Beneficiation simply means by various kinds of equipments to extract useful minerals from the tailings, in this way useful minerals will be collected for smelting. Generally there are three methods, one is by magnetic separator for magnetic materials like magnetite, one is by gravity method, most for the materials that have specific gravity differences, like Chromite, Hematite, the third one is by flotaiton, like copper ores and gold ores
The purpose of beneficiation is get rid of useless materials and tailings from the resources, so can get one or several kind of useful materials for better use. It greatly reduce the transportation cost and smelting cost.
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Difference between Rod mill and Ball mill The mill can be divided intoball milland rod mill according to different purposes. Fodamon engineers share the differences between ball Main factors affecting production capacity of Raymond Mill Fodamon engineers share the factors that affect production capacity ofRaymond Millas follows: 1. The hardness of the material. The harder
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Henan Ascend Machinery & Equipment Co., Ltd. was established in 2005 and it is located in the high-tech zone of Zhengzhou City, Henan Province. As a technology driven mining equipment company, it is committed to the R&D, production, sales and after-sales service of mining machinery and equipment.
The company's main products are crushers, grinding mill equipment, mineral beneficiation equipment, rotary dryer and crusher & grinding mill spare parts. In addition to the Chinese domestic market, Ascend machinery expands its business in more than 60 countries and regions.
Focused on product quality and after-sales service, Ascend has won widespread praise and trust of international customers. The company has a professional engineer team responsible for the pre-sales technical consultation, technical solutions in the process of sales, installation, commissioning and after-sales service to ensure that customers can purchase and use equipment with peace of mind.
All available copper-bearing natural mineral aggregates are called copper mines. The high-grade copper concentrate can be obtained by the coarse grinding, roughing, scavenging of copper ore, then grinding and concentrating of coarse concentrate.
Due to the different types of ore, the nature of the ore is also different, so the beneficiation process needs to be customized. The specific process for selecting copper ore depends mainly on the material composition, structure and copper occurrence state of the original copper ore.
Before the beneficiation of copper ores, crushing and grinding are required. The bulk ores are crushed to about 12cm by a jaw crusher or a cone crusher. Then the crushed materials are sent to the grinding equipment, and the final particle size of the copper ore is reduced to 0.15-0.2mm.
Copper sulfide can be divided into single copper ore, copper sulfur ore, copper-molybdenum deposit, copper nickel, carrollite and so on. Basically, only flotation can be considered in its separation.
Almost all copper sulphide ores contain iron-bearing sulfides, so in a sense, the flotation of copper sulfide is essentially the separation of copper sulfide from iron sulfide. The common iron sulfide minerals in copper ore are pyrite and pyrrhotite.
1 Disseminated grain size and symbiotic relationship of copper and iron sulfide. Generally, pyrite has a coarse grain size, while copper ore, especially secondary copper sulfide, is closely associated with pyrite. Only when the copper ore is finely ground can it be dissociated from pyrite. This characteristic can be used to select copper-sulphur mixed concentrates, discard the tailings, and then grind and separate the mixed concentrate.
2 The influence of secondary copper sulfide minerals. When the secondary copper sulfide mineral content is high, the copper ions in the slurry will increase, which will activate the pyrite and increase the difficulty of Cu-S separation.
3 The influence of pyrrhotite. The high content of pyrrhotite will affect the flotation of copper sulfide. Pyrrhotite oxidation will consume the consumption of oxygen in the pulp. In severe cases, the copper minerals do not float at the beginning of flotation. This can be improved by increasing inflation.
Generally, copper is floated firstly and then sulfur. The content of pyrite in dense massive copper-bearing pyrite is quite high and high alkalinity (free CaO content> 600800g/m3) and high dosage of xanthine are often used to suppress the pyrite. There is mainly pyrite in its tailings with few gangues, so the tailings are sulfur concentrates.
