Structural loads, structural analysis and structural design are simply explained with the worked example for easiness of understanding. Element designs with notes and discussions have added to get comprehensive knowledge. Also, construction materials, shoring system design, water retaining structures, crack width calculations, etc. have discussed in addition to other aspects.
Self Compacting concrete is a type of concrete that is more flowable than the normal concrete and compacted by itself. Not like normal concrete, vibration is not required to compact it. It flows through the connection areas with reinforcements.
Under each testing method, there are different test methods available as shown in the following figure. Further, it is a must to carrying out testing of concrete this nature to make sure the quality of the concrete.
Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) with manufactured sand (MSCC) is crucial to guarantee the quality of concrete construction technology and the associated property. The properties of MSCC with different microlimestone powder (MLS) replacements of retreated manufactured sand (TMsand) are investigated in this study. The result indicates that high-performance SCC, made using TMsand (TMSCC), achieved high workability, good mechanical properties, and durability by optimizing MLS content and adding fly ash and silica fume. In particular, the TMSCC with 12% MLS content exhibits the best workability, and the TMSCC with 4% MLS content has the highest strength in the late age, which is even better than that of SCC made with the river sand (Rsand). Though MLS content slightly affects the hydration reaction of cement and mainly plays a role in the nucleation process in concrete structures compared to silica fume and fly ash, increasing MLS content can evidently have a significant impact on the early age hydration progress. TMsand with MLS content ranging from 8% to 12% may be a suitable alternative for the Rsand used in the SCC as fine aggregate. The obtained results can be used to promote the application of SCC made with manufactured sand and mineral admixtures for concrete-based infrastructure.
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All the authors appreciate the supports from the Australian Research Council (DE150101751, IH150100006), University of Technology Sydney Research Academic Program at Tech Lab (UTS RAPT), University of Technology Sydney Tech Lab Blue Sky Research Scheme. The first author also appreciates the China Scholarship Council (CSC) scholarship.
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To meet the requirements of construction of concretes filled in the steel tube arches, a C60 grade micro-expansive self-compacting concrete (SCC) was prepared from manufactured sand (MS). The utilization of MS with a high content of quarry limestone fines was dealed for SCC applications. The workability, compressive and splitting strength, modulus of elasticity, restrained expansion and chloride ion permeability as well as freeze-thaw resistance of three MS-SCC mixes with fines content of 3%, 7% and 10% were tested and compared with those of the natural sand (NS)-SCC mix. The experimental results indicate that the performances of the C60 MS-SCC with fines content of 7% are excellent and compared favorably with those of C60 NS-SCC.
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