jaw crusher moving jaw jaw crusher of coal

jaw crusher

jaw crusher

Jaw Crusher (also known as tiger mouth) appeared in 1858. Jaw crusher widely used in mining, smelting, building material, highway, railway, water conservancy and chemical industry and many other sectors, broken less than 320 MPa compressive strength of various materials.

1. Heightened movable jaw assembly causes it to be more long-lasting. Movable jaw assembly adopts a high-quality steel casting, and moves through two large cast steel flywheel drive. Additionally, heavy eccentric shaft has also adopted forging billet for processing. All those increase the risk for PE jaw crushers with exceptional reliability.

3.Quicker and convenient adjustment on the discharging opening. Main structure adopted within the crushing cavity helps make the actual feed mouth width add up to the set width of the feeding opening.

The motor transmits power through belt, drives the moving jaw to do periodic motion towards the fixed jaw by the eccentric shaft. The angle between toggle plate and moving jaw plate increases when moving jaw moves. So the moving jaw moves towards the fixed jaw. The stuff will be crushed in this process. The angle between toggle plate and moving jaw decreases when moving jaw moves down, the moving jaw moves leaves fixed jaw by pulling rod and spring, the final crushed stuff will be discharged from the outlet.

Type Feed Inlet Size (mm) Max. Feeding Size (mm) Adjust range of discharge opening (mm) Capacity (t/h) Power (kw) Weight (t) Overall Size(L*W*H) (mm) PE250400 250400 200 20-50 5-20 15 2.9 143013101340 PE400600 400600 350 40-100 15-60 30-37 6.8 170017321653 PE500750 500750 425 50-100 40-100 45-55 11.2 203519212000 PE600900 600900 480 65-160 60-140 55-75 16.5 229022062370 PE7501060 7501060 630 80-150 80-230 90-110 29 265523023110 PE9001200 9001200 750 95-165 140-320 110-132 54.5 378930503025 PE10001200 10001200 850 105-185 180-400 160-200 56.5 390033203280 PE12001500 12001500 1020 150-300 250-650 220-250 99.6 430035404043 PEX150250 150250 125 10-40 1-3 5.5 0.85 896745935 PEX150750 150750 125 12-45 5-16 15 3.8 120514951203 PEX250750 250750 210 25-60 10-40 22-30 5 166715451020 PEX2501000 2501000 210 25-60 15-50 30-37 6.8 196415501380 PEX2501200 2501200 210 25-60 20-60 37-45 8.5 219216051415 PEX3001300 3001300 250 20-90 30-90 55-75 12.5 220022001960 PEX4001300 4001300 300 35-95 40-100 75 11.7 225621001960

pe jaw crusher - rock crusher manufacturer, types of ore crusher, stone crusher supplier - static crushers

pe jaw crusher - rock crusher manufacturer, types of ore crusher, stone crusher supplier - static crushers

Raw materials:Granite, limestone, basalt, shale, pebbles, bluestone, sandstone, carbide, iron ore, copper ore, steel slag, manganese ore, andesite, quartz, silica, gypsum, volcanic rock, marble, river stone, gravel, coal etc..

ThePE series jaw crusher isusually used in the production lines of various hardest stones, ore crushingand recycle materialsas primary and secondarystage crusher.DSMAC jaw crusher is designedfor materials whose compression strength is no more than 320Mpa. It simulates the movement of animals two jaws, crushing the materials through the opening and closing of two jaw plates (moving jaw and fixed jaw).

Engineered for toughest material, Dingsheng PE Series jaw crushers offer an extensive range of models for static and mobile jaw crushing applications. Our jaw crushers are widely used in quarry and mining plants. Our designs include small unit with inlet opening from 200mm x 400mm to large sized unit with 1500mm x 1800mm inlet opening giving 1300 tons per hour capacity.

jaw crusher_henan hongji mine machinery co., ltd

jaw crusher_henan hongji mine machinery co., ltd

Jaw crusher is mainly used as coarse crusher and medium crusher in mining, building materials, infrastructure and other departments. According to the width of the inlet, it can be divided into three types: large, medium and small. The machine whose width of the inlet is more than 600MM is large, the machine whose width of the inlet is 300-600MM is medium, and the machine whose width of the inlet is less than 300MM is small. The jaw crusher is simple in structure, easy to manufacture and reliable in operation.

