Waste generated by construction does not just have a massively negative impact on the environment, it also comes with a huge economic price tag. According to aWorld Bank Report, construction waste from building materials accounts for half of the solid waste generated annually. Therefore, it pays for regional and global players in the construction industry to examine their waste disposal methods and make significant changes to create more sustainable ways of working.
While the cost of waste varies from country to country, one thing remains constant - the costs continue to multiply. The construction industry remains one of the biggest culprits to waste contribution. In 2012, 1.3 billion tons of solid waste was created, and this volume is expected to increase to 2.2 billion tons of waste per annum over the next seven years until 2025. Globally, countries are drafting policies to increase recycling of construction waste, and various certifications, such as LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) have been put in place to encourage the proper management of construction waste.
This trend is mirrored throughout the GCC region as well. According to a report by Frost & Sullivan, the total waste generated in the GCC was predicted to increase from 94 million tons in 2015 to 120 million tons in 2020. GCC countries are undertaking legislative action to create effective management of waste in construction, and also meet their own sustainability goals. Abu Dhabis Tadweer has developed the Waste Management Master Plan, which proposes to reduce commercial and industrial waste, especially that created by construction and demolition in a bid to position the emirate as a global leader in waste management.
Having said this, there are still many barriers to proper waste management including lack of standardization across the region, low margins, and lack of both, awareness and resources. The approach to sustainability in our region presents an interesting challenge for industry players, particularly due to the harsh weather conditions - however, there is still an incredible opportunity for the sector to positively address these challenges and make a transformational leap in sustainability.
1) The four Rs and a DReduce, reuse, recycle. These three Rs are the primary tenets of recycling and adopting sustainable practices. In construction, these principals become equally important in adding to the sustainability agenda of the company and the country in which industry activities occur. In addition to the three Rs, construction industry players should also add recover - can waste be incinerated to use the energy stored within it? - and dispose - with the most undesirable and last option being the landfill - to fully encapsulate a sustainability agenda.
2) Segregate wasteDue to looming deadlines and budget restrictions, a proper waste management plan is indispensable in this industry. The average construction business generates 100 metric tons of waste each year - and each ton that goes to a landfill incurs additional costs to your business. However, up to 90% of the waste generated by construction can be recycled. With this in mind, segregating your waste is one of the most economically viable ways to address waste management enabling you to recycle larger amounts and send less waste to a landfill in order to deliver financially tangible results.
3) Call in the expertsAny construction project requires the coordination, collection and management of waste. This can be a daunting task for a business, not only looking to meet waste management targets, but also having to deal with a variety of waste including hazardous waste. This requires additional attention to detail; thus, hiring a professional waste management company will enable you to better plan your material usage, ensuring the correct storage options and training your staff to follow the correct guidelines. Such a partnership will also ensure that your company benefits from reduced OPEX and higher recycling rates across a variety of projects.
Implementing waste disposal strategies throughout your business to minimize waste and dispose of it in a more environmentally conscious manner, will empower your construction company to reduce its carbon footprint, reduce overheads and increase profits.
Experienced Marketer with a demonstrated history of working in the information technology and services industry. Skilled in Demand Generation, Sales & Marketing Alignment, Revenue Marketing, Marketing Analytics, Digital Marketing, CRM, Market Research, and Management. Strong marketing professional with a Bachelor of Science (B.S. Chem) from the University of Michigan and a Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.) from HEC Paris.
Construction waste is becoming a serious environmental problem in many large cities in the world. In Malaysia, the construction industry generates lots of construction waste which caused significant impacts on the environment and aroused growing public concern in the local community. Thus, the minimisation of construction wastes has become a pressing issue. This paper is based on a case study which involved construction waste generation and composition as well as reuse and recycling in the site. The case study also analysed the economic feasibility of waste minimisation such as reusing and recycling of construction waste materials by performing a benefitcost analysis. This study provides an idea of the amount of waste generation, sources and compositions as well as reuse and recycling of materials on the construction sites taking into account the economic dimension. The study shows that waste minimisation is economically feasible and also plays an important role for the improvement of environmental management. In this view, economic instruments for minimising construction waste can be used to raise revenue for environmental policy, encourage prevention efforts, serve to discourage the least desirable disposal practices, as well as to avoid the negative consequences of environmental unfriendly treatment and disposal practices of construction waste materials.
