the HHV of coal. For this example we use a HHV of 20,000 kJ/kg.EfficiencyEnergy conversion takes place in two stages.The first part of the conversion is efficiency of the boiler and combustion. For this example we take 88 % on an HHV basis that is the normal range for a well-optimized power plant.Second part is the steam cycle efficiency. Modern Rankine cycle, adopted in coal fired power plants, have efficiencies that vary from 32 % to 42 %. This depends mainly on the steam parameters. Higher steam perssure and temperatures in the range of 600 C and 230 bar have efficiencies around 42 %. We assume a value of 38 % for our case.The overall conversion efficiency then is (38% x 88%) 33.44 %.Heat RateHeat rate is the heat input required to produce one unit of electricity. (1 kw hr)One Kw is 3600 kJ/hr. If the energy conversion is 100 % efficient then to produce one unit of electricity we require 3600 kJ.After considering the conversion efficiency in a power plant we require an heat input of (3600 / 33.44% ) 10765 kJ/ kw hr.Coal QuantitySince coal has a heat value of 20,000 kJ/kg, for producing one kw.hr we require (10765 / 20000) 0.538 kg of coal. This translates to (0.538 x 100 x 1,000) 53800 kg/hr (53.8 T/hr) of coal for an output of 100 MW.Coal CostBasic cost of coal depends on the market conditions. Transportation costs, regional influences and government taxes are also part of the cost. Coal traders web sites give base prices in the international market.We take a coal price of around 65 $ / Ton.The cost of coal consumed by 100 MW power plant is (53.8 x 65) 3497 $ /hrA 100 MW unit produces 100,000 units of electricity. So the cost of coal per unit of electricity is (3497/100,000) 3.5 cents per unit.

The basic function of the power plant is to convert energy in coal to electricity. Therefore, the first thing we should know is how much energy there is in coal. Energy content of coal is given in terms of KiloJoules (kJ) per Kilogram (kg) of coal as the Gross calorific value (GCV) or the Higher Heating value (HHV) of coal. This value can vary from 10500 kJ/kg to 25000 kJ/kg depending on the quality and type of the coal.

You should have an idea of the type of coal, or the source or mine from where the the plant gets the coal. Published data about the sources, mines, regions or the procurement data gives an idea about the HHV of coal. For this example we use a HHV of 20,000 kJ/kg.EfficiencyEnergy conversion takes place in two stages.The first part of the conversion is efficiency of the boiler and combustion. For this example we take 88 % on an HHV basis that is the normal range for a well-optimized power plant.Second part is the steam cycle efficiency. Modern Rankine cycle, adopted in coal fired power plants, have efficiencies that vary from 32 % to 42 %. This depends mainly on the steam parameters. Higher steam perssure and temperatures in the range of 600 C and 230 bar have efficiencies around 42 %. We assume a value of 38 % for our case.The overall conversion efficiency then is (38% x 88%) 33.44 %.Heat RateHeat rate is the heat input required to produce one unit of electricity. (1 kw hr)One Kw is 3600 kJ/hr. If the energy conversion is 100 % efficient then to produce one unit of electricity we require 3600 kJ.After considering the conversion efficiency in a power plant we require an heat input of (3600 / 33.44% ) 10765 kJ/ kw hr.Coal QuantitySince coal has a heat value of 20,000 kJ/kg, for producing one kw.hr we require (10765 / 20000) 0.538 kg of coal. This translates to (0.538 x 100 x 1,000) 53800 kg/hr (53.8 T/hr) of coal for an output of 100 MW.Coal CostBasic cost of coal depends on the market conditions. Transportation costs, regional influences and government taxes are also part of the cost. Coal traders web sites give base prices in the international market.We take a coal price of around 65 $ / Ton.The cost of coal consumed by 100 MW power plant is (53.8 x 65) 3497 $ /hrA 100 MW unit produces 100,000 units of electricity. So the cost of coal per unit of electricity is (3497/100,000) 3.5 cents per unit.

