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Bucket elevators are used for the elevation of dry or pulped ore. They consist of an endless chain or beltcarrying the buckets vertically or at a steep angle. On reaching the top pulley they should turn at sufficient speed to fling their contents out with a measure of centrifugal force. The feed is directed into a gathering boot or to buckets rising from a boot. Wet ore can be drained through perforations in the buckets. A rod can be so suspended as to rap the discharging bucket and so help to shake out packing sludge.
Belt bucket elevators are by far the most common appliance for elevating ore, whether wet or dry. For wet work, they have the advantage over chain-bucket elevators of requiring no difficult and expensive lubrication and of having fewer wearing and friction-producing surfaces. The capacity of a given belt, however, is limited by its adhesion to the head pulley; this can be augmented by a wrapping of less slippery material around the pulley. As compared with inclined conveyors, they occupy much less floor space, and can also elevate thin pulps. It is important to provide means for emptying the boot of an elevator when repairs are needed; so placed that the discharged material can be sluiced or easily transferred by other means to an adjoining elevator.
A Bucket Elevator Conveyor compared to classic belt conveyors which can handle the bulk of the dry ore moved through the modern plant, have a system including a tripper. The belt conveyor obviously includes the belt, the carrying and return idlers (B and E), the take-up (F), the tripper and shuttle belts if used, the drive (C), the belt cleaner (near D).
The standard rubber belt has a cotton foundation which must be strong enough to withstand the driving pull and the loading strains. The weight of duck in ounces, refers to a single thickness or ply 36 x 42. Plies are bonded together with rubber, and the pull needed to separate two plies in a strip one inch thick is termed the friction. It is between 12 lb. and 24 lb. and chosen for required duty and flexibility. The plies must not separate under the worst conditions (i.e. when rounding the end pulleys). This carcass (plies) is protected above and below by rubber, of the specified tensile strength (800-4000 PSI). Covers vary in thickness from 1/16 to . For severe service, a breaker strip of open mesh fabric may bind cover the carcass and confine any tear arising in use. Cord belts have additional longitudinal cords embedded in rubber.
A bucket elevator consists of a number of buckets (d) fastened to an endless chain or belt (a) running respectively on two sprockets or pulleys (b, c) at different elevations. Material is fed at (e) directly into the buckets or is scooped up from the BOOT (f) and carried up and discharged into a receiving hopper (g) as the buckets pass over the upper (HEAD) wheel. The line joining the centers of the pulleys or sprockets may be inclined at any angle between 65 or 70 and the vertical. Bucket elevators are called continuous if the buckets are spaced practically touching and centrifugal discharge if the buckets are spaced say one or more bucket-depths apart. The height of lift in concentrating mills is seldom over 75 ft. but there is no definite limit in the ordinary range of requirements.
The drive is usually by a spur gear on the head shaft and pinion on a jackshaft belt-driven from a motor or line shaft. Direct belt drive from a line shaft to the head shaft is sometimes used; also direct connection of a motor to the pinion shaft. Gear drive is better than belt drive because it permits higher drive-belt speed and belt drive is better than direct connection because the belt will slip in case of a sudden jam and possibly save breakage of the bucket line.
The Head shaft should be extra heavy and as short as possible. The greatest stress is due to the weight of the loaded bucket line and to sudden shocks arising from obstruction to the free motion of the line; a shaft strong enough to support this loading is more than large enough to transmit the necessary power. A light shaft that bends under load causes uneven and excessive wear on bearings.
Size of the head shaft. Let w = total load in lb. of shaft, pulley, bucket line and ore; l = length in inches of the shaft between bearings; d = diameter of shaft in inches; z = section modulus = d/32; s = permissible working stress in lb. per sq. in. = say 5000 lb. Then wl/4 = sz = 5000 d/32 and d = wl/1963.5.
Bearings may be of the standard pattern but preferably ball-and-socket, grease lubricated. Special collars with an interlocking rim to cover the end of the bearing are sometimes used to exclude grit; closed ends aid exclusion. Shafting is frequently turned down on the ends to permit the use of smaller-sized bearings.
A rubber belt is a usual medium for carrying buckets in American concentrating-mill practice; balata belts have been widely used in South Africa. Rubber elevator belts are usually made with 32-oz. duck; for heavy work, 36- or 42-oz.; with a 1/32- to 1/8-in rubber cover on the pulley side for protection against pulley slip and some cover on the bucket side also, to provide for the wear of entering feed; for wet materials, the cover on the pulley side is usually twice as thick as on the bucket side and ranges up to 1/8-in. The edges usually have an extra-heavy covering. The belt should be two to four in. wider than the bucket to prevent the buckets from catching on the housing or any other projection. Elevator belts are subject to heavy loads; surface wear is severe both on account of loading conditions and slip and creep at the head pulley; the perforations for bolts allow access of grit and water, and this in conjunction with acute bending around small boot pulleys, and frequent bending due to short length disintegrates the internal bond (friction). (Creep is a change in belt length, due to difference in tension on the two sides of the head pulley, so that the belt shrinks in passing from the upside to the downside and this causes relative movement between the surface of the pulley and the belt).
