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fab udhyog - manufacturer from makarpura, vadodara, india | profile

fab udhyog - manufacturer from makarpura, vadodara, india | profile

The force behind our tremendous success and development in the highly competitive domain, is the team of assiduous professionals hired by our organization. The durable and optimum quality range of Mineral Processing Plant Machine is result of the vast experience and qualifications of our professionals, who are well versed in their respective domains. These professionals use latest and advanced technology for designing and developing these products, which in turn helps us in attaining the maximum client satisfaction. In order to meet the exact needs and requirements of our clients, our professionals work in complete cohesion. Our team comprises:

micronization, micronization of api, micronization of bulk drugs, micronization service, contract micronization, particle size measurement, uma micron, vadodara, gujarat, maharastra, india

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Micronization is a proven technology of reducing the particle size of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for increasing the bioavailability of the products. The particle size reduction is accomplished through collision of the different particles in air or nitrogen stream. Lager particles are retained in the mill by centrifugal forces while smaller particles are carried out of the mill and are collected in an explosive-resistant collector system. In our facility we are equipped with state-of-the-air jet mills, so we are able to provide highest quality micronization to the pharmaceutical industry. Micronization is performed under cGMP conditions.

Our production scale Jet milling systems are located in a dedicated air locked process suite. The mills are fed via a loss-in-weight or volumetric feeders, micronized product is then collected in a reverse pulse dust collector, and discharged to product containers through a rotary air lock valve. This system design allows for significant product containment and recoveries of +99.9%.

The entire staff and management of the company are thoroughly professional. They stick to deadlines and deliver quality services. The company has gained good clients in less time due to their effective working style and good service.

Uma micron offers flexible resources for R&D projects in small quantities and provides reliable contract services for small and large volume production quantities including complete shipping and documentation When you next consider your arrangements for micronization service, I would welcome the opportunity to understand your requirements to evolve it in mutual benefit.

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Our offered assortment of Engineering Machinery includes Three Roller Grinding Mill, Roller Grinding Mill, Plate Bending Machine, Ball Mill with Micronizing Plant, Jaw Crusher, Disintegrator and many more.

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Pulverizer is high speed swing beater type grinding mill. Pulverization is achieved by the impact of beater on the material in the Grinding Chamber. The M.O.C. in the main body of the pulverizer such as Base plate, Grinding Chamber, Wizzer Cone & the Blower is made of Cast Iron.

micronized - industrial minerals - south africa

micronized - industrial minerals - south africa

Micronized has earned excellent credentials through supplying an array of products into a diversity of sectors, including paint and coatings, glass, plastics, rubber, automotive, ceramics, adhesives, paper, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

a kinetic study of micronization grinding of dry mica in a planetary ball mill

a kinetic study of micronization grinding of dry mica in a planetary ball mill

Ljubia Andri, Anja Terzi, Zagorka Aimovi-Pavlovi, Milan Trumi, Milan Petrov, Ljubica Pavlovi, "A Kinetic Study of Micronization Grinding of Dry Mica in a Planetary Ball Mill", Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2013, Article ID 543857, 6 pages, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/543857

This paper presents results of the research of micronization grinding of dry mica in a planetary ball mill. Investigation was conducted in order to improve the quality and to obtain clearly defined properties and characteristics of mica powder. The micronization grinding of dry mica was performed in four time periods: 30, 60, 120, and 360 minutes. The micronized powder was investigated by means of differential thermal and thermogravimetric analyses, analysis of the degree of micronization, the specific surface area analysis, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The achieved results pointed out that dry mica micronization grinding which exceeds 360 minutes is recommended for this type of mill. However, it was also shown that the micronized mica produced by means of planetary ball mill after extra long periods of micronization grinding can pass into amorphous state.

Mica belongs to the group of the most widespread minerals in nature. The mica minerals are present in large number of rocks such as gabbro and various sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Chemical composition of mica minerals varies. On the other hand, morphological and physical properties are similar to various minerals. According to their chemical composition, these minerals are mainly aluminosilicates with presence of alkali and hydroxides. The main characteristic of mica minerals is remarkable stratified and complex pseudo hexagonal crystal structure. According to what was stated, mica minerals have specific physical-chemical, mineralogical, and mechanical properties [1, 2].

The micronized mica minerals have specific applications such as condensers, insulators, plastic fillers, pearlescent pigments, coatings, polymers, equipment, and devices used in aeronautical industry [3]. Due to the characteristic color, density, reflection index, size, shape, and the structure of microparticles, the micronized minerals of mica are being used as fillers in the synthesis of the advanced materials giving them extra quality [4].