Energy conversion takes place in two stages.The first part of the conversion is efficiency of the boiler and combustion. For this example we take 88 % on an HHV basis that is the normal range for a well-optimized power plant.Second part is the steam cycle efficiency. Modern Rankine cycle, adopted in coal fired power plants, have efficiencies that vary from 32 % to 42 %. This depends mainly on the steam parameters. Higher steam perssure and temperatures in the range of 600 C and 230 bar have efficiencies around 42 %. We assume a value of 38 % for our case.The overall conversion efficiency then is (38% x 88%) 33.44 %.Heat RateHeat rate is the heat input required to produce one unit of electricity. (1 kw hr)One Kw is 3600 kJ/hr. If the energy conversion is 100 % efficient then to produce one unit of electricity we require 3600 kJ.After considering the conversion efficiency in a power plant we require an heat input of (3600 / 33.44% ) 10765 kJ/ kw hr.Coal QuantitySince coal has a heat value of 20,000 kJ/kg, for producing one kw.hr we require (10765 / 20000) 0.538 kg of coal. This translates to (0.538 x 100 x 1,000) 53800 kg/hr (53.8 T/hr) of coal for an output of 100 MW.Coal CostBasic cost of coal depends on the market conditions. Transportation costs, regional influences and government taxes are also part of the cost. Coal traders web sites give base prices in the international market.We take a coal price of around 65 $ / Ton.The cost of coal consumed by 100 MW power plant is (53.8 x 65) 3497 $ /hrA 100 MW unit produces 100,000 units of electricity. So the cost of coal per unit of electricity is (3497/100,000) 3.5 cents per unit.

The first part of the conversion is efficiency of the boiler and combustion. For this example we take 88 % on an HHV basis that is the normal range for a well-optimized power plant.Second part is the steam cycle efficiency. Modern Rankine cycle, adopted in coal fired power plants, have efficiencies that vary from 32 % to 42 %. This depends mainly on the steam parameters. Higher steam perssure and temperatures in the range of 600 C and 230 bar have efficiencies around 42 %. We assume a value of 38 % for our case.The overall conversion efficiency then is (38% x 88%) 33.44 %.

Second part is the steam cycle efficiency. Modern Rankine cycle, adopted in coal fired power plants, have efficiencies that vary from 32 % to 42 %. This depends mainly on the steam parameters. Higher steam perssure and temperatures in the range of 600 C and 230 bar have efficiencies around 42 %. We assume a value of 38 % for our case.The overall conversion efficiency then is (38% x 88%) 33.44 %.

One Kw is 3600 kJ/hr. If the energy conversion is 100 % efficient then to produce one unit of electricity we require 3600 kJ.After considering the conversion efficiency in a power plant we require an heat input of (3600 / 33.44% ) 10765 kJ/ kw hr.

Basic cost of coal depends on the market conditions. Transportation costs, regional influences and government taxes are also part of the cost. Coal traders web sites give base prices in the international market.We take a coal price of around 65 $ / Ton.The cost of coal consumed by 100 MW power plant is (53.8 x 65) 3497 $ /hrA 100 MW unit produces 100,000 units of electricity. So the cost of coal per unit of electricity is (3497/100,000) 3.5 cents per unit.

filter bags for the waste-to-energy industry | gore

filter bags for the waste-to-energy industry | gore

Incineration plants and other manufacturers in the waste-to-energy industry must control air pollutant emissions while also controlling costs. GORE Filter Bags offer reliable solutions for capturing particulates and destroying volatile pollutants, providing near-zero emissions at a lower overall cost of ownership.

At an energy to waste facility in Kochi, Japan, power was generated by incinerating municipal waste using a stoker furnace, which incorporated pollution control units at the downstream. After heat recovery, the flue gas was further cooled down to 150C for the effective carbon adsorption of dioxin/furan. The gas was then passed through a filter baghouse to remove particulates. Finally, the gas was reheated to 210C for tail-end NOx reduction by an SCR tower.

Waste-to-energy plants provide a sustainable solution to the global problem of waste disposal, efficiently producing heat and electricity. But with incineration comes a handful of harmful particulates and pollutants including dioxins, NOx, SO2, COand mercury and plants must follow strict regulations for emissions control.

GORE Filter Bags help waste-to-energy plants reliably control air emissions and improve their bottom line with solutions to control particulate emissions and pollution. Our PTFE membrane-based filter bags

As the original inventor of membrane-based industrial filtration solutions, we continually push the envelope of innovation in the waste-to-energy industry. As a result, weve developed a suite of high-performance filter bags that address the industrys and our customers needs. Across our solutions, reliability is the Gore standard as is the long product life our customers have come to expect.