The working part of jaw crusher is two jaw plates, one is fixed jaw plate (fixed jaw), vertical (or slightly inclined upper end) fixed on the front wall of the body, the other is movable jaw plate (movable jaw), the position is inclined, and the fixed jaw plate forms a large and small crushing chamber (working chamber). The movable jaw plates do periodic reciprocating movements against the fixed jaw plates, sometimes apart, sometimes approaching. When separated, the material enters the crushing chamber, and the finished product is discharged from the lower part;when approached, the material between the two jaw plates is crushed by extrusion, bending and splitting. Jaw crusher can be divided into simple swing jaw crusher (simple swing jaw crusher) according to the swing mode of movable jaw plate. The complex swing jaw crusher (compound pendulum jaw crusher) and the integrated swing jaw crusher are three kinds.

china jaw crusher manufacturer, ball mill, shaking table supplier - jiangxi hengchang mining machinery manufacturing co., ltd

china jaw crusher manufacturer, ball mill, shaking table supplier - jiangxi hengchang mining machinery manufacturing co., ltd

Jaw Crusher, Ball Mill, Shaking Table manufacturer / supplier in China, offering High Efficient Gold Recovery Machine Alluvial and Placer Gold Mining Equipment Sand Gold Separation Recovery Plant, 1 Ton Ball Mill for Rock Gold Mining Grinding Plant 900 X 1800 Ball Mill for Gold Grinding Plant, Factory Price Grinding Process Stone Gold Ore Ball Mill Rock Stone Gold Grinder Ball Mill Grinding and so on.

Jiangxi Hengchang Mining Machinery Manufacturing Co., Ltd. is located in No. 3 Chuangye Road, Industrial Park, Shicheng County, Ganzhou City, Jiangxi Province, China. Our company is engaged in providing the complete mineral processing equipment research, development, design and production from1985 years, So we have accumulated rich experience in design and production. Enterprise in mineral processing equipment industry has had a positive effect, set up the good reputation. And mainly the manufacture of ...

jaw crusher vs cone crusher | which is the better crusher | m&c

jaw crusher vs cone crusher | which is the better crusher | m&c

In the makrket, two most popular aggregate crushing equipments include: Cone Crusher vs Jaw Crusher. Although the cone crusher and jaw crusher are used to crush materials, what is the difference between the two crushers?Table of Contents Jaw CrusherAdvantages of Jaw CrusherCone CrusherAdvantages of Cone CrusherWhats The Difference Between Jaw Crusher and Cone Crusher1. Different Working Principle2. Adapt To Different Material3. Different Feeding Method4. Different Final CostHow To Choose Right Crusher

Jaw crusher has a moving jaw plate and a fixed jaw plate, which are wear-resistant and pressure resistant. During the operation, the jaw plate simulates animal occlusion, and the feeding port is large, so it is very suitable to deal with the coarse crushing of large block materials;

Cone crusher, with various types, large processing capacity range, high efficiency, low energy consumption, uniform product size, which is suitable for medium and fine crushing of various ores and rocks.

Jaw Crusher: The crushing chamber of jaw crusher is composed of fixed jaw plate and movable jaw plate. The fixed jaw plate is fixed vertically on the fuselage body, and the movable jaw plate is in the inclined position. The movable jaw plate continuously moves to the fixed jaw plate periodically. When the two jaw plateare close, the material is crushed by extrusion. When the movable jaw plate is far away, the broken material slides down and is discharged from the crushing chamber.

Cone Crusher: The motor of the cone crusher drives the transmission shaft to drive the eccentric sleeve to rotate, and the movable cone swings back and forth under the force of the eccentric sleeve, the movable cone is periodically close to and far away from the fixed cone, and repeatedly extrudes and impacts the material until the material meeting the requirements falls to discharge from the crushing chamber.

The gyratory body of cone crusher is higher, twice or three times of jaw crusher, and the workshop cost is larger. The weight of cone crusher is larger than that of jaw crusher with the same output by 1-2 times, so the equipment cost is higher. The installation and maintenance of cone crusher is more complicated than jaw crusher.

Therefore, when crushing hard rocks and long rocks, the cone crusher should be preferred. This design is more favorable. When wet and viscous ore is crushed, or medium, small concentrators, jaw crushers are suitable.

The weight of cone crusher with the same output is about twice that of jaw crusher, so the cost of civil engineering and later maintenance is higher, but the cone crusher has deep crushing cavity, large capacity and low energy consumption.

china crusher parts manufacturer, jaw plate cheek plate, bowl liner concave supplier - jinhua steel casting and engineering parts co., ltd

china crusher parts manufacturer, jaw plate cheek plate, bowl liner concave supplier - jinhua steel casting and engineering parts co., ltd

Crusher Parts, Bowl Liner Concave, Stone Crusher Parts manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Barmac, Merlin, Sandvik, Remco, Canica, Trio Vertical Shaft Impact Crusher Rotor, Barmac 7150se VSI Crusher Parts, Rotor Wear Parts and Anvil, Head Tip Set, Barmac 9100se VSI Crusher Parts, Rotor Wear Parts and Anvil and so on.