For each of the named industrial applications, it is crucial that the particles of mica minerals are reduced in size. The reduction of the average particle size of mica minerals directly affects the structure and properties of laminar silicates. In this investigation, special attention was paid to the undesirable effects such as amorphization and aggregation [5].

The most commonly applied procedure for mica minerals particle size reduction is grinding. For industrial purposes, different grinding procedures might be applied. Such procedures are dry grinding (obtained particles are in the range from 1.2mm to 150m), wet grinding (particles are in range from 95 to 45m), and micronization (particles are smaller than 53m) [6]. Due to the low mill capacity (kg/h) and high energy consumption, production of particles in ultrafine size range is an extremely difficult and expensive procedure. According to these facts, the optimal ratio (ratio of the gyration diameter to the mill tube diameter) of planetary ball mill for ultrafine grinding was intensively studied [7].

Furthermore, the effect of high-energy ball milling (HEBM) technique on particle size reduction of mica minerals was widely studied. The HEBM technique pointed out to the significant changes in the size, structure, and morphology of the minerals. All these changes were followed by the change of the physicochemical properties of the investigated material [8]. Application of the ultrasound analysis enables detection of micron and submicron particles of the minerals. At the same time, formations and characterization of these particles can be explained. According to this, minerals of mica (muscovite, vermiculite, and biotite) were subjected to ultrasound analysis [9, 10].

Previous investigations of the kinetic of mica micronization grinding showed that the type of mill and the mode of mechanical energy transfer onto the mica particles have more significant effect than the micronization grinding time. This effect depends on operating conditions, device power, weight of grinding media, filling rate, capacity, duration of micronization grinding, presence of additives, and so forth [1114].

The achieved results will serve for defining the correlation between technological parameters, structure, and required properties of mica powder. At the same time, the results could be used in the process of application of mica powder in the synthesis of advanced materials. The aim of this investigation was to improve the quality of mica powders with accurately and strictly defined properties and characteristics (physicomechanical, physicochemical, and mineralogical characteristics) through micronization grinding in planetary ball mill.

A flotation mica concentrate (KAl2(Si3Al)O10(OH,F)2) obtained by the technological processing of white granites from the beds Samoljica, Bujanovac (South Serbia) was used as the initial material in the investigation. The basic physicochemical characteristics of mica concentrate were determined by standard laboratory procedure. The following values were obtained: density (g/cm3), humidity (%), (%) (after drying), and volume density (g/cm3). Particle size distribution and chemical and mineralogical composition of the initial mica sample (M0) are presented in Table 1.

The micronization grinding was conducted in the planetary ball millPlanetary Ball Mill PM 100CM (Retsch GmbH, Germany). The PM 100CM is a benchtop model with one grinding station. It operates in centrifugal mode, which leads to a more gentle size reduction process with less abrasion. The extremely high centrifugal forces of the mill result in very high pulverization energy and therefore short grinding times. This ball mill is suitable for long-term trials and continuous use, and it has two different grinding modes (dry and wet). Material feed size is <10mm, and final fineness is <1m and for colloidal grinding <0.1m. Batch size is max. 1 220mL and max. 2 20mL with stacked grinding. Material used for grinding tools is stainless steel, and grinding jar sizes are 50mL/80mL. The grinding jar is arranged eccentrically on the sun wheel of the planetary ball mill. The direction of movement of the sun wheel is opposite to that of the grinding jars at the ratio 1:1. The grinding balls in the grinding jars are subjected to superimposed rotational movements, the so-called Coriolis forces. The difference in speeds between the balls and grinding jars produces an interaction between frictional and impact forces, which releases high dynamic energies. The interplay between these forces produces the high and very effective degree of size reduction of the planetary ball mill. Planetary mills with a single grinding station require a counterweight for balancing purposes. In the Ball Mill PM 100CM, this counterweight can be adjusted on an inclined guide rail. In this way the different heights of the centers of gravity of differently-sized grinding jars can be compensated in order to avoid disturbing oscillations of the machine. The PM 100CM operates with a speed ratio of 1:1 (centrifugal mode). The centrifugal forces produce the rotation movement of the sample and the grinding balls against the inner wall of the grinding jar. The size reduction of the particles is induced primarily by pressure and friction.

