iron ore agglomeration product used

a detailed look at iron ore agglomeration

a detailed look at iron ore agglomeration

Agglomeration labs are regularly conducted at FEECO International, as our Process Experts test materials for feasibility, optimize current processing methods, and help customers create their ideal product. And while weve worked with hundreds of materials over the years, one that we frequently see in the FEECO Innovation Center is iron ore.

Iron ore is a central mineral used in the steel industry. Despite its widespread use, testing is often done to create a valuable end-product that meets industry standards. Factors like mesh size vary from 1/8-3/8, and binder selection varies per each customer need as well.

This article takes an in-depth look at iron ore agglomeration in the FEECO Innovation Center, emphasizing the benefits of agglomeration, processing methods, and challenges associated with the unique nuances of the material itself.

Furthermore, binder may serve as a beneficial additive to the pelletized product, depending on its anticipated application and the binder selected. Iron pellets can be used in the fertilizer industry, for example, and thus certain binders may not only help achieve agglomeration, but may also provide nutrients to crops when applied to standard fields.

2) Pelletizing on a disc pelletizer. The conditioned material enters the pan, and as the pan rotates, the iron ore tumbles against itself, growing in size. Once the pellets reach their desired size, they exit the pan and proceed to drying.

3) Drying in a rotary drum dryer. The dryer removes the specified amount of moisture from the pellets in order to meet end- product requirements. The rotation of the drum also imparts a tumbling action on the pellets, further polishing and rounding them.

In addition, various pieces of material handling equipment, such as bucket elevators and conveyors, are also used throughout the lab tests, to transport the material from one piece of equipment to the next.

The importance of testing iron ore in a lab setting cannot be emphasized enough. It is in the lab where process variables such as binder, binder feed rate, and RPM among other items can be fine-tuned to produce agglomerates that meet a customers precise specifications. And because iron ore varies from one sample to the next, so too does the process configuration.

The FEECO Innovation Center is equipped to suit small batch tests on a single piece of equipment, as well as a continuous process loop to create the ideal iron ore agglomeration process. Items such as attrition, crush strength, compression, and bulk density are also measured through various stages of testing to, again, create the anticipated end-product.

what are the main uses of iron ore?

what are the main uses of iron ore?

Iron ore is used primarily in the production of iron. Iron is used in the manufacturing of steel. Steel is the most used metal in the world by tonnage and purpose. It is used in automobiles, airplanes, beams used in the construction of buildings and thousands of other items.

Iron ore is used primarily in the production of iron. Iron is used in the manufacturing of steel. Steel is the most used metal in the world by tonnage and purpose. It is used in automobiles, airplanes, beams used in the construction of buildings and thousands of other items.

Iron ore are the rocks or minerals by which metallic iron is derived. Iron ores that carry a high quantity of hermatite or magnetite can be fed directly into blast furnaces in the iron production industry.

Iron ore are the rocks or minerals by which metallic iron is derived. Iron ores that carry a high quantity of hermatite or magnetite can be fed directly into blast furnaces in the iron production industry.

The business of mining iron ore is a high volume, low margin industry because of the low value of iron. The transport of iron ore by way of railway or freight requires a highly stable infrastructure for the mining production to be economically feasible. As a result, the mining of iron ore has remained in the control of a few major companies.Iron ore is the main ingredient in steel, which makes up 95 percent of the metals used in the world per year. Two billion metric tons of raw iron ore are produced in a year. The world's largest single producer of iron ore is Brazilian mining company Vale, which produces over 350 million tons of iron ore annually.

The business of mining iron ore is a high volume, low margin industry because of the low value of iron. The transport of iron ore by way of railway or freight requires a highly stable infrastructure for the mining production to be economically feasible. As a result, the mining of iron ore has remained in the control of a few major companies.

Iron ore is the main ingredient in steel, which makes up 95 percent of the metals used in the world per year. Two billion metric tons of raw iron ore are produced in a year. The world's largest single producer of iron ore is Brazilian mining company Vale, which produces over 350 million tons of iron ore annually.

iron ore pellet - an overview | sciencedirect topics

iron ore pellet - an overview | sciencedirect topics

specification that the DRI pellets are not oxidized nor reduced while descending through the top segment so that their mass and composition entering the bottom segment are the same as when they are top charged; and

replacement of [mass scrap steel descendinginto the bottom segment] column of Chapter 43, Top-Charged Scrap Steel, with [mass DRI pellets descendinginto the bottom segment] column as shown in Table 44.1.