Jinhua Steel Casting & Engineering Parts Co., Ltd. (Hearafter Call "CASTEEL) was founded in 2003, with an aim to be the industry leading foundry and supplier of wear resistance parts for Mining, Quarrying, Construction, Metal Recycling and Heavy Engineering Sevice sectors. With years of experience in industrial casting and wear parts, we have been an innovator in reducing the cost of wear from abrasion and impact from many industries. Now, we provide ourselves on supplying a comprehensive range of ...

crushers - an overview | sciencedirect topics

crushers - an overview | sciencedirect topics

This crusher developed by Jaques (now Terex Mineral Processing Solutions) has several internal chamber configurations available depending on the abrasiveness of the ore. Examples include the Rock on Rock, Rock on Anvil and Shoe and Anvil configurations (Figure 6.26). These units typically operate with 5 to 6 steel impellers or hammers, with a ring of thin anvils. Rock is hit or accelerated to impact on the anvils, after which the broken fragments freefall into the discharge chute and onto a product conveyor belt. This impact size reduction process was modeled by Kojovic (1996) and Djordjevic et al. (2003) using rotor dimensions and speed, and rock breakage characteristics measured in the laboratory. The model was also extended to the Barmac crushers (Napier-Munn et al., 1996).

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100 mm in size. They are classified as jaw, gyratory and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing of hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes.

Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor and crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around of the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions.

A design for a hammer crusher (Figure 2.6) allows essentially a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A- and B-zones is established and high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100mm. They are classified as jaw, gyratory, and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear, and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake. A Fritsch jaw crusher with maximal feed size 95mm, final fineness (depends on gap setting) 0.315mm, and maximal continuous throughput 250Kg/h is shown in Fig. 2.8.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes. Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor. Crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough to pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of the product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure, forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions. A design for a hammer crusher (Fig. 2.9) essentially allows a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, the circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A and B zones is established and the high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

Secondary coal crusher: Used when the coal coming from the supplier is large enough to be handled by a single crusher. The primary crusher converts the feed size to one that is acceptable to the secondary crusher.

The main sources of RA are either from construction and ready mixed concrete sites, demolition sites or from roads. The demolition sites produce a heterogeneous material, whereas ready mixed concrete or prefabricated concrete plants produce a more homogeneous material. RAs are mainly produced in fixed crushing plant around big cities where CDWs are available. However, for roads and to reduce transportation cost, mobile crushing installations are used.

The materiel for RA manufacturing does not differ from that of producing NA in quarries. However, it should be more robust to resist wear, and it handles large blocks of up to 1m. The main difference is that RAs need the elimination of contaminants such as wood, joint sealants, plastics, and steel which should be removed with blast of air for light materials and electro-magnets for steel. The materials are first separated from other undesired materials then treated by washing and air to take out contamination. The quality and grading of aggregates depend on the choice of the crusher type.

Jaw crusher: The material is crushed between a fixed jaw and a mobile jaw. The feed is subjected to repeated pressure as it passes downwards and is progressively reduced in size until it is small enough to pass out of the crushing chamber. This crusher produces less fines but the aggregates have a more elongated form.

Hammer (impact) crusher: The feed is fragmented by kinetic energy introduced by a rotating mass (the rotor) which projects the material against a fixed surface causing it to shatter causing further particle size reduction. This crusher produces more rounded shape.

Jaw crushers are mainly used as primary crushers to produce material that can be transported by belt conveyors to the next crushing stages. The crushing process takes place between a fixed jaw and a moving jaw. The moving jaw dies are mounted on a pitman that has a reciprocating motion. The jaw dies must be replaced regularly due to wear. Figure 8.1 shows two basic types of jaw crushers: single toggle and double toggle. In the single toggle jaw crusher, an eccentric shaft is installed on the top of the crusher. Shaft rotation causes, along with the toggle plate, a compressive action of the moving jaw. A double toggle crusher has, basically, two shafts and two toggle plates. The first shaft is a pivoting shaft on the top of the crusher, while the other is an eccentric shaft that drives both toggle plates. The moving jaw has a pure reciprocating motion toward the fixed jaw. The crushing force is doubled compared to single toggle crushers and it can crush very hard ores. The jaw crusher is reliable and robust and therefore quite popular in primary crushing plants. The capacity of jaw crushers is limited, so they are typically used for small or medium projects up to approximately 1600t/h. Vibrating screens are often placed ahead of the jaw crushers to remove undersize material, or scalp the feed, and thereby increase the capacity of the primary crushing operation.

