Everyday life changes when you need supplemental oxygen on a regular basis. As such, portable oxygen concentrators are life-saving and life-changing little machines. People with emphysema or COPD need oxygen, says Kimberly Langdon, M.D., Ohio-based physician, and VP of product development and research at Physician Integrative Laboratories. COPD is generally from tobacco and cigarettes. Any pulmonary disease such as pleural effusions from cancer may need to be on oxygen. Pulmonary hypertension is another reason.
For these conditions and anyone who requires medical oxygen, portable oxygen concentrators are the answer. They give you the freedom and independence to do as you please, all while breathing in the oxygen-rich air you need.
For the unfamiliar, oxygen concentrators work by pulling air in through a filter and compressing it into one of two zeolite towers. It's a way to extract oxygen from the air and remove the nitrogen so that the concentration of oxygen is higher than ambient air which is 21%, says Dr. Langdon. These are safer than traditional pressurized oxygen tanks and more economical and convenienteasier to transport because they arent as bulky or heavy.
Dr. Langdon explains that normally, the air around you is composed of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% other gases. However, after passing through an oxygen concentrator, which separates and filters out the nitrogen, what comes out is oxygen at a much higher concentration (up to 95%).
Whats more, units can hook into a DC jack and be used in the car for easy breathing on road trips and the best even offer hours of oxygen concentrating power on one battery charge. That portability is key, according to doctors. Weight of the machine, length of time it can go without needing to be recharged, are all important factors to consider according to Dr. Langdon.
The G3 is one of the quietest portable oxygen concentrators available, but this efficient device has a lot more going for it. It boasts a four-hour battery life and an operational altitude of up to 10,000 feet, and the carrying case looks more like an outdoorsy lunch bag than a medical device.
The G3 also always puts your health first with audible alerts in case of a power outage, no breath detected alarms, and oxygen purity checks. Rest assured, if your oxygen level ever falls below required purity levels, you will know immediately.
The Respironics SimplyGo has a continuous flow up to 54 minutes and comes with two rechargeable batteries, so you can always have a charge going while your POC is in use. At 10 lbs and with a modern design of less than 12 inches wide and tall, it is one of the smallest POCs with continuous flow. Its approved for use up to 10,000 feet, where its able to keep up a pulse dose setting of one to six and continuous flow setting between 0.5 and two.
The AirSep Freestyle 3 weighs only five pounds and is very small, as in mix-it-up-with-your-smartphone small. AirSep is leading the category in compact oxygen concentrators with this model. This specific model is designed for the active user with quiet, efficient pulse flow that goes up to a setting of three. It has a Max Pulse Setting of three and has a max oxygen of 332 per minute. The Freestyle can be worn over your shoulder with a carrying bag or add on the optional harness to convert into a backpack, which frees you to do your favorite activity.
If energy efficiency is priority number one, you can do no wrong with the SeQual Eclipse 5 mobile unit. Its hands down one of the most energy-efficient models with long-lasting batteries available, but its also on the heavier side. It weighs 18 pounds and comes with a cart that easily wheels it around. You can also sling it over both shoulders and carry it as a backpack.
The battery lasts up to five hours and has a pulse dose of one to six LPM for precise and predictable 90% oxygen with each inhale. SeQual's AutoSAT technology really sets it apart. It helps maintain the same amount of oxygen consistently, even as breath rate varies.
The ability to use a portable oxygen concentrator really depends on how much oxygen do you need, what flow do you need it at, and how long do you want to use it before you have to go back to your stationary device or replace the battery. Dr. Albert Rizzo, the chief medical officer with the American Lung Association
For pulse-flow POC, it is impossible to beat this Precision Medical model in price, ease of use, and performance. It's half the price of many competitors and only has one filter, which makes cleaning a breeze. The EasyPulse PM4150 will keep humming along on one battery over three hours at setting two and it comes with a car adapter for on-the-go charging needs. If thats not quite enough, extra batteries are available as is a sling for easy transportation.
This FAA-approved device is one of the lightest on the market, weighing in at a mere two pounds. Its so light and petite, youd barely notice carrying it on your shoulder or pocket. The AirSep has microbatteries that last up to three hours and an additional supplemental battery pack belt for an additional three and a half hours of battery life. It has a pulse dose rate of two LPM, so what you gain in featherweight class, you will notice a decrease in airflow ranges.
This model shines all around just like its namesake precious metal. Its incredibly quiet in both continuous and pulse dose mode and emits one of the highest oxygen purity levels and weighs under five pounds. It may be compact, but it is rugged, durable, and water resistant, and it can withstand extreme temperatures. It has a pulse dose range of one to five LPM.