Waste Management Inc., Houston, is holding career day events acrossNorth AmericaMay 21-22aimed at hiring essential frontline drivers and technician positions. The company is offering a range of new employee benefits from flexible work schedules, sign-on bonuses and a new education and upskilling benefit program, Your Tomorrow, developed in collaboration withDenver-based Guild Education. According to Waste Management, Your Tomorrow is a first-of-its-kind program that provides WM employees, as well as their eligible dependents, the opportunity to choose from a full range of education options, including earning a college degree, at no cost to the employee.
The WM career day events, designed to proactively address talent needs, offer candidates the opportunity to interview and potentially receive same-day offers to start their careers with the company. Interview spots can be reserved in advance online, though walk-ins will also be accepted.
WM Your Tomorrow offers nearly 36,000 full-timeU.S.employees access to more than 170 fully funded programs, including undergraduate and graduate degrees, short-form technology and business certificate programs and high school completion. Later this year, the company plans to expand this offering to benefits-eligible dependents, including nearly 34,000 children and spouses, beginning with enrollment in 2022 educational programs. According to Waste Management, the company is one of the first employers to extend education and upskilling opportunities at this scale.
At WM, were an innovative people-first organization that cares deeply about the careers, economic mobility and wellbeing of our team members, saysTamla Oates-Forney,chief people officer, WM. Your Tomorrow supports the reskilling and retention of existing talent, while also helping to attract new talent, to equip the business with a skilled workforce for the future and further position WM as an employer of choice. It will soon help our team members with the support needed to provide for their dependents education. Through our career day events, we hope to attract new team members that want to evolve their career and will take advantage of this new benefit program.
Were excited to add a group of new consultants and staff members to GBBs dynamic and entrepreneurial team, says GBB President Steve Simmons. While these four women come from different academic and professional backgrounds, together they have a common passion for sustainability and complement our growing team of professionals who focus on helping clients solve solid waste management issues by providing innovative, responsible, sustainable and economical strategies and solutions for the benefit of communities and the environment.
Jennifer Porter, vice president of GBB, adds, I am especially happy to announce that with our recent new staff additions, we are greatly expanding our sustainability planning services team, building on our base of other experienced solid waste, recycling and sustainability consultants at GBB.
A well-versed planning practitioner with more than 10 years of experience in sustainability, resilience, community engagement and training/education, Manwelyan joins the GBB team as a senior consultant. She most recently held the role of senior planner at Sullivan County, New York, and has experience as a consultant, nonprofit executive director and entrepreneur. Through her multidisciplinary background, she has worked with municipalities on resilience planning and sustainability compliance; is adept at working with diverse constituent groups including staff, boards, committees, volunteers and external audiences; and has initiated and strengthened community and institutional partnerships.
Manwelyan earned a Master of Science degree in urban planning from Columbia University and founded an environmental leadership training program with 500 alumni where she developed, implemented and taught programs and curricula.
As a sustainability professional with eight years of public-sector experience for a resource recovery agency, Evans joins GBB as a senior consultant. She comes to GBB from the Onondaga County Resource Recovery Agency in Central New York, where as a recycling specialist she worked on a wide range of projects and programs, including award-winning recycling and composting initiatives; collaboration with a waste-to-energy facility turning nonrecyclable trash into electricity and recovering metal for recycling; trash and recycling drop-off sites; and numerous collection programs for recycling and proper disposal of hard-to-manage materials.
A former board member of the New York State Association for Reduction, Reuse and Recycling, Evans is based in Syracuse, New York, and earned a Bachelor of Science degree in environmental studies from the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry.
A recent graduate of Binghamton University with a Master of Science in sustainable communities as well as a Bachelor of Science in environmental studies, Moyer joins GBB as a Consultant I. Since graduating from her masters degree program, Moyer was a project coordinator at Binghamton Universitys Living Building project, which aims to design and construct a Living Building Challenge Certified environmentally friendly classroom and research facility. At GBB, Moyer leverages this experience as an integral team member working on GBBs sustainability projects focused on achieving zero construction and demolition waste for a large retail companys portfolio of real estate projects. Her knowledge of Living Building principles will additionally assist the GBB team with making recommendations early in the building design stage that contribute to future improvements and success in fostering a circular design and construction industry.
A CPA and CFE (certified fraud examiner), Del Rosario joins GBB as its new business manager. She has been working in public and private accounting for 28 years in the D.C. area. She has experience providing financial oversight for various small businesses including law firms, lobbying firms, real estate developers, software companies, retail businesses, nonprofits and trade associations. In the environmental space, Del Rosario has provided the controller function for a large recycling company in the D.C. area. She has a B.S. in business management from Brigham Young University (BYU) and is a member of the Virginia Society of CPAs, the Association of CFEs and the AICPA.