Both cone and gyratory crushers, as shown in Figure 8.2, have an oscillating shaft. The material is crushed in a crushing cavity, between an external fixed element (bowl liner) and an internal moving element (mantle) mounted on the oscillating shaft assembly. An eccentric shaft rotated by a gear and pinion produces the oscillating movement of the main shaft. The eccentricity causes the cone head to oscillate between the open side setting (o.s.s.) and closed side setting (c.s.s.). In addition to c.s.s., eccentricity is one of the major factors that determine the capacity of gyratory and cone crushers. The fragmentation of the material results from the continuous compression that takes place between the mantle and bowl liners. An additional crushing effect occurs between the compressed particles, resulting in less wear of the liners. This is also called interparticle crushing. The gyratory crushers are equipped with a hydraulic setting adjustment system, which adjusts c.s.s. and thus affects product size distribution. Depending on cone type, the c.s.s. setting can be adjusted in two ways. The first way is by rotating the bowl against the threads so that the vertical position of the outer wear part (concave) is changed. One advantage of this adjustment type is that the liners wear more evenly. Another principle of setting adjustment is by lifting/lowering the main shaft. An advantage of this is that adjustment can be done continuously under load. To optimize operating costs and improve the product shape, as a rule of thumb, it is recommended that cones always be choke-fed, meaning that the cavity should be as full of rock material as possible. This can be easily achieved by using a stockpile or a silo to regulate the inevitable fluctuation of feed material flow. Level monitoring devices that detect the maximum and minimum levels of the material are used to start and stop the feed of material to the crusher as needed.

Primary gyratory crushers are used in the primary crushing stage. Compared to the cone type crusher, a gyratory crusher has a crushing chamber designed to accept feed material of a relatively large size in relation to the mantle diameter. The primary gyratory crusher offers high capacity thanks to its generously dimensioned circular discharge opening (which provides a much larger area than that of the jaw crusher) and the continuous operation principle (while the reciprocating motion of the jaw crusher produces a batch crushing action). The gyratory crusher has capacities starting from 1200 to above 5000t/h. To have a feed opening corresponding to that of a jaw crusher, the primary gyratory crusher must be much taller and heavier. Therefore, primary gyratories require quite a massive foundation.

The cone crusher is a modified gyratory crusher. The essential difference is that the shorter spindle of the cone crusher is not suspended, as in the gyratory, but is supported in a curved, universal bearing below the gyratory head or cone (Figure 8.2). Power is transmitted from the source to the countershaft to a V-belt or direct drive. The countershaft has a bevel pinion pressed and keyed to it and drives the gear on the eccentric assembly. The eccentric assembly has a tapered, offset bore and provides the means whereby the head and main shaft follow an eccentric path during each cycle of rotation. Cone crushers are used for intermediate and fine crushing after primary crushing. The key factor for the performance of a cone type secondary crusher is the profile of the crushing chamber or cavity. Therefore, there is normally a range of standard cavities available for each crusher, to allow selection of the appropriate cavity for the feed material in question.

Roll crushers are arbitrarily divided into light and heavy duty crushers. The diameters of the light duty crushers vary between 228 and 760mm with face lengths between 250 and 460mm. The spring pressure for light duty rolls varies between 1.1 and 5.6kg/m. The heavy duty crusher diameters range between 900 and 1000mm with face length between 300 and 610mm. In general, the spring pressures of the heavy duty rolls range between 7 and 60kg/m. The light duty rolls are designed to operate at faster speeds compared to heavy duty rolls that are designed to operate at lower speeds.

It has been stressed that the coal supplier should initially crush the materials to a maximum size such as 300 mm, but they may be something else depending on the agreement or coal tie up. To circumvent the situation, the CHP keeps a crushing provision so that coal bunkers receive the materials at a maximum size of about 2025 mm.

The unloaded coal in the hoppers is transferred to the crusher house through belt conveyors with different stopovers in between such as the penthouse, transfer points, etc., depending on the CHP layout.

Suspended magnets for the removal of tramp iron pieces and metal detectors for identifying nonferrous materials are provided at strategic points to intercept unacceptable materials before they reach the crushers. There may be arrangements for manual stone picking from the conveyors, as suitable. Crushed coal is then sent directly to the stockyard.

A coal-sampling unit is provided for uncrushed coal. Online coal analyzers are also available, but they are a costly item. Screens (vibrating grizzly or rollers) are provided at the upstream of the crushers to sort out the smaller sizes as stipulated, and larger pieces are guided to the crushers.

Appropriate types of isolation gates, for example, rod or rack and pinion gates, are provided before screens to isolate one set of crushers/screens to carry on maintenance work without affecting the operation of other streams.

Vibrating grizzly or roller screens are provided upstream of the crushers for less than 25 (typical) mm coal particles bypass the crusher and coal size more than 25 mm then fed to the crushers. The crushed coal is either fed to the coal bunkers of the boilers or discharged to the coal stockyard through conveyors and transfer points, if any.