The Oxlife Independence is excellent for traveling due to its operational altitude of 13,123 feet. Unlike other models that top out at 8,000 or 10,000, this portable oxygen concentrator can keep up even up higher and it comes with wheels and a cart handle for easier transportation. The pulse dose setting ranges from one tosix LPM. It also has a continuous setting of one to three LPM for precision oxygen. The battery keeps both pulse dose mode chugging for up to four hours and up to 1.5 hours operating in the continuous mode.
Patients need to talk to their doctors about if they can handle a portable concentrator to see if their breathing technique and liter flow are adequate from that concentrator to meet their needs. The last thing you want to do is go out and buy a concentrator that doesnt meet the needs of the patient. Dr. Albert Rizzo, the chief medical officer with the American Lung Association
The most important factor to consider when purchasing a portable oxygen concentrator is the oxygen output. In order to meet your needs, the machine needs to provide the proper levels of oxygen to you. No patient or diagnosis is created equal, which is why its necessary to communicate with your doctor about what settings would be best suited for you.
Inogen One G3 (view at Inogen) comes in as best overall because its lightweight, powerful, and reliable. An alternative, and still top choice, is the Oxlife Independence (view at o2-concepts) due to its petite size, multi-system delivery modes, and excellent performance at altitudes, far surpassing competitors.
These devices are meant to be used wherever you want to go, so size and weight are major considerations as is your chosen transportation method. Generally, oxygen concentrators with more power and higher output are heavier and larger. That doesnt have to be a deterrent for an on-the-go lifestyle, though. Many also feature a convenient rolling cart or strap system for transporting easily.
There are two main types of units, a pulse flow, and continuous flow, based on the delivery of oxygenated air. The pulse flow machine delivers air to the patient as short puffs timed to each inhalation. As a result, no oxygen is wasted. The pulse flow or demand flow delivers oxygen only when the patient is inhaling. This can help with power consumption. Nighttime use is more commonly pulse-flow. Some operate continuous flow with the added feature of pulse-flow as needed, says Dr. Langdon.
In contrast, the continuous flow unit produces a continuous stream of oxygen. One to five liters per minute of continuous oxygen flow is a common way to deliver oxygen continuously whether the patient is inhaling or not, says Dr. Langdon. These devices tend to have larger compressors, and there is likely some oxygen waste.
You can expect portable oxygen concentrators to run on a single battery charge for up to four or five hours. The smaller, lighter units generally have shorter battery charge-spans, though many of the devices come with extra batteries that can double that off-the-grid lifespan and charging options in cars.
By far the number one consideration to take into account when shopping for an oxygen concentrator is how much oxygen the machine can put out. Unlike oxygen tanks, which can deliver oxygen in virtually any setting, Scott Marlow, a respiratory therapist with the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio, explains that portable concentrators deliver a certain quantity of oxygen with each breath. Most patients require about 400ml/min depending on their diagnosis. Its important to speak to a doctor about your specific requirements and what machines will best keep your oxygen saturation levels stable.
[A Portable Oxygen Concentrator] is a way to extract oxygen from the air and remove the nitrogen so that the concentration of oxygen is higher than ambient air which is 21% percent. These are safer than traditional pressurized oxygen tanks and more economical and convenienteasier to transport because they arent as bulky or heavy.Kimberly Langdon, M.D., Ohio-based physician, and VP product development and research at Physician Integrative Laboratories
Oxygen concentrators are sometimes covered on medicare, but it depends on the patient's coverage. What happened with medicare is the amount that they cover with any oxygen device has become a set amount, Dr. Rizzo says. Home care companies can provide people oxygen for less with a portable gas tank versus liquid oxygen, Dr. Rizzo adds, so this influences whether the device will be covered or not. If you qualify for supplemental oxygen at night thats almost always covered by insurance companies, including Medicare, Dr. Rizzo says. But accessing a portable oxygen concentrator, depending on coverage, can be more difficult for patients who require the device.
Most oxygen concentrators are created with durability in mind, as theyre used to help the person travel and accomplish their daily tasks. Many of these devices come with a warranty, which typically lasts for two years. A new device should likely last someone from five to seven years depending on the concentrator and how its used daily. Its like buying any household appliance, Dr. Rizzo says. You want to check the warranty and trust who youre buying or renting it from.