For the disseminated copper-sulfur ore, the preferential flotation process is adopted, and the sulphur in the tailings must be re-floated. To reduce the consumption of sulfuric acid during the floatation and ensure safe operation, the process condition of low alkalinity should be adopted as far as possible.
It is more advantageous for copper sulfur ore containing less sulfur with copper easy to be floated. Carry out the bulk flotation firstly in the weakly alkaline pulp and then add lime to the mixed concentrate to separate the copper and sulfur in the highly alkaline pulp.
In semi-preferential bulk-separation flotation, Z-200, OSN-43 or ester-105 with good selectivity are used as collectors to float copper minerals firstly. The copper concentrate is then subjected to copper-sulfur bulk flotation and the obtained copper-sulfur mixed concentrate is subjected to separation flotation of floating copper and suppressing sulfur.
It avoids the inhibition of the easily floating copper under high lime consumption and does not require a large amount of sulfuric acid-activated pyrite. It has the characteristics of reasonable structure, stable operation, a good index and early recovery of target minerals.
3 The xanthate collector mainly plays the role of chemisorption together with the cation Cu (2 +), so minerals whose surface contains more Cu (2 +) minerals have a strong effect with the xanthate. The order of the effect is: chalcocite > covellite > porphyrite> chalcopyrite.
4 The floatability of copper sulfide minerals is also affected by factors such as crystal size, mosaic size, being original or secondary. The minerals with fine crystal and mosaic size are difficult to float. Secondary copper sulfide ore is easy to oxidize and more difficult to float than original copper ore.
As for the grinding and floating process, it is more advantageous to adopt the stage grinding and floating process for refractory copper ore, such as the re-grinding and re-separation of coarse concentrate, re-grinding and re-separation of bulk concentrate, and separate treatment of medium ore.
Copper oxide (CuO) is insoluble in water, ethanol, soluble acid, ammonium chloride and potassium cyanide solutions. It can react with alkali when slowly dissolving in ammonia solution. The beneficiation methods of oxidized copper ore mainly include gravity separatio, magnetic separation (see details on copper ore processing plant), flotation and chemical beneficiation.
Flotation is one of the commonly used mineral processing techniques for copper oxide ores. According to the different properties of copper oxide ores, there are sulphidizing flotation, fatty acid flotation, amine flotation, emulsion flotation and chelating agent-neutral oil flotation method.
Process flow: The dosage of sodium sulfide can reach 1~2kg/t during vulcanization. Because the film produced by vulcanization is not stable and is easy to fall off after vigorous stirring, and sodium sulfide itself is easily oxidized, sodium sulfide should be added in batches.
Besides, the vulcanization speed of malachite and azurite is relatively fast, so the vulcanizing agent can be directly added to the first flotation cell with no need to stir in advance during vulcanization and adjust the amount of vulcanizing agent according to the foam state.
Fatty acids and their soaps are mainly used as collectors of fatty acid floatation, also known as direct flotation. During flotation, water glass (gangue inhibitor), phosphate, and sodium carbonate (slurry regulator) are also usually added.
There is a practice of mixing vulcanization and fatty acid methods. Firstly float the copper sulfide and part of the copper oxide with sodium sulfide and xanthate, and then float the residual copper oxide with fatty acid.
For example, the ore in the Nchanga processing plant in Zambia contains 4.7% copper. The copper content achieved to 50% ~ 55% through flotation by adding 500g/t of lime (pH 9 ~ 9.5), 10g/t of cresol (foaming agent), 60g/t of ethylxanthate, 35g/t of amyl xanthate, 1kg/t of sodium sulfide, 40g/t of palmitic acid and 75g/t of fuel oil.
It is mainly to sulfurize the copper oxide mineral firstly and then add the copper accessory ingredient to create a stable oil-wet surface. Then, the neutral oil emulsion is used to cover the mineral surface, resulting in a strong hydrophobic floating state. In this way, the mineral can be attached to the foams firmly to complete the separation.