In a DR process, iron ore pellets and/or lump iron ores are reduced by a reducing gas to produce DRI or hot briquetted iron (HBI). Depending on the generation of the reducing gas, two different DR processes are commercially available: gas-based and coal/oil-based. In the gas-based DR process, the reducing gas is produced by chemically reforming a mixture of natural gas and off-gas from the reducing furnace to produce a gas that is rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Typical examples of the gas-based DR process include MIDREX and HYL, which are often the preferred technology in countries where natural gas is abundant. However in the coal/oil-based DR process, the reducing gas is generated from hydrocarbons (primarily coal, but sometimes oil and natural gas) in the reduction zone of the furnace, which is typically a rotary kiln. Typical examples of the coal-based process include the SL/RN and ACCAR processes. The coal-based DR process is more popular in India and China. Different types of reactors, such as shaft furnaces, fluidized beds, rotary kilns, and rotary hearth furnaces, have been used in different variations of the processe to achieve the metallization required.

Based on statistics (Anon 3, 2014), India is the world leader in DRI production producing about 17.8Mt of DRI in 2013, approximately one-forth of world DRI production. The gas-based DR processes are producing almost 80% of the world's DRI. MIDREX is the key variant of the gas-based DR processes accounting for about 63.2% of world DRI production in 2013, followed by HYL (15.4%). Therefore, the following discussion focuses mainly on the MIDREX process.

The free swelling test determines the volume increase of iron ore pellets during reduction. When pellets were first introduced, a swelling tendency led to damage to the BF stack, poor permeability to gas flow, and irregular burden descent. The test does not apply to lump ore or sinter.

An electrically heated furnace with a vertical reduction tube that contains a wire basket with room for 18 individual pellets is used. The pellets with sizes ranging from 10 to 12.5mm are placed in three levels of six pellets each. The tube is 75mm in diameter and is preheated by hot reduction gas flowing in the space between the walls. The pellets are dried at 105C, and their volume is measured. Afterward, they are placed in the wire basket and lowered into the test furnace. The pellets are first preheated with hot inert gas to the test temperature of 900C in a N2 atmosphere, after which reduction gas with composition 30%/70% (CO/N2) is introduced at a flow rate of 15L/min. The pellets are subjected to isothermal reduction at 900C for 60minutes. The reduction gas is then substituted with N2 gas and the pellets are cooled to room temperature. The post test volume of the pellets is measured, and the free swelling index is expressed as the percent volume increase.

There are two main types of pelletizer that are used to produce iron ore pellets at industrial scale, the rotary drum and the disc. Besides iron ore agglomeration, these pelletizers can also be used for other materials such as copper ore, gold ore, coal, and fertilizer [12].

The rotary drum pelletizer was first used for taconite pellets in the early 1940s [14, 18]. A large drum-shaped cylinder is slightly elevated at one end, approximately 34. The iron ore and binder mixture enters the high end and finished pellets exit the low end. A roller screen is usually attached to the exit to separate pellets within the desired range from undersize and oversize, the latter two streams being recirculated (oversize after being crushed). The recirculating load tends to be approximately 150250% by weight of feed. Although a rotary drum pelletizer requires a roller screen it provides a more complete control of size. For a drum pelletizer flow sheet, see Figure 1.2.6.

Disc pelletizers are also used extensively worldwide. The advantage of the disc pelletizer is that there is no recirculation. The desired blend is fed to the pelletizer, which is a large disc inclined at 4060 to the horizontal (Figure 1.2.7). The rotation of the disc causes the formation of seeds, which grow into full-sized pellets. Factors affecting the final pellet size include the disc angle, feed rate, water addition, and rotation speed. As the diameter of the pelletizer increases, the speed should be decreased, otherwise due to the high impact pellets will start breaking. Disc pelletizers are very simple to design and have excellent performance [13].