As a seasoned health writer, Jennifer Nied understands how vital quality product recommendations are for treating symptoms safely and effectively at home. For over 10 years, she has reviewed products, interviewed experts, scrutinized ingredients, and pored over research studies and claims, to help readers like you understand what works for your specific conditions. Every product in this piece was selected taking into account recommendations from doctors, published research, and real customer reviews.
As a seasoned health writer,Danielle Zoellnerknows the importance of finding just the right product to fit your medical needs. Throughout her career, Danielle has interviewed a variety of experts in the medical and health fields while reviewing dozens of products. Her experience and knowledge in the fieldwork together help readers like yourself find the best products for your daily life.
For seniors who have low oxygen levels in their blood for any reason, a portable oxygen concentrator is a very helpful little machine. Theyre lighter and easier to use than standard oxygen tanks, provide a solution for people who travel or need an oxygen concentrator outside their home.
There are lots of reasons people need oxygen therapy as we get older. Conditions such as sleep apnea, COPD, anemia or recovering from surgery, can leave us with low oxygen levels. A portable oxygen concentrator is an easy way to increase oxygen saturation in the blood. Portable oxygen concentrators work by drawing in air, compressing it, and using a sieve bed to filter out nitrogen, leaving behind 95% pure oxygen which can then be inhaled via a mask or nasal cannula.
The main thing to be aware of is your oxygen needs, in terms of liters per minute (LPM.) Your physician will be able to give you an exact figure and armed with that knowledge you can double-check that a concentrator is capable of delivering the amount of oxygen you need.
Your physician can also explain whether you need a pulse or continuous flow unit. Pulse units are triggered by inhalation, and continuous flow units provide a steady stream of oxygen. As a result, continuous flow units tend to be bigger and more power-hungry. If you use a CPAP machine you will need continuous flow, as pulse flow units are not compatible with CPAPs. Depending on your needs, you might prefer a unit that offers both flow options.
Youll also want to consider the size and weight of the unit, especially if you know youre going to want it for traveling or going out and about every day. Ask about the battery life too especially if you plan to take it on flights or road trips.
Inogen makes small, sleek portable oxygen concentrators that look modern and are designed to be carried easily. They offer models that are generally lightweight and clinically validated. Read the full Inogen review here.
Portable model range:Current Inogen models include the Inogen One G1, G2, and G3. Flow type:Pulse flow. Continuous flow is available via their Inogen At Home model, but thats a non-portable at-home only concentrator. Weight: Starts at a tiny 2.8 lbs, all the way up to around 8 lbs. Battery life: Around 4 hours. LPM:Up to 6 LPM on the Inogen One G2 model. Notable models:The Inogen One G3 is a fantastic all-rounder. It weighs less than 5lbs and requires very little maintenance, yet is powerful enough to run for up to four hours before needing a new battery (or up to eight hours if you opt for a 16 cell battery.) Anything else:Inogen models are designed to be small, modern and easy to maintain and carry, making them a popular choice.
Oxygen Concentrator Store has been in business for over 18 years and carries a wide range of portable oxygen concentrators. Their staff is fully trained on each and every product, and ready to help you with any questions you have. If theres a one-stop-shop for all your oxygen concentrator needs, this is it.
Portable model range:Oxygen Concentrator Store carries a wide range of models from companies including Airsep, Inogen, Respironics and SeQual. Flow type:All models are either pulse dose, or offer both pulse and continuous. Weight:Some of the smaller models weigh as little as 2.8lbs, while some of the larger ones weigh around 10lbs. Battery life: From as low as 2.5 on some of the Airsep models, all the way up to 8 hours on the Invacare Platinum. LPM:Up to 6 LPM on some models. Notable models:If youre looking for something light and easy to take anywhere, you cant help but notice the Inogen One G4! The website mentions this is their lightest model, at a mere 2.8lbs. This pulse dose unit is only 7.2 high and has a 4.5 hour battery life. It can be charged at home or run on a battery too, for extra versatility. Anything else:You can narrow your search by weight, flow type, battery life and LPM rating, and the individual listing for each unit is very helpful and informative.
Invacare offers portable oxygen units with high specifications that are suitable for the rigors of daily life. Invacare offers two main models the Invacare Platinum and the Invacare XP02 ranging in weight from 4.8 to 7lbs.