Many problems should be paid attention to in the flotation of copper ore, such as the length of the vulcanization time, whether to add sodium sulphide in batches and the proportion of chemicals. Here is a brief introduction.
1 The vulcanization time. Different ores require different vulcanization times. Generally speaking, it should be short rather than longer. The suitable vulcanization time is 1 to 3 minutes. After 6 minutes, the recovery rate and concentrate grade will decrease.
2 Add sodium sulfide in batches. The roughing time for processing the ore in the concentrator is about ten minutes, while the ore contains a large amount of carbonaceous gangue and the divalent sulfur ions disappear quickly in the slurry. So the effect of adding sodium sulfide in batches is better than that of adding it once.
3 Add sodium sulfide proportionally. Generally, copper oxide floats in the liquid at a slower speed, and reduce the number of cycles of the mineral in the flotation process can obtain a higher recovery rate. It is of great significance to study the distribution ratio of sodium sulfide among different operations to catch the mineral at the right time.
The chemical beneficiation method is often used for refractory copper oxide and mixed copper. For some copper oxide minerals with high copper content, fine mosaic size and rich sludge, the chemical beneficiation method will be used to obtain good indicators because the flotation method is difficult to realize the separation.
The solution of ammonia and ammonium carbonate in a concentration of 12.5% was used as the solvent to leach for 2.5h at a temperature of 150, a pressure of 1925175~2026500Pa. The mother liquor can be distilled by steam at 90 to separate ammonia and carbon dioxide. Copper, on the other hand, is precipitated from the solution as black copper oxide powder.
Because some copper oxide minerals are not tightly combined with iron, manganese, etc., it is difficult to separate them by using the magnetic separation method alone, and flotation has a good separation effect.
Therefore, the flotation method is used to obtain high-grade concentrates, the magnetic separation is for tailings and wet smelting is carried out finally. This process combines flotation, magnetic and wet smelting very well, which greatly increases the recovery rate and reduces the beneficiation cost.
The above are several common beneficiation methods for copper oxide minerals. For the selection of copper oxide minerals, it is best to conduct a professional beneficiation test and customize the process according to the report.
Flotation is the most widely used method in copper mine production. The copper ore pulp is stirred and aerated, and the ore particles adhere to the foams under the action of various flotation agents. The foams rise to form a mineralized foam layer, which is scraped or overflowed by the scraper. This series of flotation processes are all completed in the flotation machine. (Contact Manufacturer)
The internal magnetic system of the barrel adopts a short circuit design to ensure that the barrel skin has no magnetic resistance at high speeds, and the stainless-steel barrel skin does not generate high temperatures, extending the life of the magnetic block.
Since it adopts a dynamic magnetic system design, the roller does not stick to the material, which is conducive to material sorting. The selected grade can be increased by 3-6 times to more than 65%.
Copper mines are generally purified by flotation, but for the beneficiation of copper minerals with coarser grain size and higher density, the pre-selection by the gravity separation method will greatly reduce the cost and achieve flotation indicators.
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Dry mortar, one emerging dry mixing material and one new excellent product. The production line consists of storage system, metering and batching system, conveying system, mixing system, air compressor system , packaging system, and dedusting system, etc.
The Major Equipment of Beneficiation Production Line:Components of gold processing plant is mainly composed of jaw crusher, ball mill, classifier, flotation machine, thickener, drier, feeder, and conveyor etc.
Zhengzhou Lanyu Mechanical briquette plant can be used to press coal, charcoal, coke, mineral powder, etc. The final briquettes can be transformed into different shapes like oval shape, pillow shape, egg shape, etc.
The main material required in steel making process is iron ore. According to the incomplete statistics, 98% of the iron ore mined daily is used to make steel. The global steel industry currently produces 1.7 billion tons of crude steel annually and consumes about 2 billion tons of iron ore.
However, with the limited iron ore resource, effective use of natural resources is the key to sustainable development. Using the reasonable techniques and advanced processing equipment will greatly improve the utilization rate of iron ore resources, thus extending the mining life of iron ore.