Belt replacement is the most important item of upkeep in elevator operation so that precautions to extend belt life pay for themselves in short periods. On elevators with buckets spaced some distance apart and run at low speeds, triangular strips of wood are sometimes fastened to the belt between buckets to prevent material from running along the belt and getting caught behind the buckets; this practice is reported to have greatly increased the life belts.
Chain bucket elevators, in spite of their multiplicity of wearing and breaking elements, can be used satisfactorily far dry work but must then be lubricated with heavy grease to minimize the effect of grit; their capacity is limited only by the size of buckets that, can be supported. Certain types have a pronounced advantage in being able to receive or discharge at a number of points in their travel, thus combining the functions of elevator and conveyor.
The advantage of a Chain Bucket Elevator over a conveyor belt is that it can lift material vertically and can handle large quantities of material. The special design of the buckets ensures high stability and reduced risk of spillage.
A Bucket Chain Elevator is designed to lift material from point A to point B by means of buckets. The buckets are pulled by two chains. The Chain Bucket Elevator is typically used to lift the reject material and return it to the main flow in a sampling solution.
The Chain Bucket Elevator consists of an inlet hopper, a vibration feeder, buckets, a gear-motor drive, inspection hatches, and an outlet chute. There is an inlet hopper at the bottom with a VF that provides a consistent flow of the material into the buckets. The buckets are mounted on the chain that continuously pulls the buckets around by a geared motor. At the top of the unit, there is an outlet chute where the buckets are emptied. There is a drawer in the lower section allowing for easy cleaning. The chain is manually adjustable.
The Bucket Belt Elevator (BBE) is designed to lift material from point A to point B by means of buckets. The buckets are attached to a belt that pulls them around. The Belt Bucket Elevatoris typically used to lift the reject material and return it to the main flow.
There is an inlet hopper at the bottom with a VF that provide a consistent flow of the material into the buckets. The buckets are mounted on the belt that continuously pulls the buckets around by a geared motor. At the top of the unit there is an outlet chute where the buckets are emptied. There is a drawer in the lower section allowing for easy cleaning. The belt is manually adjustable.
All sampling equipment and solutions aim for compliance with the principles laid down in the Theory of Sampling (TOS) and gives our customers reliable knowledge of the material properties such as moisture content, particle size distribution, mineral proportions, and content grade essential for commercial, operational, and technical characterization.
The Bucket Lifter (BL) is designed to lift material from A to B by means of one or more buckets. Compared to the Chain Bucket Elevator or the Belt Bucket Elevator, the Bucket Lifter is specifically designed for lifting smaller quantities of material.
The Bucket Lifter consists of a gear motor, bucket(s), a chain/belt and a steel construction. A loading station in the bottom ensure that the bucket(s) is being dosed correctly. The bucket(s) are lifted to the top where it is emptied when it is tilted around. After a preset time, tilted, the bucket reverses and returns to the bottom, ready for the next filling. If the Bucket Lifter has more than one bucket, each bucket is being emptied one after the other before the all the buckets are return to the bottom section.
All sampling equipment and solutions aim for compliance with the principles laid down in the Theory of Sampling (TOS) and gives our customers reliable knowledge of the material properties such as moisture content, particle size distribution, mineral proportions, and content grade essential for commercial, operational, and technical characterization.
Those familiar with mill-practice understand the work required of an average bucket elevator, but I wish to call special attention to the wear on the buckets. I have been studying in what manner the life and service of the bucket might be improved, and I feel that an adjustable lip, attachable to each bucket without the aid of rivets, will be of material advantage.
For illustration (Fig 1 & 2), consider the feed-elevator of a typical mill in the Coeur dAlene district. The ore is carried by water in a launder from the feed-rolls and dumped in the boot of the elevator, directly in front of the ascending bucket. Middlings from the return-rolls are similarly handled. Under this condition the bucket not only carries the ore, but also picks it up, and this latter requirement determines the life and service of the bucket. It might be said that it would be better practice to convey the feed to the elevator and dump it directly into the bucket, but at one mill at which this plan was tried the results were disappointing and the rubber belt was badly worn.
The wear of the bucket is confined to the lip and the corners which have to pick up the material. When the lip on a corner of a 7- by 12-in. malleable cast-iron bucket is worn down about 3 in., the bucket is of no further value as a carrier and has to be replaced. The worn bucket, containing about three-quarters by weight of the metal of the original bucket, has a scrap value of about 10 per cent, of that of a new bucket. To the cost of the bucket, however, should be added the time-cost of replacing the old bucket by a new one. This time-cost is considerable when the loss per hour, to cease operating the mill.