Portable model range:Invacare has two main models the Invacare Platinum and the Invacare XP02. Flow type:Pulse Weight:The Platinum is 4.8lbs and the XP02 is 7lbs. Battery life:Up to eight hours on the Platinum and up to five hours on the XP02. LPM:The Platinum delivers up to 44 ml per minute, while the XP02 delivers up to 5 LPM. Notable models:Both models have a lot to offer, but we especially want to mention the Platinum! This model was specifically designed to stand up to everyday wear and tear with a foam casing around the compressor and reinforced bumpers. It can withstand up to 10 minutes of direct rain but its still light, quiet, and very portable. Anything else:BothInvacare models feature an easy to read interface/control panel so you can get them to do what you want them to go with minimum fuss
Philips Everflois perhaps one of the least portable concentrators on this list thats because its designed for stationary use at home. However, compared to other similar models, the Everflo is small and easy to move around.
Portable model range:Were just focusing on one model this time the Everflo. Flow type: Continuous-flow. Weight: 31 lbs. Battery life:Use while plugged in. LPM:Up to 5 LPM. Notable features:As far as stationary in-home models go, the Everflo is compact, easy to move, and designed to look modern and not like a piece of medical equipment. Its quiet and durable, and small enough to move if you need to take it with you somewhere. Anything else:The Everflo is very low maintenance. It has a filter that needs replacing once every two years and thats all!
Portable model range:The two most commonly-seen offerings from this manufacturer right now is the FreeStyle 3 and the FreeStyle 5. Flow type:Pulse Weight:FreeStyle 3 weighs 4.9 lbs and FreeStyle 5 weighs 6.7 lbs. Battery life:3.5 on the FreeStyle 3 and 2.5 on the FreeStyle 5. LPM:500 ml per minute. Notable models:Both models have a lot going for them, but lets take a moment to talk about how versatile the Freestyle 3 is. Its designed to operate in temperatures up to 104 degrees F, and yet its small, easy to carry, and very quiet. When you consider its also FAA approved for use on flights, it truly is a go-anywhere portable oxygen unit. Anything else: Both models offer simple one-touch operation for a user-friendly experience
Portable model range:Pure Medical offers concentrators from top manufacturers including Inogen, OxyGo, Invacare, EasyPulse and Respironics. Flow type:Offers both pulse and continuous flow models. Weight:Most are around 4lbs, but they do have a couple of models at 2.8lbs, and one heavier one at 10lbs. Battery life:Ranges from a couple of hours all the way up to eleven hours (on the EasyPulse POC-3.) LPM:Not listed for all models the highest we saw mentioned specifically was 3 LPM. Notable models:Many portable oxygen concentrators are pulse flow only, so its good to see a continuous flow option in the shape of the Oxlife Independence. At a little over 16lbs, this is heavier than the pulse flow models but has a sturdy yet ergonomic integrated mobile cart for ease of transport. The Independence can provide up to 5.75 hours of use per battery charge. Anything else:Its worth checking out Pure Medical just for the supplementary information they set out all the specs and design details of each model, without overwhelming the reader.
Portable Oxygen concentrators mean you can go about your daily activities, even if you need a little extra oxygen support. With such a wide range available, youre sure to find the concentrator you need, whether youre looking for something lightweight, quiet, or suitable for use overnight.
Amie has been writing about senior care products and services for the last decade. She is particularly passionate about new technologies that help improve the quality of life for seniors and their families. Seeing her parents and grandparents age made Amie ask herself, Would this be good enough for my loved ones? In her spare time, Amie enjoys outdoor adventures and spontaneous road trips. Learn more about Amie here
Sabah in Malaysian Borneo is among the Malaysian states which reported a high number of detected COVID-19 cases during the current pandemic. Due to geographical challenges and limited resources, clinicians developed novel strategies for managing patients. The use of a dual oxygen concentrator system for mechanical ventilation is one of the innovations developed by retrieval team members from the Emergency Department (ED) of the Sabah Women and Childrens Hospital. Due to conditions requiring isolation of patients suspected of or positive for COVID-19, high-risk patients were treated in an ED extension area that lacked central wall oxygen. Direct access to oxygen tanks became the only viable option, but ensuring a continuous supply was laborious. The novel setup described within this paper has been used on intubated patients in the ED extension area with moderate to high ventilator settings successfully. This simple setup, designed to meet the limited resources within a pandemic environment, needed only a turbine-driven ventilator, two oxygen concentrators, a 3-way connector, and three oxygen tubing. The application of this setup could potentially save more critically ill patients who are being managed in resource-limited conditions such as in smaller district hospitals or out in the field.