This is used for crushing and breaking large coal in the first step of coal crushing plant applied most widely in coal crushing industry. Jaw crushers are designed for primary crushing of hard rocks without rubbing and with minimum dust. Jaw crushers may be utilized for materials such as coal, granite, basalt, river gravel, bauxite, marble, slag, hard rock, limestone, iron ore, magazine ore, etc., within a pressure resistance strength of 200 MPa. Jaw crushers are characterized for different features such as a simple structure, easy maintenance, low cost, high crushing ratio, and high resistance to friction/abrasion/compression with a longer operating lifespan.

Fixed and movable jaw plates are the two main components. A motor-driven eccentric shaft through suitable hardware makes the movable jaw plate travel in a regulated track and hit the materials in the crushing chamber comprising a fixed-jaw plate to assert compression force for crushing.

A coal hammer crusher is developed for materials having pressure-resistance strength over 100 Mpa and humidity not more than 15%. A hammer crusher is suitable for mid-hard and light erosive materials such as coal, salt, chalk, gypsum, limestone, etc.

Hammer mills are primarily steel drums that contain a vertical or horizontal cross-shaped rotor mounted with pivoting hammers that can freely swing on either end of the cross. While the material is fed into the feed hopper, the rotor placed inside the drum is spun at a high speed. Thereafter, the hammers on the ends of the rotating cross thrust the material, thereby shredding and expelling it through the screens fitted in the drum.

Ring granulators are used for crushing coal to a size acceptable to the mills for conversion to powdered coal. A ring granulator prevents both the oversizing and undersizing of coal, helping the quality of the finished product and improving the workability. Due to its strong construction, a ring granulator is capable of crushing coal, limestone, lignite, or gypsum as well as other medium-to-hard friable items. Ring granulators are rugged, dependable, and specially designed for continuous high capacity crushing of materials. Ring granulators are available with operating capacities from 40 to 1800 tons/h or even more with a feed size up to 500 mm. Adjustment of clearance between the cage and the path of the rings takes care of the product gradation as well as compensates for wear and tear of the machine parts for maintaining product size. The unique combination of impact and rolling compression makes the crushing action yield a higher output with a lower noise level and power consumption. Here, the product is almost of uniform granular size with n adjustable range of less than 2025 mm. As the crushing action involves minimum attrition, thereby minimum fines are produced with improving efficiency.

A ring granulator works on n operating principle similar to a hammer mill, but the hammers are replaced with rolling rings. The ring granulator compresses material by impact in association with shear and compression force. It comprises a screen plate/cage bar steel box with an opening in the top cover for feeding. The power-driven horizontal main shaft passes from frame side to frame side, supporting a number of circular discs fixed at regular intervals across its length within the frame. There are quite a few bars running parallel to the main shaft and around the periphery that pass through these discs near their outer edges. The bars are uniformly located about the center of the main rotating shaft. There are a series of rings in between the two consecutive disc spaces, mounted on each bar. They are free to rotate on the bars irrespective of the main shaft rotation. The entire cage assembly, located below the rotor assembly, can be set at a desired close proximity to the rings by screw jack mechanism adjustable from outside the crusher frame. The rotor assembly consisting of the shaft, discs, rings, etc., is fixed as far as the main shaft center line is concerned. This main shaft carries in roller bearings from the box sides. The movable cage frame arrangement is provided so as to set its inner radius marginally larger than that of the ring running periphery. When coal is fed from the top, the rings also rotate along with the shaft and around their own center line along the bars, which drags coal lumps and crushes them to the desired size. After the coal has been crushed by the coal crusher, a vibrating screen grades the coal by size and the coal is then transported via belt conveyor. In this process, a dewatering screen is optional to remove water from the product.

Crusher machines are used for crushing of a wide variety of materials in the mining, iron and steel, and quarry industries. In quarry industry, they are used for crushing of rocks into granites for road-building and civil works. Crusher machines are equipped with a pair of crusher jaws namely; fixed jaws and swing jaws. Both jaws are fixed in a vertical position at the front end of a hollow rectangular frame of crushing machine as shown in Fig.10.1. The swing jaw is moved against the fixed jaws through knuckle action by the rising and falling of a second lever (pitman) carried by eccentric shaft. The vertical movement is then horizontally fixed to the jaw by double toggle plates. Because the jaw is pivoted at the top, the throw is greatest at the discharge, preventing chocking.

The crushing force is produced by an eccentric shaft. Then it is transferred to the crushing zone via a toggle plate system and supported by the back wall of the housing of the machine. Spring-pulling rods keep the whole system in a condition of no positive connection. Centrifugal masses on the eccentric shaft serve as compensation for heavy loads. A flywheel is provided in the form of a pulley. Due to the favorable angle of dip between the crushing jaws, the feeding material can be reduced directly after entering the machine. The final grain size distribution is influenced by both the adjustable crusher setting and the suitability of the tooth form selected for the crushing plates.

