impact of the type of stone crusher design

5 types of stone crushers | application and maintenance

5 types of stone crushers | application and maintenance

Stone crusher is mainly used for crushing operation in quarry crushing plant and mining plant. There are 5 types of stone crushers: jaw crusher, impact crusher, hammer crusher, cone crusher, and VIS crusher. What is the application of the 5 types of stone crushers and how to maintenance? This article is about a thorough introduction.

Jaw crusher is a heavy-duty which crushing the hard rock. Therefore, the jaw crusher parts need to be very hard and durable. In particular, the two components of the jaw crusher work, the fixed jaw, and the movable jaw. The crushers machine are widely used in industries of mining, building materials, roads, railways, water conservancy, and chemical. The types of jaw stone crusher: single toggle jaw crusher and double toggle jaw crusher.

During the maintenance of the jaw crushers, wear part is a common occurrence. This is also the main wear in the stone crushing line. Therefore, we recommend that customers purchase high-quality jaw crushers, which are more durable and have better running performance. During use, it can avoid many unnecessary wear problems and reduce the trouble of frequently changing parts. 8 notes of jaw crusher routine maintenance.

1. Check the heat of the bearing. The temperature of rolling bearings doesnt exceed 70 C. If exceeds the specified temperature, it must stop and immediately check and troubleshoot. 2. Check whether the lubrication system is normal. Whether there is a crash of a gear oil pump. Observe the value of the oil pressure gauge and check whether the lubrication system in the fuel tank leaks oil. If find the above various conditions are abnormal, dealt with they in a timely manner. The place of movable jaw suspension bearing and the elbow, it should lubricate regularly which automatic or manual oil pump lubrication. 3. Check whether the oil contains metal powder and other contaminants. If there is dirt, stop the bearing and other parts to check. 4. Check whether there are loose joints between the bolts and flywheel keys of each part. 5. Check the wear of the gear plate and transmission components, and whether the lever spring is normal. 6. Always keep the equipment clean, so that there is no dust, no oil, no oil leakage, no water leakage, no leakage, no leakage. Especially pay attention to prevent dust from entering the lubrication system and lubrication parts. 7. Clean the filter cooler regularly, and wait until it is completely dried before washing. 8. Regularly change the lubricating oil in the fuel tank. Usually once every six months.

The impact crusher crushing the soft and very hard materials, even if there is moisture in the material. The types of stone crushers are widely used in building materials, ore crushing, railways, highways, energy, transportation, energy, cement, mining, chemical and other industries for medium and fine materials.

1. The jaw crushers run smoothly. When the vibration quantity of the machine suddenly increases, it should stop immediately to find out the cause. 2. Under normal conditions, the temperature rise of the bearing should not exceed 35, and the maximum temperature should not exceed 70 . If it exceeds 70, stop immediately and find out the cause. 3. When the plate hammer wear reaches the limit mark, it should be turned around or replaced in time. 4. After assembling or replacing the hammer, it must maintain the rotor balance, and the static balance should not exceed 0.25kg.m. 5. When the rack lining wear, replace it in time which can avoid wearing the casing. 6. Check the tightening status of all bolts before starting each time.

1. Always pay attention to and timely lubrication of the friction surface. 2. The lubricating oil used in the impact crusher should be determined according to the location of the crusher machine, temperature, and other conditions.

Cone crusher is an advanced hydraulic crusher with high power, large crushing ratio, and high productivity. Generally, it uses as a secondary crusher to break medium-hard materials, and use as fine crushers in artificial sand making process plants and quarry plant. Cone Crusher is a hydraulic crushing machine suitable for use in raw materials in the metallurgical, construction, road construction, chemical, and silicate industries. Types of cone stone crushers: GP cone crusher namely single-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher, HP cone crusher namely multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher, Compound cone crusher.