Available sources of iron oxide include high-grade lump ore, beneficiated iron ore fines, iron ore pellets, and agglomerates from dusts produced by the BF, basic oxygen furnace, and the EAF. Most DRI is produced in shaft furnaces, which require a uniform-sized coarse feed. Due to the high gas velocities and abrasive conditions in shaft furnaces, fine particles are not suitable as charge materials. They tend to be carried out with the gas stream, from which they must be collected and recirculated. Fluidized bed DR processes are exceptions. Shaft furnaces use pellets (produced in the same way as pellets for the BF), or lump ore. Raw material for pellets is produced by crushing and grinding low-grade iron orestypically of the taconite class and finer than 325 mesh (0.044mm)and magnetically separating the iron oxide (magnetite, Fe3O4) from the siliceous gangue. The fine particles are reconstituted into moist pellets about 1cm in diameter, and then indurated by heating to temperatures approaching 1300 C. This is sufficient to bring about complete oxidation to recrystallized hematite (Fe2O3).

There are some key differences in the pellet chemistry for DRI versus BF use. In DRI production, the primary chemical change is the removal of oxygen and the addition of some carbon; the other constituents remain with the DRI. In smelting, the formation of a slag allows substantial removal of the ore contaminants. For this reason, the iron content of DRI pellets should be as high as possible and preferably >67%. Pellet reducibility, strength, and swelling specifications are similar to those of BF pellets. Coal-based processes have the potential disadvantage of contributing coal ash oxides to the product.

The term induration describes the hardening of a powdery substance. For example, in steel production, iron ore pellets are fed into melt furnaces. To avoid dusting and loss of ore, small oxide particles are agglomerated by sintering. Although initially applied to iron ore, soon the briquette agglomeration concept spread to a variety of materials [21].

Percy [22] describes iron ore agglomeration in 1864 and notes how oxide inclusions are detrimental. By the early 1900s large scale sintering agglomeration systems were in use [2326]. Figure 2.13 shows one such plant that helps demonstrate the large scale application of sintering by 1912. In the 1930s and 1940s, ore sintering included zinc, lead, lead sulfide, carbonates, chlorides, and precious metals.

Today iron ore agglomeration is the largest tonnage application for sintering, with plants operating at up 20,000 metric tonnes per day. For example, Figure 2.14 is a picture of a modern agglomeration facility which incorporates off-gas capture to reduce environmental damage. In such a facility, the iron ore fines are mixed with fluxes, carbon fuel, and water. The mixture is continuously fed onto trays or belts. As the conveyor moves through the sintering furnace, the mixture is heated to ignite the fuel and sinter the powder. Reaction waste consists of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, as well as nitrous oxides and sulfur oxides.

The so-called tumbler tests are usually used for testing material like coke, coal, iron ore pellets or tablets. They can be divided into drum tests and ball mill type tests. The latter type is used to derive both the Hardgrove Index and the Bond's Work Index, which are often used to classify the material friability as described in Sec. 3. They are generally more suited to coarse material. The Hardgrove Grindability test requires an initial size range form 595 to 1190 microns.

The Grace-Davison jet-cup attrition test is often used to test the friability of catalysts (e.g., Weeks and Dumbill, 1990; Dessalces et al., 1994). The respective jet-cup apparatus is sketched in Fig. 5. The catalyst sample is confined to a small cup, into which air is tangentially added at a high velocity (about 150 m/s). Some authors (e.g., Dessalces et al., 1994) assume that the stress in the jet-cup is similar to that prevailing in gas cyclones. With respect to fine catalysts, this type of test works as good as the impact test described above, but its applicability is limited to smaller sizes because larger particles tend to slug in the small cylinder. However, in the catalyst development, where at first only a little batch of catalyst is produced, this apparatus is an important friability test because it requires only a small amount of material (approximately 5 to 10 g).

The Fastmet is a continuous process which basically consists of a rotary hearth furnace where one or two layers of self-reducing iron ore pellets are placed. These self-reducing pellets are made from a mixture of iron ore concentrate, reductor (coal or coke), and binder. Unlike the other processes previously described, the Fastmet process uses a solid instead of a gas to reduce the iron oxide. The pellets travel through the rotary hearth furnace and are heated to 12501350C by burners placed throughout the length of the furnace. The rapid reduction rate of 12minutes is attributed to the high reduction temperatures and the close contact of the reductor and the iron oxide particles. DRI produced in this process is also unstable in air and must be briquetted to avoid reoxidation.