It is out of the question to put lips on a bucket unless the latter was originally fitted with this device. For if it is attempted to fit lips upon buckets not originally provided with them, it will be necessary to drill holes for rivets and then spend considerable time fitting the lips to the irregular contours of the worn buckets. The improvement suggested is an adjustable attachment which can easily be fastened to, or removed from, the base of a bucket without the use of rivets. This attachment, to be made of a high-grade steel drop-forging or casting, will combine toughness, hardness, and tensile strength. The base of the bucket may be a cheap casting,
possibly ordinary cast-iron. This combination of lip and base will not increase the cost of the improved bucket much, if any, above that of the ordinary bucket now in use, but will increase the life of the bucket, doing the same amount of work, about 400 per cent., with a corresponding decrease in time lost in changing buckets.
This improved bucket is illustrated in Fig. 1, which shows a projection of the bucket with the attachment in place. Two bolts, one on each side of the elevator-belt, pass through the base and attachment and hold both fast to the belt. These end-bolts are 0.25 in. longer than the others. Fig. 2 shows the bucket with part of the lip removed, illustrating the manner in which it is fitted to the base and the opening at A which receives the lug A. There is another opening at B, which is not shown.
I am indebted to Stanley A. Easton, (General Manager of the Bunker Hill & Sullivan mine, for the following data, which bear out my statement, and show that others have been trying to improve the service of elevator-buckets. He says that they use there 7.75- by 17-in. malleable cast-iron buckets, which give approximately 80 days continuous service on middlings-elevators,
When progressing through Terraria, many players can be confused about where they should go and what they should do next. Terraria is an open-ended game: Players are not forced to go anywhere or do anything. You are free to set your own goals and follow through with them, whether you are a builder, fighter, explorer, collector, or whatever else. This walkthrough merely aims to provide a logical order of progression through Terrarias many different biomes, generally in order of increasing difficulty. It is recommended, but there is certainly no requirement to visit each biome, or even in this order if you don't want to.
If you are new to the game or unsure of what map size to choose for a fresh start, choose small. Even in a small world, a player can face long travel times, and it would still take hundreds of hours to explore every cave in a small world at a normal pace. If you're looking for a balanced experience and/or are already experienced in the game, choose a medium sized world, as it has more opportunities for exploration and loot but still allows for quick exploration. Large is suitable for long-term playthroughs or multiplayer games, providing the most space and opportunities for loot, but is not recommended for a new player.
On the creation of a new world, a helpful NPC (Non Player Character) will spawn, and he is called the Guide. If you are new to Terraria, then chat with him and he will give you advice on different elements of your world based on what stage of the game you're at. Even if you are already quite experienced with the game, it is still a good idea to keep him around as he displays all available crafting recipes when he's given an item. He's also required for game progression, as he is needed to summon the Wall of Flesh far later in the game.
The landscape of a forest includes lots of grass, plenty of trees, several lakes ranging from small to large and, sometimes, Sunflowers. Dayblooms and Pumpkins (the latter of which is Halloween exclusive) can be found growing in this biome. During the day, this biome has the weakest monsters in the game, with peaceful slimes jumping towards the player and only attacking once provoked. Note that Goblin Scouts only spawn in the outer thirds of the map and that Pinkies are fairly rare.
Your goal during the day should be to find some better starting equipment from your surroundings and build a small house to pass the night. Players might want to build sets of 2 houses to house later NPCs without having to worry later. Give the sets some distance to keep the NPCs happy.
The first thing players should do is cut down several trees (using your Copper Axe, aim for the lowest block), as wood is needed for many things, then build a Work Bench. From there, craft a Wooden Sword, and perhaps a Wooden Bow, (alongside some Wooden Arrows which players can soon upgrade to Flaming Arrows for extra damage) as a player's starting weapons are next to useless.
One major exception is if you're playing Journey Mode (a 188.8.131.52-exclusive game mode), in which you'll start out with some better equipment you'll have Iron instead of Copper starting tools along with a Finch Staff (a weak early game summon weapon), 100 Rope and Torches (very useful for exploration), Fledgling Wings, a Grappling Hook ( only), and a Magic Mirror. You'll also have many more powers over your gameplay experience, ranging from time control to item duplication, which are further explained in the main Journey Mode article.