Thus, the crusher jaws must be hard and tough enough to crush rock and meet the impact action generated by the action of swing jaws respectively. If the jaws are hard, it will be efficient in crushing rock but it will be susceptible to fracture failure. On the other hand, if the jaws are tough, the teeth will worn out very fast, but it will be able to withstand fracture failure. Thus, crusher jaws are made of highly wear-resistant austenitic manganese steel casting, which combines both high toughness and good resistance to wear.

Austenitic manganese steel was invented by Sir Robert Hadfield in 1882 and was first granted patented in Britain in 1883 with patent number 200. The first United States patents, numbers 303150 and 303151, were granted in 1884. In accordance with ASTM A128 specification, the basic chemical composition of Hadfield steel is 1%1.4% carbon and 11%14% manganese. However, the manganese to carbon ratio is optimum at 10:1 to ensure an austenitic microstructure after quenching [2]. Austenitic manganese steels possess unique resistance to impact and abrasion wears. They exhibit high levels of ductility and toughness, slow crack propagation rates, and a high rate of work-hardening resulting in superior wear resistance in comparison with other potentially competitive materials [310]. These unique properties have made Hadfield's austenitic manganese steel an engineering material of choice for use in heavy industries, such as earth moving, mining, quarrying, oil and gas drilling, and in processing of various materials for components of crushers, mills, and construction machinery (lining plates, hammers, jaws, cones).

Austenitic manganese steel has a yield strength between 50,000psi (345MPa) and 60,000psi (414MPa) [3]. Although stronger than low carbon steel, it is not as strong as medium carbon steel. It is, however, much tougher than medium carbon steel. Yielding in austenitic manganese steel signifies the onset of work-hardening and accompanying plastic deformation. The modulus of elasticity for austenitic manganese steel is 27106psi (186103MPa) and is somewhat below that of carbon steel, which is generally taken as 29106psi (200103MPa). The ultimate tensile strength of austenitic manganese steel varies but is generally taken as 140,000psi (965MPa). At this tensile strength, austenitic manganese steel displays elongation in the 35%40% range. The fatigue limit for manganese steel is about 39,000psi (269MPa). The ability of austenitic manganese to work-harden up to its ultimate tensile strength is its main feature. In this regard austenitic manganese has no equal. The range of work-hardening of austenitic manganese from yield to ultimate tensile is approximately 200%.

When subjected to impact loads Hadfield steel work-hardens considerably while exhibiting superior toughness. However, due to its low yield strength, large deformation may occur and lead to failure before the work-hardening sets in [11]. This phenomenon is detrimental when it comes to some applications, such as rock crushing [12]. Work-hardening behavior of Hadfield steel has been attributed to dynamic strain aging [13]. The hardening or strengthening mechanism has its origin in the interactions between dislocations and the high concentration of interstitial atoms also known as the CottrellBilby interaction. Thus, the wear properties of Hadfield steel are related to its microstructure, which in turn is dependent on the heat-treatment process and chemical composition of the alloy. According to Haakonsen [14], work-hardening is influenced by such parameters as alloy chemistry, temperature, and strain rate.

Carbon content affects the yield strength of AMS. Carbon levels below 1% cause yield strengths to decrease. The optimum carbon content has been found to be between 1% and 1.2%. Above 1.2% carbides precipitate and segregate to grain boundaries, resulting in compromised strength and ductility particularly in heavy sections [15]. Other alloying elements, such as chromium, will increase the yield strength, but decrease ductility. Silicon is generally added as a deoxidizer. Carbon contents above 1.4% are not generally used as the carbon segregates to the grain boundaries as carbides and is detrimental to both strength and ductility [15].

Manganese has very little effect on the yield strength of austenitic manganese steel, but does affect both the ultimate tensile strength and ductility. Maximum tensile strengths are attained with 12%13% manganese contents [16]. Although acceptable mechanical properties can be achieved up to 20% manganese content, there is no economic advantage in using manganese contents greater than 13%. Manganese acts as an austenitic stabilizer and delays isothermal transformation. For example, carbon steel containing 1% manganese begins isothermal transformation about 15s after quenching to 371C, whereas steel containing 12% manganese begins isothermal transformation about 48h after quenching to 371C [15].

Austenitic manganese steel in as-cast condition is characterized by an austenitic microstructure with precipitates of alloyed cementite and the triple phosphorus eutectic of an Fe-(Fe,Mn)3C-(Fe,Mn)3P type [17], which appears when the phosphorus content exceeds 0.04% [18]. It also contains nonmetallic inclusions, such as oxides, sulfides, and nitrides. This type of microstructure is unfavorable due to the presence of the (Fe, Mn)xCy carbides spread along the grain boundaries [19]. However, in solution-treated conditions austenitic manganese steel structure is essentially austenitic because carbon is in austenite solution [19]. The practical limit of carbon in solution is about 1.2%. Thereafter, excess carbon precipitation to the grain boundaries results, especially in heavier sections [20].