1. There must be a de-ironing device to prevent the crushing chamber from passing through the iron. If the iron is frequently over-exposed, it may cause a shaft breakage accident. 2. To be fully loaded, otherwise, the product size will be too thick. 3. The crushing ratio in the production line should be reasonable, so as to maximize the efficiency of the crusher. 4. The spring pressure should not be too tight. If the pressure is too high, the shaft breakage will occur. If the pressure is too small, the spring will jump frequently which affecting the normal operation of the crusher. The product size will become thicker. 5. The temperature of the lubricating oil should not be too high or too low. Otherwise, it will affect the operation of the machine. 6. A lubricating oil should be replaced frequently. Not too dirty. If it is too dirty, it will accelerate the wear of gears, bowl-shaped tiles, bushings, etc., and even make the bushings die. 7. The drive belt installation should not be too tight. Otherwise, it will cause the driveshaft to rotate inflexible or broken. It should not be too loose, otherwise, it will cause the crusher to suffocate. 8. The feeding material should not be too wet and too sticky, the fine particles should not be too much, and it should not be too big. Otherwise, it will cause boring.

Hammer crusher is a high-speed rotary crushing machine. The crusher is suitable for crushing medium hardness materials in industrial sectors such as cement, chemical, electric power, and metallurgy. The medium hardness materials such as limestone, slag, coke, coal and other materials in the medium and fine crushing operations. The hammer mill rock crusher can be used not only for crushing plant, sand making plant, it also can replace cone crushers in mining plant. The types of stone hammers crushers: single-stage hammer crusher, high-efficiency hammer crusher, sand making machine, vertical shaft hammer rock crusher, reversible hammer crusher, double rotor hammer crusher, ring hammer crusher.

1. It should contact the upper and lower procedures related to the machine before starting to stop. And perform the correct operation in the order of opening and stopping. 2. To start the empty machine and should empty the material in the crushing chamber and then stop. 3. Always check all the anchor bolts and lining bolts of the equipment for looseness. If loose, tighten them in time. 4. Check the use of easy-to-wear and easy-to-wear parts such as hammerheads and linings. If we find the problems, they should be disposed of in time. 5. Look at the lubrication and keep the lubrication system in good condition. 6. Keep the feed even and take care not to feed metal debris. 7. Pay attention to check whether the discharge granularity meets the quality requirements. If it does not meet, replace the purlin or adjust the height of the purlin bracket.

VSI crusher is a kind of sand making machine which uses in sand plant and quarry plant. The VSI sand making machine is a hydraulically impact sand making machine that is 50% more energy-efficient than conventional machines. It can make all kinds of rocks, sandstones and river pebbles with construction sand of various grain sizes. The uniformity of sand and high compressive strength.

Firstly, the inspection of sand making equipment before starting. Check whether the machine cavity inspection door is closed. If no close, close it to prevent the material from flying out and posing a danger to the staff. And the lubricating oil of the equipment should also be inspected.

Thirdly, the starting sequence of the VSI series crushers must be correct. It is generally installed in the following order: vibrating feeder jaw crusher sand making machine vibrating screen sand washing machine. In the event of a shutdown, you need to operate in reverse order.

Finally, it is necessary to ensure the normal feed rate and volume of the equipment during the production process. We must strictly follow the feed size required by the equipment. Forbidding to enter metal materials and large stones to prevent damage to the parts of the equipment. If we find severe vibration or loud noise during the production process, stop and inspect in time for timely treatment.

Jiangxi Shicheng stone crusher manufacturer is a new and high-tech factory specialized in R&D and manufacturing crushing lines, beneficial equipment,sand-making machinery and grinding plants. Read More

how does different stone crusher work?

how does different stone crusher work?

In the process of mineral processing, the operation of reducing the particle size to 20-5mm is called crushing, and the corresponding equipment is stone crusher. Commonly used stone crushing equipment are: jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher, roller crusher, hammer crusher, etc.

The cone crusher can be divided into three types: coarse crushing, medium crushing and fine crushing according to its particle size range. It has the characteristics of large crushing ratio, uniform product size, high production efficiency, low energy consumption and easy adjustment of the discharge port.

The impact crusher has the characteristics of large crushing ratio, high crushing efficiency, low power consumption, less over crushing phenomenon, strong adaptability, small equipment volume, light weight, simple structure, easy manufacturing, convenient maintenance and so on. It is mainly used as medium and fine crushing equipment for various materials, and also as coarse crushing equipment.