Next, players should explore their surroundings. There are usually some Chests and Pots on or near the surface near your starting point, which will often contain useful weapons, potions and materials. If you are lucky (a 9% chance per chest), youll find a Spear, which is one of the best starting weapons, especially against Zombies, which are the biggest threat at this point. If you can find enough Cobwebs near the surface (you'll need 20), you can also make a Wooden Yoyo, which is finicky, but a solid starting weapon. There will also almost always be at least one cave entrance close by, leading Underground signified by a massive domed hill with a cave entrance on one of the sides. Use Ropes and Platforms to reach high ledges, bridge chasms, and safely descend. The Step Stool accessory, found in surface Chests, allows you to press the UP to increase your block placing range and jump height. Holding the Umbrella tool (which is also a large shortsword on the Desktop version and Mobile version) allow for very slow fall, easing cave exploration early on. Always carry blocks around with you so you can descend safely!
Once you have explored your surroundings and cracked open all the chests and pots in sight, you should head to the Underground before night falls to continue your search for useful items and resources. At this point it's likely you've found enough bars (mostly Iron or Lead Bars) in Surface Chests and small pockets of ore that you'll be able to craft yourself an Anvil and possibly some starter ore weapons, which will make adventuring a bit easier.
Rain occurs randomly and affects all surface biomes for its duration. Most enemies are only visually different from the normal enemies. The Flying Fish and Umbrella Slime spawn during the day, mimicking the general behavior of the Demon Eye and Slimes, respectively. When a player is in a Snow biome during Rain, it appears as a Blizzard, though this doesn't provide any exclusive loot until Hardmode. If Rain happens at the same time as a Windy Day it appears as a Thunderstorm with exclusive music.
Windy Days occur when the wind speed reaches over 20 miles per hour and end when it drops to or below 16. It is indicated by background objects such as banners, trees, and vines swaying in the direction of the wind, with upbeat background music replacing the regular music. Though the event is mostly aesthetic, with objects in the background and unique NPC quotes, there are some unique changes: Angry Dandelions will sometimes spawn, firing dangerous dandelion seeds in the direction of the wind. These can kill the player in one hit, but they also can only attack to one side of them, making them easy to kill if the player is on the opposite side of the wind direction. Additionally, Slimes will spawn drifting on Windy Balloons. Slimes and a variety of other enemies have a small chance of dropping exclusive Kites when this event is active, which can be flown in the wind.
Night will fall at 7:30 PM, 11 minutes and 15 seconds after you enter your world for the first time. It is signified by an obviously dark sky and a change in music. Slimes will stop spawning and those that are left from the daytime will become hostile, seeking out players to attack. In addition, two new enemies will spawn: Demon Eyes, a flying enemy which chases players, bounces off blocks, and turns slowly, often linger around. Zombies also spawn, which will follow a basic pattern of slowly walking towards the player in hordes.
Additionally, on the Desktop version and Mobile version, two additional peaceful events can occur at Night. The Meteor Shower has a 1 in 10 chance of occurring each night and will show stars falling in the background. It's accompanied by 200% to 400% increased Fallen Star rates and Enchanted Nightcrawler critters, which make for great bait early on, will spawn naturally. Lantern Nights, which feature lanterns floating up into the sky in the background, will also occur the night after defeating a boss or event, increasing the player's Luck.
It is recommended to stay Underground (or inside your House if you built it) during night time until you are strong enough to deal with Zombie packs, as there is little to be gained and so much to lose for a new character during night. If you find yourself outside without a base to hide in or a cave to go down, you can simply build a box around yourself to hide for the night. A two-block wide hole on either side of the box should be enough for you to attack Zombies and gain some starter gear and money, but Zombies can not attack you through that hole. If you're not used to playing Sandbox building/mining games, it is easy to forget your greatest ability: the power to move blocks.
Fallen Stars will often be found shooting down from the sky (and are even more common during Meteor Showers) and are some of the most useful crafting materials at the beginning of the game. 3 / 5 can be used to craft a Mana Crystal, which increases the player's maximum mana by 20 upon each usage until the player reaches their maximum attainable base mana at 200. This is very useful once you've obtained magic weapons, and is a good pairing with the Wand of Sparking if you happen to find it in surface Chests. As an alternative, they can be turned into Jester's Arrows, which are some of the best arrows you can obtain at this stage of the game they pierce infinitely and are unaffected by gravity, making them invaluable for fighting against hoardes of Zombies or against enemies Underground.
As for other quickly accessible weapons, the Spear, occasionally found in surface Chests, can shred groups of Zombies and makes close-range fighting quite easy. The Wooden Boomerang is useful if you master how to use it, and can be further upgraded into the more powerful Enchanted Boomerang by combining it with a Fallen Star (note that this crafting recipe is only available on the Desktop version and Mobile version).
There are some valuable mob drops you can find at night. Zombies have a 2% chance of dropping the Shackle, one of the earliest available accessories. It'll provide you with plus one defense point, which may not seem valuable, but it is necessary at the beginning of the game and can drop with a modifier further increasing it. Additionally, Zombies can also drop the Zombie Arm, a sword with stats comparable to that of the Tungsten Broadsword, making it a very feasible starter weapon. Demon Eyes will regularly drop Lenses, a material which has a variety of uses, and have a rare chance of dropping the Black Lens, which will be useful much later on.