The Arlington, Virginia-based Associated General Contractors of America (AGC) says April producer price index data demonstrates how a wide variety of materials with double-digit price increases could threaten to undermine economic recovery in the United States.
The index for steel mill products climbed 67 percent, while the index for copper and brass mill shapes rose 49 percent and the index for aluminum mill shapes increased 20.5 percent. Other items with especially steep price increases over the past year, says AGC, lumber and plywood costs rising by 85.7 percent from April 2020 to last month. The index for plastic construction products rose 14.2 percent, with a 12.1 percent rise for gypsum products.
Todays producer price index reportbad though it isactually understates the severity of the problems contractors are experiencing, says Ken Simonson, the associations chief economist. Many items have posted even steeper price increases since the data for this report were collected in mid-April, while lead times for producing goods and delivery times to distributors and worksites have grown ever longer and less certain.
The AGC says some of the supply chain problems have resulted from the pandemic or one-time events like the freeze in Texas in February that damaged plants producing inputs for construction plastics. But they say federal policies, particularly tariffs and quotas on key building materials like lumber, steel, and aluminum have exacerbated the price spikes, supply shortages, and delivery delays. They have urged the administration of Joe Biden to end those import obstacles and explore ways to help uncork supply-chain bottlenecks.
States Stephen E. Sandherr, CEO of the AGC, The Biden administration must address these unprecedented lumber and steel costs and broader supply-chain woes or risk undermining the economic recovery. Without tariff relief and other measures, vital construction projects will fall behind schedule or be canceled.
According to the company, the unit is compatible with excavators with an operating weight ranging from 30 tons (60,000 pounds) to 45 tons (90,000 pounds) and meant for sectors where power and sturdiness are essential, such as in quarries, where you need to treat large quantities of material like coal and phosphate.
The MB-HDS523 can also be used to move, sift, and aerate soil in excavating, earthmoving and large trenching projects. Described by MB Crusher as the only HDS unit with five shafts positioned to ensure a greater production rate and processing speed, the MB-HDS523s contains a V Shaft System that is designed to create a simultaneous dual screening effect and increases production.
The unit features a concealed comb that allows the material to enter and flow through the rotors without jamming. It also comes with a removable front upper casing, giving the unit a greater closing angle and increase production.
In addition to power, the company says the unit is also durable. Suitable for demanding construction sites and heavy workloads, the parts of the MB-HDS523 that are subject to wear are protected by reinforced Hardox steel slab, and the bracket and frame are also thicker, making it a well-performing machine.
To facilitate work on the job site in every aspect, especially when it comes to maintenance, the company says the shaft screener comes with a centralized greasing system to simplify and speed up maintenance operations. Much like other units in the range, the shafts are easily switched out and can be replaced on-site and in a few minutes.
A January survey by the Steel Erectors Association of America (SEAA), a trade association representing the interests of steel erectors, fabricators, contractors, and related service providers, has found that hiring remains the biggest challenge for steel erectors.
The survey, which was sent to members of the SEAA, reported more than 40 percent of respondents said that hiring issues are currently their biggest challenge and 37 percent of them believe that hiring will continue to be a problem over the next three years.
Closely related to this issue is business growth, which the association says has been hindered by the inability to hire enough people with the right skills. More than 18 percent of member respondents currently face business growth challenges with that number expected to increase over the next three years.
SEAA has successfully been growing its Ironworker Craft Training program over the last eight years. We currently have nearly 30 members participating in the program with more joining all the time, said Geoff Kress, president of SEAA. In addition, we have launched an aggressive video production schedule to create about 20 short training videos by the end of the year. These videos align with the SEAA/NCCER ironworker training curriculum.