In last blog, we have introduced a lot of iron ore processing methods and techniques. And this article will recommend you 10 types of iron ore processing equipment, and share you 4 tips to choose suitable machines and manufacturer, hoping you can get some ideas.
PE jaw crusher, referred to as PE crusher, is the most important crushing equipment in mineral processing equipment. The dressing process always follows the principle of "more crushing and less grinding". Therefore, a good primary crushing equipment is crucial to the whole process.
The screening plate of iron ore ball mill has certain screening pressure, which can be adjusted simply according to the requirements of fine powder of the mill; in addition, the screen space is designed reasonably, which can effectively improve the screening efficiency of materials.
The iron ore ball mill scientifically adjusts the grading scheme of the steel ball according to the size, and composition of the materials to be ground, so as to make the particle size of the materials more even.
In view of the above comparison, it is recommended here that the gas-filled agitator flotation machine, in view of the characteristics of iron ore, the gas-filled agitator flotation machine can properly adjust the speed to prevent material sludge. Although it is necessary to configure the pneumatic system in the early stage, it can bring great economic benefits due to less wear and tear in the later use and low cost.
During the classification of iron ore, the vibration frequency of the screen surface is 50Hz, the amplitude is 0 to 2 mm, and the vibration intensity is 8 to 10 times of the acceleration of gravity, which is 2 to 3 times of the vibration intensity of the general vibrating screen.
Therefore, high-frequency screen can work normally without blocking the hole. Meanwhile, the screening efficiency is high, the processing capacity is large, and the grading particle size can reach 0.074 to 1 mm.
It has the features of simple structure, reliable performance, easy to operate and other advantages. The fineness of the finished product can be easily adjusted by the size of the classifier inclination Angle and the rotating speed of the spiral plates.
The machine base adopts channel steel, and the rest of the parts are made of steel plate. The water injection side and the shaft head of screw shaft are made of cast iron to improve the wear-resistance.
According to the principle, a spiral classifier combines into a closed cycle process with ball mill in the beneficiation production. The minerals of the required size are discharged as finished products from the overflow end to the next step and the coarse particles are returned to the ball mill for regrinding.
In the flotation process, the pulp water content of iron ore can be up to 70%-80%. During the dewatering process, filter press not only can greatly reduce the humidity of iron ore (water content can be reduced to 15%) but also can greatly improve the production efficiency and concentrate purity.
In the selection of dressing equipment, customers should consider their own materials, product characteristics and the required production capacity firstly for strict selection so that to buy suitable and reasonable equipment.
Before buying iron ore dressing equipment, model selection is a very important factor to be considered. Users need to consider whether the production capacity of this type of machine is within their capital budget, so as to avoid too large a model and lead to the waste of funds.
After all, the size of the equipment model is one of the main factors influencing its price. The larger the model, the higher the price of the equipment will be, which will also lead to higher production costs.
The size of the site is one of the criteria for the selection of the iron ore dressing machine. If the site is large, the selection of smaller models and equipment will certainly not meet the requirements of production. In addition, if the business needs to be expanded later, the machine should be in a large model.
Especially in the purchase of dryer, ball mill and other equipment, customers should fully consider the production site, and communicate with the manufacturer actively so that to make good cooperation.
It is very necessary to calculate investment in advance. The price of the different equipment is totally different, and the same equipment in different sizes also has different prices. It is recommended that users make budget funds before the purchase of equipment to select more suitable and relatively inexpensive machines.
As a leading mining machinery manufacturer in China, Hongxing Mining Machineryhas over 40 years of experience in design, production and sales. It is a large-scale joint-stock enterprise integrating scientific research, production and sales.
Over the past 40 years, Hongxing Mining Machinery has always kept in mind the original intention, insisted on the quality of products as the foundation, customer satisfaction as the ultimate goal, adhered to the responsible attitude for each product, and dedicated to customer service.
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