The new type of sand making machine adopts modular structure design, which can be exchanged instantly. When processing materials, different crushing principles can be selected according to the properties of materials and the requirements of materials. There are two crushing forms of stone or stone iron, which can crush materials on demand.

Roller crusher can be divided into single roller, double roller, three roller and four roller according to the number of rollers. It has the characteristics of simple and compact structure, reliable operation, low cost, convenient adjustment of crushing particle size ratio and less over crushing particle size. Mainly used for medium and fine crushing of brittle and tough materials.

The composite crusher rotor adopts a new design structure, adopts the impact crusher steel disc structure and the hammer crusher's hammer disc staggered arrangement structure, and its structural design effectively enhances the crushing performance and improves the production efficiency of the equipment.

The material falls vertically from the upper part of the machine into the high-speed rotating impeller. Under the action of high-speed centrifugal force, it will shunt with another part in an umbrella form around the impeller to produce high-speed impact and crushing. After the materials collide with each other, they will be The material between the casings is crushed by multiple collisions and frictions formed by the eddy current between the materials, and is discharged directly from the lower part to form a closed circuit for multiple cycles. The screening equipment controls to reach the required finished product particle size.

Hammer crusher is similar to impact crusher in structure. It is mainly used for crushing medium hard and weak abrasive materials, such as limestone, coal, asbestos, cement clinker, metal slag, feed, etc.

impact crusher working principle

impact crusher working principle

Starting from the base working principle that compression is the forcing of two surfaces towards one another to crush the material caught between them. Impact crushing can be of two variations: gravity and dynamic. An example of gravity impact would be dropping a rock onto a steel plate (similar to what goes on into an Autogenous Mill). Dynamic impact could be described as material dropping into a rapidly turning rotor where it receives a smashing blow from a hammer or impeller. Attrition crushing is the reduction of materials by rubbing; primarily a grinding method. Shear crushing is accomplished by breaking along or across lines of cleavage. It is possible, when required, for a crusherto use a combination of two or three of these principles.

Rapidly increasing operating costs for minerals beneficiating plants continue to be the biggest single problem in maximizing profitability from these operations. The average world inflation rate has been increasing over the last decade and shows little sign of easing. The threat of continued increases in the price of fuel oil will eventually increase the cost of electrical power, in direct proportion for most users. This will undoubtedly cause closure of some lower grade ore bodies unless energy utilization efficiencies, particularly in comminution, can be improved.

Most of the recent literature concerning comminution performance improvement has been directed at grinding mill performance. It can be expected that more refined control systems will improve the overall milling energy efficiency, which is normally the largest single cost component of production. However, published gains by such methods to date appear to be limited to something less than 10%.

The second largest cost for comminution processes is normally that for wear metal consumed in grinding operations. Allis-Chalmers has continuing -research programs into all forms of comminution processes involving crushing and grinding. Improved crushing technology shows the way to reducing both energy and wear metal consumption mainly by producing finer feed which will improve downstream grinding mill performance.

A new testing procedure for studying crushing phenomena, presently being perfected by Allis-Chalmers, is described for the first time. These bench scale laboratory tests will give more accurate prediction of both energy requirements and size distribution produced in commercial crushing processes. As a direct result, this machine will allow more accurate comparisons to be made in capital and operating cost expenditures for various combinations of crushing and milling processes.

These new testing procedures can be run on small samples including pieces of drill core material. They could be part of testing and feasibility studies for most new concentrators. The same methods can be used to determine likely yield of various sized crushed products and, therefore, benefit crushed stone producers.

The theoretical and practical phenomena concerning comminution processes have received considerable attention in the literature and are not discussed here in any detail. Instead, the breakage studies in this paper are based on an empirical treatment of the fundamental relationships between energy and the size distributions of processed particles that have been observed both in the laboratory and in large-scale, commercial cone-crushing operations.

Because of the bewildering number of variables encountered when studying comminution processes, most investigators have preferred to assume that the size distribution generated in milling and crushing processes bears some relatively fixed relationship such as those described by Gates-Gaudin-Schuhmann1 or Rosin-Rammler.