JKMRC has developed a slightly different method of estimating abrasion. Their method is similar to the standard laboratory Trommel Test applied for testing the abrasion of iron ore pellets and coke. In this test, 3kg of dry ore, size 55mm+38mm is charged into a horizontal cylindrical steel drum ID 0.30m 0.30m with lifter bars 2.54cm in height. The drum is rotated for 10 min at 53rpm (70% of the critical speed). The sample is then removed and screened to 38m. The cumulative mass percent passing each screen size is plotted. The mass percent passing 1/10th (T10) of the original size is taken as the abrasion parameter, Ta.

agglomeration of iron ores - 1st edition - ram pravesh bhagat - routl

agglomeration of iron ores - 1st edition - ram pravesh bhagat - routl

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This book focuses on agglomeration, or the size enlargement process, of iron ores. This process sits at the interface of mineral processing and extractive metallurgy. The book begins with a discussion of raw materials preparation and the beneficiation process. It then describes fundamental principles of the sintering and pelletization processes, including formation of green mix through granulation and green balls as well as chemical reactions during sintering. Finally, it offers a brief description of iron making processes and correlations related to the agglomerates: quality parameters and BF productivity and coke rate.

This book focuses on agglomeration, or the size enlargement process, of iron ores. This process sits at the interface of mineral processing and extractive metallurgy. The book begins with a discussion of raw materials preparation and the beneficiation process. It then describes fundamental principles of the sintering and pelletization processes, including formation of green mix through granulation and green balls as well as chemical reactions during sintering. Finally, it offers a brief description of iron making processes and correlations related to the agglomerates: quality parameters and BF productivity and coke rate.

Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Preamble 1.2 Definition and Category 1.3 Scope of Agglomeration 1.4 Need for Agglomeration 1.5 Raw Materials for Agglomeration 1.6 The Agglomeration Processes 1.7 Iron-Making 1.8 R&D 1.9 Techno-Economics 1.10 Evolutionary Phases Chapter 2: Raw Materials : Characterization and Preparation 2.1 Categories and Specifications 2.2 Characterization of Raw Materials 2.3 Genesis of Iron Ore 2.4 Classification of Iron Ores 2.5 Mineralogy of Iron Ores 2.6 Preparation of Iron Ores 2.7 Industrial Practice on Iron Ore Beneficiation and Process Flow Sheets 2.8 Handling of Iron Ores Chapter 3: Iron-Making Processes 3.1 Preamble 3.2 Reduction of Iron Oxide 3.3 Direct Reduction Processes 3.4 Blast Furnace (BF) Iron Making Process 3.5 Blast Furnace (BF) Iron-Making Reactions 3.6 Blast Furnace Performance : Factors Affecting Chapter 4:: Agglomerates in Iron-Making Processes 4.1 Preamble 4.2 Agglomerates in Iron Making Processes 4.3 Properties of Agglomerates 4.4 Quantitative Effect on Blast Furnace Performance Chapter 5: Process of Sintering 5.1 Preamble The Sintering Process Control of Sinter Plant Operation 5.4 Pollution Control and Waste Heat Recovery 5.5 Recycling of Steel Plant Solid Waste 5.6 Non-conventional / Other Process Chapter 6: Sintering Fundamental 6.1 The Process of Sintering 6.2 Sintering Zones 6.3 Air Flow and Permeability 6. 4 Structure and Porosity of Bed 6. 5 Granules and Granulation 6.6 Thermal Characteristics during Sintering 6.7 Bonding in Sinter 6.8 Assimilation and Coalescence 6.9 Sintering Reactions 6.10 Sintering Reaction and Mineralogy 6.11 Mass Balance 6.12 Heat Balance 6.13 Ignition 6.14 Combustion of Solid Fuel in Sintering Chapter 7: Sinter Productivity: Theoretical Consideration and Plant Practice 7.1 Sinter Productivity 7.2 Bed Permeability and Bed Structure 7.3 Iron Ores: Particle Size and Characteristics 7.4 Granulation 7.5 Moisture Content of Sinter Mix 7.6 Sinter Basicity and MgO Content 7.7 Coke and Fluxes: Content, Nature and Particle Size 7.8 Return Fines 7.9 Sinter Mean Size Chapter 8: Sinter Mineralogy 8.1 Preamble 8.2 Major Constituents and Desired Mineralogy of Sinter 8.3 Mineralogical Terminology 8.4 Sintering Reaction and Mineralogy 8.5 5 Composition and Mineralogical Characteristics of Fluxed Sinter 8.6 Process Variables and Sinter Mineralogy 8.7 Sinter Chemistry and its Mineralogy 8.8 Sinter Mineralogy and Quality Parameters Chapter 9: Sinter Quality: Theoretical Consideration and Plant Practice 9.1 Sinter Quality and Contributing Factors 9.2 Sinter Mineralogy and its Quality Parameters 9.3 Cold Strength 9.4 Sinter Reducibility 9.5 Sinter Reduction Degradation Index (RDI) 9.6 Salient Ways to Improve Sinter RDI Chapter 10: Process and Operational Variables with respect to Sintering 10.1 Preamble 10.2 Iron Ore : Characteristics and Size Parameters 10.3 Alumina Content of Ore 10.4 Sinter Basicity 10.5 MgO Content of Sinter 10.6 Fluxes: Size Parameters, Calcination and Assimilation 10.7 Solid Fuel 10.8 Newer Coating and Granulation Techniques Chapter 11: Pelletization Process 11.1 Pelletization Process 11.2 Raw Materials and their Preparation 11.3 Pelletization Steps 11.4 Environmental Pollution and Control 11.5 Specification of Pelletization Plants 11.6 Composite Pellets Chapter 12: Green Pelletization: Process and Mechanism 12.1 Balling Process 12.2 Formation of Green Balls and Growth 12.3 Strength of Wet Agglomerates 12.4 Viscosity Effect and Binders 12.5 Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Green Pellets 12.6 Stages of Pellet Formation and Growth 12.7 Kinetics of Ball Growth Chapter 13: Quality of Green Pellets 13.1 Preamble 13.2 Size and Porosity of Pellets 13.3 Drop Resistance (Number) 13.4 Wet Compressive Strength Chapter 14: Induration of Green Pellets 14.1 Preamble 14.2 Pellet Induration : Steps 14.3 Process of Induration using Shaft Furnace 14.4 Straight Grate Process of Pellet Induration 14.5 Grate-Kiln-Cooler Process 14.6 Comparison of Straight Grate Process vis--vis Grate Kiln Process 14.7 Factors influencing the Induration Process (and Pellet Quality) 14.8 Fuel Substitution in Pellet Induration Chapter 15: Reactions and Formation of Phases during Induration 15.1 Preamble 15.2 Induration of Magnetite bearing Pellets and Phases Formed 15.3 Induration of Hematite bearing Pellets and Phases formed 15.4 Induration: Magnetite vis--vis Hematite Concentrate 15.5 Phases and Pores in Indurated Pellets 15.6 Parameters influencing the Mineral Phases in Indurated Pellets 15.7 Parameters Influencing the Porosity in Indurated Pellets 15.8 Duplex Structure Chapter 16; Quality of Indurated Pellets 16.1 Preamble: Pellet Properties and Factors Influencing

Ram Pravesh Bhagat (born October 1954 has 36 years of research experience in the iron ore beneficiation & agglomeration areas while serving premier R&D establishments, SAIL-RDCIS and CSIR-NML. He has worked with Soviet Experts to implement R&D Projects at SAIL plants aimed to improve the productivity of sinter and its quality. In the 1990s, the author research projects in collaboration with IIT Kharagpur, RAS Russia and with support from Private Industries. His subsequent research career in CSIR-NML (2000--2014) had been concentrated to the agglomeration area with support from the Ministry of Steel (Govt, of India), Private/ PSU Organisations, As a faculty member of AcSIR-CSIR and IIT (ISM), the author has developed courses in agglomeration technology and delivered invited lectures. He has supervised two Ph.D. scholars (IIT Kharagpur) and four M. Tech students (ISM). At ISM he initiated research in the field of agglomeration. He has contributed three book chapters including "Agglomeration" in the Encyclopedia of Iron, Steel, and Their Alloys (CRC Press). He has also published over a hundred research papers in journals and conference proceeding volumes. He is life fellow and member of several professional bodies. He is also recipient of various awards and fellowship including CSIR-DAAD.