Once the sun rises and morning arrives at 4:30 AM, Night will end, causing Demon Eyes and Zombies to flee and the day to begin once again. At this point you'll be able to explore the world more your first priority should be to find an entrance to a cave to obtain more loot and become more powerful.
The Underground can be identified by its background. It is the first layer below the surface. Copper/Tin and Iron/Lead deposits can be found in this layer as well as Silver/Tungsten and Gold/Platinum, though infrequently.
The short depth of this layer (particularly on small worlds), combined with its limited rewards, means you will probably not be spending too much time here before moving on to the more lucrative Caverns. Copper/Tin is highly abundant, but experienced players can skip them by farming cactus or ebon/shadewood equipment.
While exploring the Underground (and, by extension, the Caverns), you might find Life Crystals: you can mine and use them to increase your maximum life by 20 (up to a maximum of 400). You can also stockpile Life Crystals and use them to craft Heart Lantern, which increases life regeneration as long as you stay near to it. It's critical that you increase your max life, as it significantly boosts your survivability. That said, your first few crystals will also unlock various events: The first unleashes Blood Moons, the third allows Slime Rains, and the fifth allows the Eye of Cthulhu to spawn. It may be wise not to use the first crystal until you have Iron/Lead or better armor, and to hold off on the fifth until you have Gold/Platinum armor.
The Caverns can be identified by their background. It is the second layer below the surface and is by far the largest pre-hardmode biome. The Caverns are divided into two halves. In the top half, lakes of water are found, while in the bottom half, lava is found instead. All pre-hardmode ores except Hellstone and Meteorite ore can be found frequently in this layer (Demonite Ore or Crimtane Ore rarely). Caves of Glowing Mushrooms can also be encountered.
The Caverns are a massive biome with many useful items and treasures, and as such, players may find themselves spending a lot of time here. Although its monsters can be dangerous for a new player, the greatest threat in this layer may be the danger of falling into its deep chasms, frequently with the aid of the bats. Should you find yourself falling to death, dont forget there are a number of items that can break your fall: Cloud in a Bottle's (or equivalents) extra jump, Grappling any surface (with a Grappling Hook), including the ground youre about to hit, or even an Umbrella. Pools of water (1+ block deep) and Cobwebs will also save you if youre lucky enough to fall into them.
This ever-present danger is closely followed by the devious and near-invisible traps sprinkled throughout the dark caves. A bold, fearless new player skipping heedlessly through the caves for the first time will quickly meet with a Boulder landing on their head, or even, a landmine powerful enough to destroy the surrounding terrain. These dangers can be fatal to Hardcore characters. Needless to say, tread with extreme caution, and take advantage of the Dangersense Potion. Using generous amounts of light sources is one of the best ways to mitigate both of these dangers. The Flare Gun, Mining Helmet, and Shine Potions can prove useful additions to the usual sources.
Although there are many helpful items to be collected in this layer, probably at the top of the list will be a Grappling Hook and a Magic Mirror. Both of them will make getting around much easier and faster. Fortunately, with the Gem hooks, it is trivial to craft one, and Magic Mirrors are also very common. Besides these two, a player may want to craft a Gem Staff, as they tend to outclass most other weapons at this stage of the game, limited by the number of stars youve managed to collect so far.
Note that should you descend too far, you will actually find yourself in the Underworld. This will be marked by a change in music and background, and its enemies will start spawning, which you probably wont want to face at this stage.
A quick note on weapons and armor: at this stage, you have a lot of choices of Ore-based weapons and armor that you can craft. It is entirely feasible to be constantly upgrading your weapons if you desire, as they dont cost much. The Iron Broadsword, for example, only costs 8 Iron Bars 24 iron ore which is about one to three ore veins. Armor is a different question. Because of set bonuses, it is wise to try and complete an armor set rather than mixing and matching different pieces. Because of how Defense works, there isnt a huge benefit from upgrading from one armor set to the next. The Copper armor set, for example, reduces damage taken by 3, Iron armor reduces damage by 5, so the difference in damage reduction is only 2, which is barely noticeable. Yet to complete the Iron armor set requires 225 ore, which represents a significant amount of mining time.
It is therefore recommended to mine Silver or Tungsten Ores for the Armor because they are good enough to take on the first bosses, it's significantly faster to complete than Gold or Platinum, and allows you to save the latter for Weapons and Tools.