Fred Bond, in his Third Theory of Comminution, used the former, essentially assuming that size versus cumulative percent passing that size was represented by a straight line of assumed slope 0.5 below the 80% passing size. Based on this assumption, Bond derived his well-known relationship:

The Work Index for rod and ball mills can be determined from laboratory tests and, as demonstrated by Rowland, the relationship gives us a reasonably accurate tool for the design of rotary grinding mill circuits.

Bonds methods have been less successful in predicting fine crushing performance, however, primarily because the typical crusher feed and product distributions do not meet the assumed conditions necessary for the satisfactory application of his equation (see Fig. (1)).

It is most evident that the curved lines appearing on Fig. (1) do not represent a Gates-Gaudin-Schuhmann size distribution. It is therefore not surprising that Bonds procedures do not work well in this situation. The Rosin- Rammler distribution has also been found inadequate to generally describe crusher products.

Work during the early 60s led to the concept of comminution as a repetitive process, with each step consisting of two basic operations the selection of a particle for breakage and the subsequent breakage of this particle by the machine. In this approach, the process under investigation is modelled by combining the particle selection/breakage event with information on material flow in and out of the comminution device.

Most workers who have used this approach have considered size reduction to be the result of the mechanical operation of the comminution device. This mechanical operation consumes the energy, and size reduction is merely a result of this energy consumption. This viewpoint is reasonably valid for tumbling mills where energy input tends to be constant and the proportion of the energy that is usefully consumed in particle breakage is low (<10%). It does not appear to be valid in compression crushers, however, since breakage energy is a significant proportion (>50%) of the total energy input to the crusher and markedly different power rates (energy input per unit of crusher feed) can be obtained by varying ore feedrates and/or crusher parameters such as closed side setting. It will therefore be necessary to include energy information in any model of the crushing process before it will be possible to accurately predict crusher performance. The inclusion of this energy-size information will significantly increase the complexity of these models.

The single-particle breakage event has been the subject of several studies. Most of these have utilized only sufficient energy to break the particle and do not simulate commercial crushing operations where energy levels are such that catastrophic repetitive breakage usually takes place. This approach to the study of comminution processes does yield valuable information, however, and it is unfortunate that it has not received greater attention.

The Bond Impact Work Index method has been an industry standard for the determination of crusher power requirements but was originally developed to ensure, that sufficient power was connected to primary gyratory crushers. In this method, pieces of rock are fractured by trial and error in the test device shown in Fig. (2), until sufficient impact energy has been applied to break the rock.

Normally, the rock breaks in halves, and in most tests only two and seldom more than three large pieces are observed after fracture. No size distribution information is used in calculating the Bond Impact Work Index from the formula:

KWH/tonne). The procedure works quite well for this type of crusher but tends to understate power requirements in fine crushers where power rates are typically much higher (upwards from 0.25 KWH/tonne).

Because of this, a research program was instituted by Allis-Chalmers Comminution Task Force Committee to break rock in a manner more analogous to that observed within commercial fine crushers. A pendulum type test device similar in most respects to that developed by the United States Bureau of Mines and shown diagrammatically in Fig. (3), was built and has been used in an extensive test program to determine whether it would be possible to predict cone crusher performance.

The rock samples selected for crushing in this device are usually minus 38mm (1-), plus 19mm () in size. The sample rock is weighed and then placed between the platens. The end of the rebound platen is placed in contact with the rebound pendulum and the crushing pendulum is raised to a predetermined vertical height which depends on the size of the sample. The crushing pendulum is then released after striking the crushing platen and breaking the rock, the remaining energy is transferred via the rebound platen to the rebound pendulum. The horizontal distance that the rebound pendulum travels is recorded by displacement of a marker and is subsequently converted to a vertical height.

where Ec = crushing energy E1 = crushing pendulum potential energy (before release) KE = kinetic energy of the two platens E2 = rebound pendulum maximum potential energy (after crushing) EL = system energy loss (sound, heat, vibration)

The system energy loss, EL, is determined by plotting EL as a function of the initial height of the crushing pendulum with no rock present. The major portion of this loss is by vibration. It is felt that the difference between system energy losses with and without rock present in the system is minimal as long as enough initial energy is supplied to result in a small elevation of the rebound pendulum.

