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The difficulties in mixed-face tunneling were identified.Mixed-face tunneling scenarios were defined and classified.A tunneling project was analyzed based on statistical methods.A statistical model is proposed for penetration rate prediction in rocksoil interface mixed ground.
This paper investigates the performance of tunnel boring machines (TBMs) in rocksoil mixed-face ground based on TBM tunneling projects in Singapore. Currently several methods are available to estimate TBM tunneling performance in homogenous rock or soil. However, the existing models cannot be effectively applied to predict TBM penetration rate in mixed ground. The tunnels in this study were excavated in adverse mixed-face ground conditions. The geological profiles and the TBM operational parameters are compiled and analyzed. The influence of different geological face compositions on the performance of the TBMs is studied. The statistical analysis shows that there is a possible correlation between the mixed-face ground characteristics and the TBM advancement. Different approaches are used to find a reliable model. Finally, a method is proposed to predict the TBM performance in mixed-face ground for project planning and optimization.