He has worked with Soviet Experts to implement R&D Projects at SAIL plants aimed to improve the productivity of sinter and its quality. In the 1990s, the author research projects in collaboration with IIT Kharagpur, RAS Russia and with support from Private Industries. His subsequent research career in CSIR-NML (2000--2014) had been concentrated to the agglomeration area with support from the Ministry of Steel (Govt, of India), Private/ PSU Organisations,

As a faculty member of AcSIR-CSIR and IIT (ISM), the author has developed courses in agglomeration technology and delivered invited lectures. He has supervised two Ph.D. scholars (IIT Kharagpur) and four M. Tech students (ISM). At ISM he initiated research in the field of agglomeration. He has contributed three book chapters including "Agglomeration" in the Encyclopedia of Iron, Steel, and Their Alloys (CRC Press). He has also published over a hundred research papers in journals and conference proceeding volumes. He is life fellow and member of several professional bodies. He is also recipient of various awards and fellowship including CSIR-DAAD.

agglomeration and characterization of nickel concentrate (mhp) pellets for ferronickel production | springerlink

agglomeration and characterization of nickel concentrate (mhp) pellets for ferronickel production | springerlink

Mixed hydroxide precipitate (MHP) is a nickel intermediate product that has economical benefits to downstream leaching of lateritic marginal ores. Usually, this product is subsequently processed and refined to produce nickel by hydrometallurgy, but an alternative route can be made integrating hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy. Assessing the overall consumption of ferroalloys to obtain stainless steel, as an increasing practice performed in China, the synergy of nickel extraction from laterites by leaching and precipitation as MHP with the production of MHP agglomerates applied as raw material to furnaces of ferronickel production is a very attractive practice. This work aims to further the technological development of an agglomerated product feasible to hydro-pyro integration. The agglomeration experiments were performed by traditional pelletizing (firing the pellets) and cold bonded pelletizing (aging the pellets by appropriate stocking). Appropriate compositions were prepared with MHP, additives and binders for each of these routes. A specific study of binder composition was made to find an adequate melting point. The produced pellets were tested to prove their properties by crushing strength tests. The standardization applied to iron ore was followed. The best result of crushing strength was 98.52 daN/pellet. The agglomerates with approved crushing strength for use in electric furnaces were smelted to produce alloys containing nickel; the agglomerates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The alloy obtained was metallic ferronickel with sulphide precipitates. Therefore, MHP pellets can be precursors of nickel alloys, which have to be refined to obtain the desirable composition.

Rao M, Li G, Jiang T, Luo J, Zhang Y, Fan X (2013) Carbothermic reduction of nickeliferous laterite ores for nickel pig iron production in China: a review. J Miner Met Mater Soc 65(11):15731583 Republic of China

Hernndez F, Nejarda M (2013) Desulphurization of crude ferronickel, high sulfur content in ladle furnace. In: INFACON XIII. The thirteenth International Ferroalloys Congress - Efficient technologies in ferroalloy industry, 2013, Almaty. Proceedings Almaty: P. Dipner, 2013. vol 1. p. 245254

The authors acknowledge Vale Technological Institute for technical support, knowledge shared and meetings realized. The authors would also like to give special thanks to Vale for additives and binder supplies, Arcelor Mittal Tubaro for SEM analysis, Centro de tecnologia mineral (CETEM) for chemical analysis, Universidade de Campina Grande (UFCG) for chemical analysis and thermogravimetry, Universidade do Esprito Santo (UFES) for pellets chemical analysis, Metallurgical and Materials Post Graduate Program (PROPEMM) and IFES for financial support to proofreading this article, besides the technical and scientific support in labs and library, and Coordenao de Aperfeioamento de Pessoal de Nvel Superior (CAPES) for research incentive.

de Oliveira, R.P., da Conceio do Nascimento, R. & Feldhagen, H.G. Agglomeration and Characterization of Nickel Concentrate (MHP) Pellets for Ferronickel Production. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration 37, 16531665 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-020-00235-4

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