To further explore the development of construction waste recycling enterprises and promote the recycling of construction waste resources in China, a system dynamics model of the economic benefits of construction waste recycling enterprises is established using the system dynamics method and taking the tax incentive of the Guangzhou Municipal Government as an example. The economic benefits of construction waste recycling enterprises are analyzed from the perspective of the total cost, total revenue, and total recycling amount. The results of the MATLAB simulation and numerical analysis show that (1) by simulating the effects of different taxes such as value-added tax (VAT), education surcharge, urban construction tax, and enterprise income tax on the economic benefits of construction waste recycling enterprises, it is found that when tax incentives reach 70%, the VAT favorable policies bring the highest gains, followed by enterprise income tax, whereas favorable education surcharge policies and urban construction tax have the least impact on economic benefits. (2) Taking the monetary subsidy of the Guangzhou municipal government as an example, it is estimated that the total revenue of construction waste recycling enterprises will increase by 33.56% annually in 2030. When the new production technology is adopted, the return on investment (ROI) will reach 46.8% in 2030 compared to previous technological improvements. In the simulation scenario, the ROI will be 42.2%, which has a good incentive effect on the cost control of enterprises. (3) Increasing the available power to VAT and corporate income tax can improve the profitability of construction waste recycling enterprises in China; however, tax incentive policy will no longer be the main factor affecting the benefits of enterprises when a certain time is reached. (4) It is suggested that the government improves the relevant tax laws incentive policies, increase tax incentives, and add equipment tax incentive policies, actively change the tax mode, and increase indirect tax models to improve the economic benefits of enterprises. The research results provide a decision-making reference for the government to formulate laws and policies related to the economic benefits of construction waste recycling and promote the development of the construction waste recycling industry, the development of new industries, such as waste recycling and treatment, and the formation of industrial chains, to achieve the strategic goal of sustainable development.
Ajayi SO, Oyedele LO (2017) Policy imperatives for diverting construction waste from landfill: experts recommendations for UK policy expansion. J Clean Prod 147:5765. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.01.075
Alwan Z, Jones P, Holgate P (2017) Strategic sustainable development in the UK construction industry, through the framework for strategic sustainable development,using Building Information Modelling. J Clean Prod 140:349358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.12.085
Au LS, Ahn SJ, Kim TW (2018) System dynamic analysis of impacts of government charges on disposal of construction and demolition waste: a Hong Kong case study. Sustainability 10(4):1077. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041077
Baldwin AN, Shen LY, Poon CS, Austin SA, Wong I (2008) Modelling design information to evaluate pre-fabricated and pre-cast design solutions for reducing construction waste in high rise residential buildings. Autom Constr 17(3):333341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2007.05.013
Baldwin AN, Poon CS, Shen LY, Austin SA, Wong I (2009) Designing out waste in high-rise residential buildings: analysis of precasting methods and traditional construction. Renew Energy 34(9):20672073. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2009.02.008
Begum RA, Siwar C, Pereira JJ, Jaafar AH (2006) A benefitecost analysis on the economic feasibility of construction waste minimisation: the case of Malaysia. Resour Conserv Recycl l48:8698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2006.01.004
Calvo N, Varela-Candamio L, Novo-Corti I (2014) A dynamic model for construction and demolition (C&D) waste management in Spain: driving policies based on economic incentives and tax penalties. Sustainability 6(1):416435. https://doi.org/10.3390/su6010416
Central Government of China (CGOC) (2016) Several opinions on further strengthening the management of urban planning and construction. Retrieved from: http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/2016-02/21/content_5044367.htm. Accessed 24 Jul 2019
Coelho A, Brito JD (2013a) Economic viability analysis of a construction and demolition waste recycling plant in Portugal part II: economic sensitivity analysis. J Clean Prod 39:329337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.05.006
Coelho A, Brito JD (2013b) Economic viability analysis of a construction and demolition waste recycling plant in Portugal Part I: location, materials, technology and economic analysis. J Clean Prod 39:338352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.08.024
Galvez-Martos JL, Styles D, Schoenberger H, Zeschmar-Lah B (2018) Construction and demolition waste best management practice in Europe. Resour Conserv Recycl 136:166178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.04.016
Guangzhou City Management Committee (CMC), Guangzhou CityHousing and Urban and Rural Construction Committee (GCHURCC), Guangzhou City Bureau of Finance (GCBF) (2015) The tentative man-agement measures for financial subsidies of Guangzhou city construc-tion waste comprehensive utilization. Retrieved from: http://www.gzcpc.org/gndt/1112.jhtml.Accessed 01 Dec 2015
Hao JL, Tam VWY, Yuan HP (2010) Dynamic modeling of construction and demolition waste management processes an empirical study in Shenzhen, China. Eng Constr Archit Manag 17(5):476492. https://doi.org/10.1108/09699981011074574