Once youve filled your inventory with blocks and loot, you may want to consider starting to build a base, as now you have some building materials and money to buy things. A base can take anywhere from a single in-game day to more than an in-game week to complete, depending on the player's tastes. It is not necessary, however, to build the entire base right away. Waiting to build the majority of the base can be advantageous, as it will allow the player to use the large stores of blocks they will end up gathering as a by-product of mining. Regardless of when or what the player builds, it is recommended to build houses for the Guide, Merchant and Nurse, craft a campfire, and an area for storage and crafting before progressing. It is also wise to create a layout that can be easily added onto later as more NPCs are available and more storage is needed.
Your spawning location will often be close to or sometimes even in the Snow biome. This biome will always lie opposite the Jungle in a world, and on the same side as the Dungeon. This biome offers similar challenges and rewards to the Forest biome.
The Ice biome can be reached from the surface Snow, or from the Caverns, although sometimes there is no natural entrance from one or both. It ends where the lava layer begins. It is somewhat harder than the Caverns. Though there may not be a large quantity of ores or gems in this biome, it is still worth exploring for its unique loot. Note that Frozen Chests are less common than Gold Chests and it can take a lot of exploring to find all the unique loot. However, you should be wary of the thin ice pockets scattered throughout the biome to avoid a fall to your death.
The monsters in the Desert are weak and can be easily dealt with using ranged weapons, although Antlion Swarmers and Vultures may present a moderate challenge. If you visit it, you can craft equipment from cactus, which is slightly stronger than Wooden equipment.
One of them will contain an entrance to the Underground Desert, which is a large deep hole. If you're standing on the edge of this entrance, a monster may cause you to fall, so be careful. You can prevent this by building a bridge.
If you are lucky, Deserts may contain a Pyramid, either sticking slightly out of the sand or buried just underneath. Digging down through the Pyramid's sandstone walls will bring you to a chamber with a chest which may contain a Flying Carpet or Sandstorm in a Bottle, both very useful accessories, and you're guaranteed to gain a least a few gold coins from the chest, money sacks, and pots in the temple chamber.
The Underground Desert is about as difficult as the Ice biome and is a good source of treasure otherwise found in the Caverns. However, until you obtain a pickaxe stronger than gold or platinum, you cannot mine the Desert Fossils (you can't use bombs on them), but once you can mine them, put them through an Extractinator to get Sturdy Fossils, which are used to craft consumable throwing weapons and a set of Armor that will greatly help you through Pre-Hardmode.
The Corruption can be a challenging biome for players. Demonite is found in small deposits in this biome, a Gold Pickaxe or equivalent is needed to mine it. Ebonstone can only be mined with a Nightmare Pickaxe, which can only be obtained after defeating Eater of Worlds, but you can use Purification Powder, Bombs and/or Dynamite to destroy it before youve defeated him. Once you can, it's recommended that you destroy 2 shadow orbs for you to obtain a gun and another random item, as destroying the 3rd will summon the boss.
The Crimson is an upgrade to the Corruption in a similar way to how Lead is an upgrade to Iron; in general, the stats on Crimson items are slightly better. However, in this case, it is not strictly better, as the Corruption has some very useful items like the Vilethorn, Worm Teeth (for Unholy Arrows), and Band of Starpower that have no counterpart in the Crimson.
Crimson monsters are perhaps more difficult than Corrupt ones. Cave generation is also different: instead of deep shafts, it contains one big neuron-shaped cave that you can walk down more easily. Crimtane replaces Demonite.
Crimstone can only be mined with a Deathbringer Pickaxe or better, which can only be obtained after defeating the Brain of Cthulhu, but you can use Purification Powder, Bombs and/or Dynamite to destroy it before youve defeated it. Once you can, it's recommended that you destroy 2 crimson hearts for you to obtain a gun and another random item, as destroying the 3rd will summon the boss.
Oceans are always found at the edge of the world, usually next to beaches containing Palm Trees and decorative seashells and starfish. Water Chests are found typically in the deepest parts. New characters may have problems working in this biome because of sharks and a lack of air supply. Gills Potions can help in this regard.
This is also where you will find the Angler, who will help set you up for Fishing. You will definitely want to do some fishing in this biome -- the varied loot can provide for a bit of money, and if you catch a Reaver Shark, you won't have to get a new pickaxe until Hardmode! On the Desktop Version however, the Reaver Shark will not take you as far. The Sawtooth Shark will last almost as long in place of an axe.
Floating islands and Lakes are typically found around 475ft on small, at 500-700ft on medium, and at 600-1000ft on large maps. A small map can have up to 3 islands and a 1 Lake; medium maps up to 4 islands and 2 lakes; large maps up to 6 islands and 3 lakes. Each island contains a Skyware Chest, along with ore deposits and unique Skyware blocks and furniture. Floating Lakes have a chance of containing Water Chests.