Austenitic manganese steel in the as-cast condition is too brittle for normal use. As section thickness increases, the cooling rate within the molds decreases. This decreased cooling rate results in increased embrittlement due to carbon precipitation. In as-cast castings, the tensile strength ranges from approximately 50,000psi. (345MPa) to 70,000psi (483MPa) and displays elongation values below 1%. Heat treatment is used to strengthen and increase the mechanical properties of austenitic manganese steel. The normal heat-treatment method consists of solution annealing and rapid quenching in a water bath.

Considering the mechanical properties, it is difficult to imagine that a casting made from Hadfield steel could suffer failure in service. However, cases like this do happen, especially in heavy-section elements and result in enormous losses of material and long downtimes. The reason for such failures is usually attributed to insufficient ductility, resulting from sensitivity of austenitic manganese steel to section size, heat treatment, and the rapidity and effectiveness of quenching [21]. Poor quench compounded by large section size results in an unstable, in-homogenous structure, subject to transformation to martensite under increased loading and strain rate. This article investigates the cause of incessant failure of locally produced crusher jaws from Hadfield steel.

According to the recent marketing research data conducted by the foundry an estimate of 15,000metrictons of this component is being consumed annually in the local market. This is valued at about $30million. From this market demand, the foundry plant can only supply about 5% valued at $1.5million. This is because the crusher jaws produced locally failed prematurely. Hence, this study aimed at investigating the causes of failure.

Annual wine exports in the European Union is around 21.9 billion (Eurostat) with France being the main wine exporting country followed by Italy and Spain. The wine production process (Fig. 9.1) can be divided into the following stages (Sections 9.2.1.19.2.1.4).

Grape crushers or crusher destemmers are initially used via light processing to avoid seed fracture. Sulfur dioxide is added to the mass to prevent oxidation. At this stage, grape stems are produced as one of the waste streams of the winery process. The mash is pressed in continuous, pneumatic, or vertical basket presses leading to the separation of the pomace (marc) from the must. Microbial growth is suppressed via sulfur dioxide addition.

The solids present in the must are removed before or after fermentation for white wine production. Fining is achieved by combined processes including filtration, centrifugation, flocculation, physicochemical treatment (e.g., activated carbon, gelatin, etc.,), and stabilization to prevent turbidity formation (e.g., the use of bentonite, cold stabilization techniques, etc.). Clarification leads to the separation of sediments via racking.

Wine production is carried out at temperatures lower than 20C for 610 weeks in stainless steel bioreactors or vats with or without yeast inoculation (most frequently Saccharomyces cerevisiae). At the end of fermentation, the wine is cooled (4C5C) and subsequently aged in barrels or wooden vats. The sediment that is produced during fermentation and aging is called wine lees and constitutes one of the waste streams produced by wineries. Current uses of wine lees include tartrate production and ethanol distillation. Lees could also be processed via rotary vacuum filtration for recycling of the liquid fraction and composting of the solid fraction.

Wine is cooled rapidly to facilitate the precipitation of tartrate crystals. Fining is applied for the separation of suspended particles using bentonite and gelatin. Filtration is subsequently applied to remove any insoluble compounds. The wine is finally transferred into bottles.

The main differences in the red wine production process are skin maceration duration, fermentation temperature, and unit operation sequence. Whole crushed grapes are most frequently used in red wine fermentation, which is carried out at 22C28C to facilitate the extraction of color and flavors. The remaining skins, seeds, and grape solids after fermentation are pressed to recover wine with the correct proportions of tannins and other compounds necessary for the final wine product.

jaw crusher - stone crushing equipment - china largest mining machinery

jaw crusher - stone crushing equipment - china largest mining machinery

1. This series of small jaw crushers as a type of double toggle jaw crusher are mainly used for medium and fine crushing of ore and rocks with medium and high hardness in the industries of metallurgy, mine, chemical industry, cement, construction, refractory material and ceramics.

2. The PE jaw crusher or small jaw crusher is a suitable double toggle jaw crusher for crushing the ores with compressive strength not less than 320MPA. The materials of maximum blocks to be crushed must not be more than the dates listed in the technology parameter.

1. Fixed body of the small jaw crusher: The main component of the fixed body is rack, which has two manufacturing engineers: carbon steel casting rack and carbon steel plate welded rack. Welded rack uses the reinforced stiffener on the basis of the original cast rack, and can achieve the same effect as casting rackthrough strict quality control and specific process requirements. In order to prevent the serious wear and tear of the lateral wall, crushing chamber is equipped with shield on the left and right side, which can be easily replaced.