The GORE REMEDIA Catalytic Filter Bags are installed in some of the worlds largest incinerators to simultaneously provide dust control and destroy up to 99% of gaseous dioxins and furans. Here's how GORE REMEDIA Filter Bags work:

The unique GOREmembrane captures fine particulate on the surface of the filter. As the filter bag is cleaned, solids are released from the surface and collected in the bottom of the baghouse hopper. The gaseous dioxins and furans pass through the GORE membrane into the catalytic felt, which converts them into insignificant amounts of CO2, H2O and HCl. This approach is maintenance-free and has been proven across hundreds of cases worldwide.

Our latest development in catalytic filtration is GORE DeNOx Catalytic Filter Bags, specifically designed to reduce NOx and NH3. This technology works in a similar way to GORE REMEDIA Filter Bags, but requires the presence of NH3 to react with NOx. Our filter bags contain a high efficiency catalyst and essentially perform the same function as an SCR tower except GORE DeNOx Catalytic Filter Bags are installed inside your existing baghouse, requiring minimal process changes, additional equipment or worker training, at a significant cost savings to you.

This two-bag filter system includes an outer-layer ePTFE membrane filter bag for particulate removal, plus an inner layer catalyst filter bag, allowing maximum flexibility for catalyst regeneration and long product life.

The new GORELow Emission Filter Bags are seam-taped to prevent any leaks through the stitch holes, allowing them to meet the strictest emission regulations while providing the same level of quality and reliability as our standard filter bags. The key to the bags is the patented PTFE seam tape, which is resistant to cracks despite high temperatures, mechanical stress and chemical exposure.

For more than 30 years, weve earned a reputation for reliability in waste-to-energy plants around the world. Our customers count on us in the most challenging applications where failure is not an option. Our products work as intended the first time, and consistently every time.

Why are our filters so reliably effective? It starts with the proprietary PTFE membrane in each of our filters. Gore was the original inventor of membrane-based filters for industrial filtration, which enabled an industry-wide change in filtration performance due to their superior cleanability and particulate capture. The PTFE membranes in our filters simultaneously capture the most miniscule particulates while allowing a high rate of airflow.

Our ePTFE membrane is a very thin, porous layer that prevents particulate matter from entering the body of the filter bag. Without the ePTFE membrane, particulate matter will penetrate the conventional filter, making it weaker and more resistant to airflow, especially over time.

These qualities, along with Gores sewing design and construction, make our filters reliably durable, leading to long product life. Time and again, Gore filters are proven to last longer than our competitors filters and longer bag life leads to lower maintenance costs, increased yield and greater productivity.

Whether you use standard or low-grade coals, wood or tires in your furnace, or operate a municipal, hazardous or medical waste incinerator, longer bag life means lower overall cost of ownership for you. Our filters are proven to operate with less pressure drop, requiring less energy for manufacturers to power them and this can also lower your cost of ownership.

This means youll receive expert support not just on filter design and installation, but also on how to optimize the flow parameters of your system to get the absolute best productivity. This process-specific product design and applications engineering approach has proven to be the lowest risk way to optimize your system's performance.

Our filter bags deliver the filtration industrys lowest available total cost of ownership, which goes beyond the price of filter bags to consider what your filtration system will cost you over time. Several factors impact the total cost of ownership for a baghouse, including:

GORE Filter Bags deliver exceptional value. With your bags, you get a cutting-edge membrane laminate, robust filter bag design and construction, a system approach optimized for your baghouse and technical support for the life of your filter bags along with the reliability our customers come to expect from Gore. With these factors combined, we provide the lowest total cost of ownership available in a filtration system.

Gore produces a wide range of filter bags that vary by material and resistance to temperatures, moisture, oxygen, acid and alkali. Beyond our standard bags, we offer catalytic filtration solutions that destroy pollutants, as well as particulate-capturing filter bags with advanced qualities for controlling emissions.

comparison of energy efficiency between ball mills and stirred mills in coarse grinding - sciencedirect

comparison of energy efficiency between ball mills and stirred mills in coarse grinding - sciencedirect

Stirred mills are primarily used for fine and ultra-fine grinding. They dominate these grinding applications because greater stress intensity can be delivered in stirred mills and they can achieve better energy efficiency than ball mills in fine and ultra-fine grinding. Investigations were conducted on whether the greater performance of stirred mills over ball mills in fine grinding can be extended to coarse grinding applications. Four different laboratory ball mills and stirred mills have been tested to grind seven ore samples with feed sizes ranging from 3.35mm to 150m. A case study on full scale operations of a 2.6MW IsaMill replacing the existing 4MW regrind ball mill at Kumtor Gold Mine in Kyrgyzstan is also included. This paper summarizes the major findings from these investigations.

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