impact crushers theory

optimal operation of coal conveying systems assembled with crushers using model predictive control methodology - sciencedirect

optimal operation of coal conveying systems assembled with crushers using model predictive control methodology - sciencedirect

Belt conveyors and crushers are taken as a whole for energy efficiency improvement.Feed rate, belt speeds and crusher rotational speed are used as optimization variables.MPC can resist the disturbances from forecasting, execution, and feeding particle size.Strategies are verified with a coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant.

Belt conveyors and crushers are always assembled in series to form coal conveying systems; reasonably, this paper takes them as a whole for energy efficiency optimization. The energy models of the key energy consuming devices, belt conveyors and crushers, are firstly constructed. They are then employed to formulate an open loop energy efficiency optimization problem for the studied coal conveying systems. The coal feed rate, belt speed and crusher rotational speed are taken as the optimization variables; and, the energy cost, with consideration of time-of-use (TOU) tariff, is formulated as the objective function. Next, basing on the above open loop optimization problem, a closed-loop model predictive control (MPC) strategy is constructed. The MPC strategy has the ability to deal with various disturbances with its feedback correction and receding horizon optimization mechanisms. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study for verification of the two strategies. The open loop optimization and MPC strategies are investigated respectively for comparison studies. The results show that, unlike the open loop optimization, the MPC strategy can deal with the disturbances of coal consumption forecasting, the disturbances of belt feeding rate and the disturbances of mean particle size of feeding coal effectively. The MPC strategy can considerably improve the energy efficiency of the whole coal conveying system while satisfying all the constraints. Its robustness and adaptability are verified through the comparison studies.

Shirong Zhang was born in China in 1975. He received his B.E. and M.E. degrees from Wuhan University in 1998 and 2001, respectively; and received Ph.D degree from Huazhong University of Science and Technology in 2007. He is now an associate professor at Wuhan University. His research areas are energy optimization, control theory and control engineering.

impact crusher | description | advantages | types of impact crusher | engineering intro

impact crusher | description | advantages | types of impact crusher | engineering intro

The word impact makes sense that in this particular type of crusher some impaction is being used for crushing of rocks. In normal types of crusher pressure is generated for the crushing of rocks. But, impact crushers involve an impact method.

There is a hopper one side that takes the crushing material into the machine. All material is carried only within a cage. This cage has an opening on the end, bottom and on the side. These openings help in escaping the pulverized material from the impact crusher. Normally such type of crusher is used for crushing of materials that are not very hard say soft material and materials that are non-abrasive. For example limestone, coal, gypsum, seeds etc.

Horizontal shaft impactor (HSI) crusher consists of hammers that are fixed to the spinning rotor. Hammers are utilized for the breaking of these rocks. Normally horizontal shaft impactor crusher is used for soft materials and materials like gypsum, phosphate, limestone and weathered shales.

Working principle of vertical shaft impactor is totally different than horizontal shaft impactor. It has a high speed rotor with wearing resistant tips and main chamber (crushing chamber) is designed in such a way so that speed rotor throw the rocks against the high crushing chamber. In vertical shaft impactor crusher predominant force is the velocity of speed rotor.

Rock from ores has an irregular uneven shape. If crushers that used pressure force is used then it results in unpredictable and even more uneven, jagged shape particles. Therefore, use of VSI crusher results in more cubical and even shapes particles. This is so, because vertical shaft impactor crusher utilizes the velocity force that is applied evenly to the surface and the mass of rock.

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home - mccloskey international

home - mccloskey international

Our Head Office and manufacturing facility in Ontario, Canada is an advanced and highly capable 410,000 square foot production plant, while our secondary facility in Co. Tyrone, Ireland houses the worlds premier crusher and screener engineering office. Since 2019, we are part of Metso Outotec, a world-leading industrial company offering equipment and services in the mining, aggregates, recycling and process industries.

advancing the theory and practice of impact assessment: setting the research agenda - sciencedirect

advancing the theory and practice of impact assessment: setting the research agenda - sciencedirect

Impact assessment has been in place for over 40years and is now practised in some form in all but two of the world's nations. In this paper we reflect on the state of the art of impact assessment theory and practice, focusing on six well-established forms: EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment. We note that although the fundamentals of impact assessment have their roots in the US National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (NEPA) each branch of the field is distinct in also drawing on other theoretical and conceptual bases that in turn shape the prevailing discourse in each case, generating increasing degrees of specialisation within each sub-field. Against this backdrop, we consider the strengths and weaknesses of collective impact assessment practice, concluding that although there are substantial strengths, the plethora of specialist branches is generating a somewhat confusing picture and lack of clarity regarding how the pieces of the impact assessment jigsaw puzzle fit together. We use this review to suggest an overarching research agenda that will enable impact assessment to evolve in line with changing expectations for what it should deliver.

Strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats for IA are explored in this paper EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment are reviewed Diversity of practice is both a strength and weakness in the current economic climate There are opportunities to simplify IA by focusing on common and fundamental elements Continued research into theory related to IA effectiveness is also essential

Jenny Pope is Director of Western Australian-based consultancy firm Integral Sustainability, specialising in the integration of sustainability into planning and decision-making processes. She is a Fellow of the Cambridge Programme for Sustainability Leadership, an Adjunct Research Fellow at the Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute in Australia and an Extra-ordinary Senior Lecturer in Environmental Sciences and Management at North West University, South Africa.

Alan Bond has 20years experience in Environmental Assessment (EA). He pioneered a distance-leaning MSc programme in EA and continues to run a full-time MSc programme on Environmental Assessment and Management at the University of East Anglia. He is a member of the Editorial Board of Environmental Impact Assessment Review and Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal and is a Quality Mark review panel member for the Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment (IEMA) and sits on the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate's (part of the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority) Sustainability Assessment Group.

Angus Morrison-Saunders is Associate Professor in Environmental Assessment at Murdoch University, Australia and Extra-ordinary Professor in Environmental Sciences and Management, North West University, South Africa. He is also co-Director of Integral Sustainability, Western Australia and co-Editor of Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal (IAPA). Angus has over 20years' experience in impact assessment.

Francois Retief is an Associate Professor and Director of the School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North West University (Potchefstroom campus), South Africa. He also serves as co-editor of the journal Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal (IAPA).

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