Sabah is a state in Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo. A major part of Sabah is surrounded by jungle and mountains which often pose a problem when it comes to transferring and treating patients in rural settings. All hospitals in Sabah started to prepare for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic when the first case was detected on 17 March 2020 in the district of Beaufort. Since then, numbers had increased and hospitals in Sabah began to prepare to treat critically ill patients. Sabah Women and Childrens Hospital (SWACH) started preparation with limited resources, preparing to treat patients in the hospital, while the SWACH retrieval team was placed on standby for the transferring of critically ill patients.
Major hospitals in Sabah have constructed a separate area for treatment and resuscitation of suspected COVID-19 patients using disaster tents and shelters in an effort to segregate high- and low-risk patients arriving at the emergency department (ED). Patients are triaged according to their risk evaluation and if deemed to have a high risk of infection, are directed into the ED extension area [1, 2]. The ED extension was separated into different zones defined as non-critical, semi-critical, and critical. In the extension area, oxygen supply posed a great challenge as there was no central oxygen supply, so teams resorted to oxygen tanks and oxygen concentrators for supply.
For patient transfers, an average built patient with a body weight of 70 kg, with ventilator settings of tidal volume 420 mL, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 5mmHg, respiratory rate 12/min, and a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) 0.5, at least 2 size E oxygen tanks are needed for a 2-h journey. This is equivalent to 16 kg of oxygen . Transfer of patients from district to tertiary hospitals in Sabah is challenging due to the long distances between these hospitals. Our hospital retrieval teams are familiar with transferring ventilated patients using portable battery-operated oxygen concentrators when patients require low ventilator settings due to their ease of use compared to heavy and cumbersome oxygen tanks [4, 5]
Mechanically ventilating patients in everyday situations where there is adequate oxygen supply already requires highly technical skills from trained healthcare workers. Ventilating a patient in the setting of limited oxygen supply and resources would prove an even bigger challenge. At the beginning of the pandemic, we predicted prolonged patient stay in the ED extension area in view of intensive care units (ICU) having to come up with new standard operating procedures (SOP) which involved preparing new isolation bays with delays in receiving patients due to the meticulous steps of donning proper personal protective equipment (PPE). When ICUs are full with critically ill patients, subsequent patients requiring mechanical ventilation become the responsibility of the ED, beyond a duration that would be considered routine. Ventilated patients consume large volumes of oxygen and the changing and replacement of oxygen tanks in the separate treatment area was laborious with the multiple infection control protocols in place. In addition, the supply and refilling of oxygen tanks during the pandemic period were unreliable, and oxygen tanks would often run out during the night. Oxygen concentrators were a great substitute for tank oxygen supply albeit its limited applications as it was not able to supply high-pressure oxygen to our standard oxygen driven ventilators.
In an effort to reduce the use of oxygen tanks in the ED extension area, we paired our turbine-driven ventilator with oxygen concentrators for the ventilation of patients. We limited the single oxygen concentrator technique to patients who needed only low-minute volume settings. However, for patients on high ventilator settings with higher oxygen demand, we used a dual oxygen concentrator system allowing us to double the oxygen inflow to the turbine-driven ventilator. Each oxygen concentrator is only able to contribute a maximum of 5L/min of oxygen flow. Therefore, by connecting two oxygen concentrators using a 3-way connector, we were able to provide a maximum of 10 L/min of oxygen flow to the ventilator.
Our oxygen concentrator, Phillips EverFlo , is capable of generating 0.55 L/min of continuous flow oxygen. This device produces concentrated oxygen from normal room air for delivery to a patient requiring low-flow oxygen therapy. Oxygen from the air is concentrated using a molecular sieve and a pressure swing adsorption process. It does not have a built-in battery and therefore requires a continuous power supply . The ventilator used was a Weinmann-Meduvent Standard , a turbine-driven ventilator capable of receiving low-flow oxygen to a maximum rating of 15 L/min. This ventilator has an oxygen sensor which detects the oxygen concentration being delivered to the patient, and therefore, this reading might vary from breath to breath according to the clinical condition and ventilator settings.