It can be difficult to find, reach, and loot floating islands. Although there are many ways to approach this problem, the quickest and most straightforward is to use Gravitation Potions found in underground chests to fly across the map at the appropriate height. Featherfall Potions will make flying a bit easier to control and help prevent you to fall to your death. It's also recommended that you should set out in the day to maintain good visibility of Harpies.
If you do fight Harpies, because of their attacks from distance and erratic flight pattern, it can be quite difficult to hit them, and its advisable to use a weapon with a long range and high velocity: the Space Gun (especially with Meteor armor) is perfect for this job, but any long-range weapon will do.
Its recommended to loot the floating islands as soon as you get Gravitation Potions, as it is fast and all the loot is highly useful -- removing falling damage eliminates a huge pain, and Starfury is a very strong weapon at this stage, making cave exploration immeasurably easier.
During a Blood Moon bunnies, goldfish, and penguins will turn hostile, and the spawn rate of all monsters on the surface will increase dramatically. Additionally, enemies will be able to spawn near NPCs and Zombies can force doors open.
Once youve survived the first couple nights and started work on a base, you should begin preparations for the upcoming boss battles, as even if you do not wish to go looking for them, they will come looking for you.
King Slime can spawn rarely in Grass at the outer sixth of the world, by using a Slime Crown, or during a Slime Rain if the player kills 150 slimes. As with all monsters that can spawn naturally, the King Slime has a better chance of spawning while standing near a placed Water Candle or under the effects of a Battle Potion. It's extremely unlikely you will ever come across King Slime without planning to. King Slime is a good challenge for a beginning player and can be easily defeated by tactical use of terrain.
Still, savvy players may want to defeat King Slime for the chance of getting a good Slime Hook, as it's better than any hook obtainable up to this point. In the Desktop version and Mobile version, the Ninja Armor it drops provides critical hit bonuses, useful for all weapons except summoning weapons, which aren't affected by critical hits. It also drops the Slimy Saddle, a mount with a fast fall speed that is useful for dodging in boss fights even into Hardmode.
Eye of Cthulhu looks like an enormous Demon Eye. It travels through blocks, and it has two forms. During the first, he spawns Servants of Cthulhu while floating around the player, which drop hearts and stars on death. When the Eyes health falls below half, it transforms into its second form, which charges the player more aggressively, no longer spawns Servants, and has lowered defense. In Expert Mode, it has increased health, changes into its second form earlier and gains a new rapid charge attack which increases in speed the less health the eye has.
Smashing an orb/heart will give a 50% chance for a meteorite to land the next night, smashing additional orb/hearts after the first one on the same day will not increase your chance of a meteorite landing. However, if it is between midnight and dawn (04:30), the meteorite may land immediately. On the Desktop version and Mobile version, a Meteorite can only fall after the Eater of Worlds/Brain of Cthulhu has been defeated.
Meteorite mining can be challenging. You will be constantly harassed by the Meteor Heads, and touching any part of what you are trying to mine will burn you. An Obsidian Skull can prevent this damage. Mining with a pickaxe is slow, tedious, and frustrating.
The Dynamite is perfect with a large blast radius (Does not work in Desktop and Mobile as meteorite cannot be destroyed by explosive since patch 184.108.40.206). You can build a wood platform over the middle of the crater to make it easier to throw them as well as allowing you to easily deal with meteor heads coming from below. You can then quickly clean up remaining sections with sticky bombs. Once there are fewer than 50 meteorite blocks in the area, it will cease to be a Meteorite biome and Meteor heads will no longer spawn.
The Goblin Army will invade at dawn on the maps original spawn point. You must kill 120 goblins (plus 40 per additional 200+ HP player) to defeat the invasion. It can also be summoned with a Goblin Battle Standard.
Eater of Worlds is a worm boss 50 segments long , each with their own health. When a segment in the middle is destroyed, the two severed parts will each become new worms, each with their own head and tail. This boss must be fought in the Corruption, and will disappear if you leave it at any point during the fight.
You will not face an easier boss in Terraria than EoW, especially in melee. The reason for this is when you swing your melee weapon as the worm glides past, is running itself into your swing and damaging many segments, and rangers can use a demon bow and jester arrows for penetration,which is very useful, when Magic weapons at this point usually only hit 2-4 times per shot.
The Brain of Cthulhu is a boss that teleports and has two stages. In the first stage, it is invincible and surrounded by 20-30 Creepers. You must kill all the creepers before you can damage the Brain. In the second stage, you fight the Brain directly as it tries to charge you.
The Underground Jungle lies directly below the surface Jungle, beginning at variable depths, and extends to the Underworld. It also contains multiple Bee Hives and a Jungle Temple, which can not be entered until Hardmode, although Temple enemies, like the Lihzahrd, may spawn, if the player is standing in front of Temple Walls.