The fragments from several rock samples broken under identical conditions were combined for each of the size analyses reported in this paper. Bond Work Indices were also backcalculated from the data using the standard formula, i.e.

Confirmation of the ability of the procedure to provide information suitable for the prediction of crusher performance was obtained by taking feed samples from 31 commercial operations treating a wide range of rocks and ores. At the time of taking a feed sample for laboratory testing in the pendulum device, relevant performance data such as power, feed rate and size distributions for feed and product were taken on the operating crusher. Several thousand rocks have been broken during tests with the device over the past 3 years.

The first thing to notice from these graphs is that there is an extremely good family relationship within each set of size distribution curves. This is somewhat coincidental, since the pendulum curve is the product of a single particle-single impact breakage event and the typical crusher product curve results from multiple particle-multiple impact breakage, but is probably due to two facts:

In order to show that the pendulum product size distribution is sensitive to power rate, several tests have been run on the same feed material at different levels of pendulum input energy. Typical results are shown in Fig. (7) as Schuhmann size distribution (log-log) plots. It can be seen that increasing amounts of fine material are produced with increasing energy input. The same effect was previously demonstrated for an operating crusher in Fig. (1). We can, therefore, conclude from this

that net power rates will be the same in the pendulum and the crusher when the two distributions coincide (as they do in Figs. (4) thru (6). This permits us to determine the efficiency of power utilization in crushers and to predict the product size distribution which will arise from operating crushers at different power rates.

The Bond Work Index figures obtained by backcalculation from the pendulum data are compared with the Net Work Index values obtained from the plants in Fig. (8). The agreement is surprisingly good especially in view of the fact that the 80% passing values do not completely describe the total feed arid product size distributions. This agreement is probably due to the fact that the use of comparable energy levels in both machines gives rise to similar reduction ratios and product size distributions. Because of this, the pendulum test provides a good estimate of the Net Work Index when this is required for current design procedures.

The pendulum product distribution is a breakage function and can be used in models of the process to predict crusher product distributions for different operating conditions. As an example of this approach, Whitens model of the cone crusher, Fig. (9), has been used to simulate the situation given in Fig. (4). The result of this simulation is given in Fig. (10) where it can be seen that very good approximations of crusher performance can be obtained.

The writers are firmly of the opinion that results to date prove that the use of this pendulum device can give more energy-size reduction information in a form readily useable for crusher application. The data can be generated in less time and from a much smaller sample than is required for pilot plant testing. Our present pendulum tester is a research tool and is currently being modified for use in commercial testing of minerals and rocks. More details of this device will be given at a later date.

primary crusher selection & design

primary crusher selection & design

The crusher capacities given by manufacturers are typically in tons of 2,000 lbs. and are based on crushing limestone weighing loose about 2,700 lbs. per yard3 and having a specific gravity of 2.6. Wet, sticky and extremely hard or tough feeds will tend to reduce crusher capacities.

Selectiingwhat size a crusher needs to be is based on factors such as the F80 size of the rocks to be crushed, the production rate, and the P80 desired product output size. Primary crushers with crush run-of-mine rock from blast product size to what can be carried by the discharge conveyor or fit/math the downstream process.A typical example of primary crushing is reducing top-size from 900 to 200 mm.

Ultimately, the mining sequence will certainly impact the primary crusher selection. Where you will mine ore and where from, is a deciding factor not so much for picking between a jaw or gyratory crusher but its mobility level.

The mom and dad of primary crushers are jaw and gyratory crushers. In open-pit mines where high tonnage is required, thegyratory crushers are typically the choice as jaw crushers will not crush over 500 TPH with great ease. There are exceptions like MPI Mineral Park in AZ where 50,000 TPD was processed via 2 early century vintage jaw crushers of a:

The rated capacity at 5 closed-side setting was 490 stph based on standard 100lbs/ft3 feed material. These crushers were fed a very fine ore over a 4 grizzly which allowed the 1000 TPH the SAG mills needed.

In under-ground crushing plants where the diameter of the mine-shaft a skip forces limits on rock size, a jaw crusher will be the machine of choice. Again, if crushing on surface, both styles of stone crushing machines should be evaluated.

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