Huang WL, Li DH, Chang NB, Lin KS (2002) Recycling of construction and demolition waste via a mechanical sorting process. Resour Conserv Recycl 37(1):2337. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-3449(02)00053-8
Huang BJ, Wang XY, Kua H, Geng Y, Bleischwitz R, Ren JZ (2018) Construction and demolition waste management in China through the 3R principle. Resour Conserv Recycl 129:3644. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.09.029
Jia SW, Yan GL, Shen AZ, Zheng J (2017) Dynamic simulation analysis of a construction and demolition waste management model under penalty and subsidy mechanisms. J Clean Prod 147(20):531545. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.01.143
Li JR, Tam VWY, Zuo J, Zhu JL (2015) Designers attitude and behavior towards construction waste minimization by design: a study in Shenzhen, China. Resour Conserv Recycl 105:935. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.10.009
Liu JK, Teng Y, Jiang YH, Gong EQ (2019) A cost compensation model for construction and demolition wastedisposal in South China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26:1377313784. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2887-0
Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MOIAIT), Ministry of Housing and Construction (MOHAC) (2017) The Code Conditions for Construction Waste Resource Recycling Industry Retrieved from: http://www.gdei.gov.cn/ywfl/jnhxhjj/201702/t20170208_125655.htm. Accessed 15 Sept 2020
Wang JY, Yuan HP, Kang XP, Lu WS (2010) Critical success factors for on-site sorting of construction waste: a China study. Resour Conserv Recycl 54(11):931936. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2010.01.012
Wang J, Wu H, Duan H, Zillante G, Zuo J, Yuan H (2018a) Combining life cycle assessment and building information modelling to account for carbon emission of building demolition waste: A case study. J Clean Prod 172:31543166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.11.087
Wang T, Wang JY, Wu P, Wang J, He QH, Wang XY (2018b) Estimating the environmental costs and benefits of demolition waste using lifecycle assessment and willingness-to-pay: a case study in Shenzhen. J Clean Prod 172:1426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.10.168
Wu ZZ, Yu ATW, Shen LY (2017) Investigating the determinants of contractors construction and demolition waste management behavior in Mainland China. Waste Manag 60:290300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2016.09.001
Yuan HP, Shen LY, Hao JL (2011) A model for costbenefit analysis of construction and demolition waste management throughout the waste chain. Resour Conserv Recycl 55(6):604612. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2010.06.004
Zhang XL, Wu YZ, Shen LY (2012) Application of low waste technologies for design and construction: a case study in Hong Kong. Renew Sust Energ Rev 16(5):29732979. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.02.020
Zhao W, Leeftink RB, Rotter VS (2010) Evaluation of the economic feasibility for the recycling of construction and demolition waste in Chinathe case of Chongqing. Resour Conserv Recycl l54:377389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2009.09.003
Zheng L, Wu H, Zhang H, Duan H, Wang J, Jiang W, Dong B, Liu G, Zuo J, Song Q (2017) Characterizing the generation and flows of construction and demolition waste in China. Constr Build Mater 136:405413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.01.055
The authors are grateful to all people who participated in the questionnaire survey and the illustrative example. They also sincerely thank the editors and the anonymous reviewers whose comments and suggestions improved and clarified this paper.
The research was supported by the Humanities and Social Sciences Projects of the Ministry of Education (No. 20YJCZH097 and 18YJA630113),Guangdong Planning Office of Philosophy and Social Science (No. GD19CGL23), and Guangzhou Planning Office of Philosophy and Social Science (No.2020GZGJ185).
Jingkuang Liu contributed to the conception of the study and contributed significantly to analysis and manuscript preparation. Engqing Gong performed the data analyses and wrote the manuscript. Xuetong Wang contributed to the conception of the study and helped perform the analysis with constructive discussions.
Liu, J., Gong, E. & Wang, X. Economic benefits of construction waste recycling enterprises under tax incentive policies. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13831-8
Economic instrument is indubitably perceived as effective for encouraging or forcing contractors to conduct environmentally friendly construction practices. Previous studies in relation to this topic mainly put emphasis on economic analysis of construction and demolition (C&D) waste management from a static point of view, which failed to consider its dynamics nature by integrating all essential activities throughout the waste chain. This paper is thus intended to highlight the dynamics and interrelationships of C&D waste management practices and analyze the costbenefit of this process using a system dynamics approach. Data related to concrete and aggregate of a construction project in Shenzhen was collected for the application of the proposed model. The findings reveal that net benefits from conducting C&D waste management will occur, but a higher landfill charge will lead to a higher net benefit, as well as an earlier realization of the net benefit. In addition, the general public under a higher landfill charge will suffer from a higher environmental cost caused by illegal dumping. The simulation results also suggest that current regulation in Shenzhen should be promoted to facilitate a dramatic increase in net benefit from the implementation of C&D waste management. This research is of value in facilitating better understanding on the dynamics of C&D waste management activities throughout the waste chain, as well as providing a tool for simulating the costbenefit of C&D waste management practices over the project duration.