The primary threats in the Underground Jungle are the Hornet, which flies, attacks from range, and generally keeps its distance, and the Spiked Jungle Slime, which can launch venomous spikes at you from a surprisingly far distance. You may note that there are bigger, more open spaces than in the Caverns. This can lead to high spawn rates and swarms of hornets attacking from all directions which can be very dangerous. If you have low-tier gear when first exploring it, it is safer to stay to the side tunnels and the edges of the large caves until you've acquired better gear and more life.
The Underground Desert lies directly below the surface Desert, beginning at variable depths, and extends to the Underworld. The structure of the Underground Desert resembles that of a real-world ant hive, featuring numerous small caves mainly composed of Sandstone Blocks and Hardened Sand Blocks, which are connected in varying degree. It is very large when fully explored, rivaling even the Dungeon in size, and is always either circular or oval in shape. The Underground Desert is inhabited by many types of Antlion enemies and is also riddled with traps, making it a challenge to navigate.
The primary threats in the Underground Desert are the various forms of Antlions: the Antlion Swarmer, which flies, the Chargers, which hence their name, charge at you, and the Rolling Cactus, which can easily kill you in any mode. The Underground Desert is full of small chambers which restrict movement, making it difficult to run from enemies, while those who box themselves in will have to deal with Tomb Crawlers. Having a Flinx Staff will significantly improve survival chances.
The Underworld is found at the bottom of the world. The best items pre-hardmode can be found in or crafted from items found in this biome. Shadow Chests found here can only be opened with the Shadow Key, found in the Dungeon.
The greatest danger working in the Underworld is, unsurprisingly, the wide expanses of molten lava. There are many tools which you can use: one these is probably the Water Walking Potion. The Lava Waders are the ultimate accessory in the Underworld, although it can be difficult to find all the components. Otherwise, the Lava Charm is an invaluable aid. If you have neither of these accessories, Obsidian Skin Potions are a fantastic alternative. When used, the potion gives you a four-minute invulnerability to lava. There is no breath meter in lava, so as long as you have potions, you can stay in lava indefinitely.
Hellstone mining is quite time-consuming and is the main reason to spend time in it. You'll need an Obsidian Skull or better to prevent Hellstone ore and bricks from burning you. Abundant deposits of Hellstone spawn next to the buried Ruined Houses, and instead of going to burrow deep into the ash and build lava channels, mine the ones that spawn close to the walls. Monster spawn rates are low in the Ruined Houses, and the buildings prevent most of them from bothering you, except the Fire Imps and Bone Serpents which can penetrate blocks. You can block the Fire Imp shots with any weapon or projectile, including your swinging pickaxe.
Be mindful that if you kill a Voodoo Demon, you better be ready to get under that Guide Voodoo Doll before it drops into the lava, or you will be in for a nasty fight you're not prepared for. Should you accidentally awaken the Wall of Flesh, you cannot escape. Using a Magic Mirror will result in your death.
Many of the Queen Bee's drops may be better than what you already have. Even if they aren't, farming Queen Bee is a good source of income before Hardmode. Plus, the Bee mount is the earliest mounts that can fly, although it's slow on land and hates water.
The head has the most health of all the segments of Skeletron and when it is defeated, the player would kill the whole boss, regardless if there are hands or not. The head will float around the player for a few seconds and then start spinning and chasing down the player. This repeats for the whole fight.
The hands of Skeletron will mostly stay underneath the head, and will try to hit the player constantly. It is recommended to go for the hands first before fighting the head, especially in Expert and Master mode, where the head's defense will increase by 25 for the amount of hands that are remaining.
The Dungeon can be found near the right or left edge of the map, always on the opposite side of the Jungle and on the same side as the Snow biome. Note that attempting to enter the Dungeon before Skeletron is defeated will lead to an unpleasant surprise.
With its extremely high spawn rates, the abundance of dangerous traps, and general inability to use terrain as cover, even experienced players can be overwhelmed. If you find yourself overwhelmed by enemies, taking down every water candle you see will significantly reduce spawn rates (you may even want to use a Calming Potion). Certain room geometries can lead to a continuous stream of enemies spawning, generally rooms with large sections offscreen and multiple hallways leading into them. In these cases, it may be wise to move on as quickly as possible.
At this point you have no deadlines or threats looming over you. You should be more-or-less the master of all you survey, and you have a wide variety of resources available. This is a good time to do large projects like arenas, bases, or farms, though you should keep in mind that depending on location, your base or arena might end up in an infected biome. You'll also need to collect some materials that will be needed in Hardmode, as farming is a lot easier in pre-Hardmode.
Once the player is ready to move on to the next phase of their world, Hardmode, then they will have to head to the underworld and fight the Wall of Flesh. Once the player defeats this boss, they will receive weapons and accessories to boost their survivability in early Hardmode. The player will also receive a message saying, "The ancient spirits of light and dark have been released." This indicates that the world has transitioned into hardmode.
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