2. Rotating body: This pe jaw crusher as a kind of double toggle jaw crusher is composed of moving jaw, eccentric shaft, bearings, pulleys and other parts, and it is the main part of the jaw crusher transmission and endurance.

3. Adjustment device: It is used to adjust the size of discharging mouth and control the discharging granularity. Hongxing jaw crusher has two forms: long wedge type and plunger gasket type with convenient and flexible adjustment, can achieve stepless adjustment.

jaw crusher vs impact crusher | what's the difference | m&c

jaw crusher vs impact crusher | what's the difference | m&c

Jaw crusher and impact crusher are the main crushing equipments in the ore crushing production line. Jaw crusher is mainly used for the process of high hardness materials, mainly for the coarse crushing of ore, while the impact crusher for the treatment of medium hardness and brittleness stones, mainly for the medium crushing and fine crushing of stones.

Jaw crusher is mainly composed of frame, eccentric wheel, flywheel, moving jaw, side guard plate, elbow back seat, reset spring, fixed jaw plate and movable jaw plate etc. The jaw crusher uses power to drive the jaw plate to move periodically to extrude the material to achieve the crushing effect.

Impact crusher is mainly composed of reaction liner, feed port, plate hammer, rotor frame etc. When the impact crusher is working, the plate hammers that distributed on the rotor according to different rules will hit the material on the reaction liner for crushing.

a. Jaw crusher is a primary crusher, which is the first equipment to crush the raw stone. It has simple and reasonable structure, high hardness of wear-resistant parts, and is suitable for the primary crushing of high hardness stone;

b. Impact crusher is a two-stage crushing equipment, which is the equipment for crushing the discharged material of jaw crusher again. It is not suitable for crushing high hardness stone such as granite and basalt, and has good crushing effect for brittle and soft stone.

Jaw crusher is mainly used for crushing all kinds of ores and bulk materials into medium particle size and crushing materials whose compressive strength 320Mpa. The feed size of jaw crusher is 125mm 750mm, which is the preferred crushing equipment for primary crushing.

The feed size of the impact crusher 500mm and the compressive strength 350MPa. It is suitable for all kinds of coarse, medium and fine materials (granite, limestone, concrete, etc.). The discharge particle size can be adjusted and the crushing specifications are diversified.

a. When jaw crusher working, the motor drives the belt and pulley to move the moving jaw up and down through the eccentric shaft. When the moving jaw rises, the angle between the elbow plate and the moving jaw increases, so as to push the moving jaw plate close to the fixed jaw plate. At the same time, the material is crushed to achieve the purpose of crushing;

When the moving jaw goes down, the angle between the elbow plate and the moving jaw becomes smaller. Under the action of the pull rod and spring, the moving jaw plate leaves the fixed jaw plate. At this time, the crushed materials are discharged from the lower opening of the crushing chamber.

Under the action of centrifugal force, the materials will collide with the materials strongly that distributed around the turntable, and then break. After the two parts of materials collide and crush, they will form eddy current movement between the turntable and the shell, resulting in many times of friction and smashing. After many times of circulation crushing, they will be discharged from the discharge port.

a. Jaw crusher is coarse crushing equipment, the discharge size is generally large, and the size of finished product is generally 10-350mm; due to the crushing principle of jaw crusher, there are many needle and flake finished aggregate;

b. Impact crusher, as a medium and fine crushing equipment, has a finer discharging particle size; the impact crusher has the function of shaping, with good discharging particle shape of finished aggregate, less water chestnut angle, and the particle shape is better than the cone crusher.

a. Jaw crusher has a deep crushing cavity without dead zone, so it has a large crushing ratio, strong production capacity, simple and reasonable structure, reliable work, low operating cost, high efficiency in operation, environmental protection, large adjustment range of discharge port, which can meet the requirements of different demands;

b. Impact crusher has the advantages of large feed inlet, high crushing chamber, impact resistance and wear resistance, economic and reliable operation, strong crushing capacity, good comprehensive benefit, and the finished aggregate has uniform particle size, beautiful particle shape and good selling price;

c. The crushing efficiency of the jaw crusher is lower than impact crusher. Its because the jaw crusher does not work when discharging, but the rotor of the impact crusher keeps rotating, whenever the material enters the crushing chamber, it will be crushed.

In short, the production capacity of jaw crusher is larger than that of impact crusher. The output of jaw crusher can reach 600-800t per hour (depending on the different manufacturers and product model), and the output of impact crusher is about 260-450t per hour.

The sales of jaw crusher in the market is higher than that of impact crusher, the main reason is that the price of jaw crusher is more favorable. Secondly, jaw crusher is a more traditional crushing equipment, and its performance, quality, power consumption and other aspects can meet the application requirements of users, it is more cost-effective and easy to attract users attention

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