To set the FiO2, the minute ventilation administered was used as a guide . According to the desired target oxygen graph provided by the ventilator manufacturer, a 14L/min of oxygen flow will be able to deliver FiO2 of 1.0 to the patient at administered minute volume (AMV) 15L/min body temperature and pressure, saturated (BTPS). At oxygen flow of 9L/min, FiO2 of 1.0 can be delivered if the AMV was 10L/min BTPS. By combining 2 oxygen concentrators, we estimate that we will be able to deliver 10L/min of oxygen to the ventilator with 10% subtracted for leaking. With this, we estimate that we will be able to safely ventilate a patient using the dual oxygen concentrator system up to a required AMV of 10L/min at FiO2 1.0 . PEEP does not play a role in determining the oxygen concentration delivered . For any patient with a higher ventilatory requirement, this system would not be used. Initial oxygen flow settings are based on the estimation above, but FiO2 levels shown on the ventilator will be watched closely and the oxygen flow will be adjusted to achieve the required FiO2 once the patient was connected to the ventilator. For clarity, the required FiO2 is adjusted by adjusting the flow rate of oxygen on the oxygen concentrator while the delivered FiO2 is monitored by looking at the FiO2 levels on the ventilator.
The 3-way connector used to connect oxygen tubing from the two oxygen concentrators was originally designed for the infusion of fluid . While not optimal, its selection was based on limited resources and the lack of a more suitable alternative. The connector was modified to fit the oxygen tubing and act as a connection to direct the flow of both oxygen concentrators into the ventilator. Another two oxygen tubings were connected to the two other ends of the 3-way connector and oxygen concentrators respectively (Fig. 1). The connection system was then checked for leaks, and if present, adjusted or taped. One oxygen tubing  is cut at one end in order to attach to the 3-way connector, and subsequently, the other end will be connected to the ventilator.
An oxygen concentrator is a low-maintenance source for supplemental oxygen. In our ED, the oxygen concentrators are able to deliver a maximum of 5L/min of continuous flow oxygen. Continuous flow oxygen is straightforward compared to pulse oxygen. In its conventional usage, continuous flow oxygen concentrators deliver oxygen throughout the breath which leads to a significant fraction of delivered oxygen being lost to the ambient air and never reaching the patients lungs. Pulse dose concentrators aim to improve efficiency by limiting oxygen delivery only when patient inspiration can be detected by the trigger mechanism, delivering oxygen as a bolus or pulse early in the breath so that the fraction of oxygen exhaled from the anatomical dead space is reduced. Although usage of pulsed dosed oxygen is advantageous to reduce power consumption, this method of delivery is not suitable for use with this system as the trigger mechanism for pulse oxygen will not be activated when connected to a ventilator.
The main limitation of this particular oxygen concentrator is that a continuous power supply is needed as it does not come with a built-in battery. For transportation of patients, battery-operated oxygen concentrators are used. Although we were still able to achieve the required FiO2 with this system, we noticed minimal leaking at the connection between the three-way connector and the oxygen tubing as it was not designed to be used in this manner. To overcome this problem, an oxygen Y-connector  could be used for a better seal.
A single oxygen concentrator may be used with a turbine-driven ventilator, but this dual oxygen concentrator system is needed for patients on higher minute volume settings to achieve the desired FiO2 of 1.0 in certain patients. This system is suitable for district hospitals, private general practitioner offices, and also on the field to overcome limited oxygen supply. This setup should only be used with turbine ventilators equipped with real-time oxygen sensors due to the possible fluctuation of FiO2 with each patients breath.
The use of the dual oxygen concentrator system for mechanical ventilation is feasible as a temporary measure until the patient can be transferred to a proper critical care area like the ICU. It is extremely useful in a situation like the COVID-19 pandemic where oxygen supply was limited due to logistics and supply chain constraints. The method described above is a preliminary concept which requires further validation and should be used cautiously if needed.
Rybak M, Huffman LC, Nahouraii R, Loden J, Gonzalez M, Wilson R, et al. Ultraportable oxygen concentrator use in U.S. Army special operations forward area surgery: a proof of concept in multiple environments. Mil Med. 2017;182(1):e164952. https://doi.org/10.7205/milmed-d-16-00100.
Bordes J, dAranda E, Savoie PH, Montcriol A, Goutorbe P, Kaiser E. FiO2 delivered by a turbine portable ventilator with an oxygen concentrator in an Austere environment. J Emerg Med. 2014;47(3):30612. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2014.04.033.
PKC, SEM, KKN, and AKMH conceived the presented idea. PKC, RNP, and MIH developed the theory and the usage protocol with relevant calculations and safety precautions. PKC, SEM, KKN, AKMH, and MIH performed the procedure on multiple patients and improved the techniques. All authors discussed the technique and contributed to the final manuscript. The author(s) read and approved the final manuscript.
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Cheah, P.K., Steven, E.M., Ng, K.K. et al. The use of dual oxygen concentrator system for mechanical ventilation during COVID-19 pandemic in Sabah, Malaysia. Int J Emerg Med 14, 30 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12245-021-00354-9
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