The kinetic of the process was analyzed through the changes of the particle size distribution and the specific surface area caused by duration of micronization grinding. The analyses of micronized products were conducted using different instrumental techniques. For detailed powder characterization (determination of the particle size distribution, the mean diameter, and specific surface area of the particles) Coulter-ElectronicsCoulter Multisizer (Beckman Coulter, Inc., Switzerland) was used. For defining of the thermal and thermogravimetric characteristics of the samples a simultaneous thermal analyzer STA-409 EP (NETZSCH-Gertebau GmbH, Germany) was used. X-ray structural analysis was utilized for the observation of the phase composition. For this purpose, an X-ray diffractometer PW-170 (Philips, The Netherlands) was used. The qualitative mineralogical analysis was examined by immersion method (immersion ksilol). For this purpose, polarized microscope with light linkage and possibility of objective enlargement from 10 to 50 times was applied.

The analysis of the kinetic of the process, explained by the following equations, describes mathematical dependence of relevant values related to changes in the particles size distribution and the specific surface area of mica powder. The changes in the particle size distribution, during the dry micronization grinding are described by the following equation: where is maximal value of mean diameter of the particles during micronization grinding; is initial value of mean diameter of particles after () minutes of micronization grinding; and is kinetic rate of the micronization grinding [11].

The changes in the specific surface area of mica powder are described by the following equation: where is limited value of the specific surface area of micronized mica product; is initial value of the specific surface area after () minutes of micronization grinding; and is kinetic rate of the micronization grinding [11].

The mean diameter and subsequently the specific surface area are first increasing with the increasing of the duration of the micronization procedure. Maximum for mean diameter is reached after 60 minutes of micronization. Afterwards, the value of the mean diameter decreases, and it reaches its minimal value for 360 minutes long grinding. Longer grindings would cause further reduction in the mean diameter of the mica particles; however, the attention should be paid to the possibility of the amorphization of the particles.

Based on (1) and (2), the characteristic parameters of micronized products are derived. In accordance with derived parameters, changes in the particle size distribution and specific surface area were analyzed. The characteristic parameters of micronized mica samples are presented in Table 3.

In accordance with the data obtained by the micronization grinding of dry mica in planetary ball mill, it can be seen that the best micronization effect could be achieved during time period over 360 minutes. Significant changes in the mean diameter and specific surface area of the dust particles are not noticed. In addition, a higher level of micronization grinding is observed in the series M4. Based on this, detailed examination of the micronized mica sample, series M4, was carried out.

In order to explain the influence of the micronization grinding procedure on the structure and characteristics of mica, specific analyses were performed before and after the procedure: X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD); differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG); and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Mineralogical phase changes as well as the variations in crystallinity occurring in mica samples were tracked by means of XRD analysis. In Figures 1 and 2, the diffractograms of mica samples before and after micronization grinding are given. It was noticed that changes in the crystal structure of mica appeared within 30 minutes of the micronization process. However, the mechanical reduction of the original particles of investigated mineral appears to have reached a limit at 360 minutes grinding time, and longer grinding times might produce contra effect, an increase in particle size and amorphization [12]. From Figures 1 and 2, it can be seen that the duration of the micronization influences the crystallinity of mica samples; that is, the level of crystallinity is decreasing with the increasing of the duration of micronization grinding. Namely, micronization makes the structure disordered and generates crystal lattice defects or other metastable forms [12, 13]. The micronization grinding treatment might promote the amorphization of treated material, noticeable change of the microstructure, size and shape of particles, and so forth [14]. The appearances of the minimal intensities in diagram (Figure 2) indicate degradation of crystal lattice in the micronized mica sample, series M4 [15].

Thermal characteristics of the processes taking place during mica thermal treatment from 20 to 1100C were identified by means of DTA method. Results of DTA and TG analyses of the initial mica sample (series M0) and micronized mica sample (series M4) are shown in Figures 3 and 4, respectively [11, 15].

The DTA curve for mica sample M0 is given in Figure 3. All significant peaks are exothermic, and they are showing at approximately 210C, 575C, 690C, and 960C. According to the data obtained by means of the chemical analysis (Table 1), it can be concluded that the initial sample (M0) was crystalline mica (muscovite) which was also registered by the endothermic effect at 575C in Figure 3. Melting of the mica samples is not recorded up to the temperature of 1100C which contributes to good refractory characteristics of the mica as raw component material. DTA curve of micronized mica sample M4 (after 360 minutes of grinding) is slightly changed in comparison with the DTA curve recorded before micronization treatment (Figure 4). Namely, the curve is smoother, the exothermic peaks disappeared, and new endothermic peak is noticed at 866C. This effect corresponds to dehydroxylication. Melting was not noticed, and thus, it can be concluded that micronization does not initiate decreasing of the melting point for mica.

In addition, in Figure 3, the TGA results show that the sample gradually lost weight during heating up to 1000C. The total weight loss was 3.47%. Analyzing achieved results of the micronized sample, series M4 it was concluded that the total weight loss was 5.04%. The comparison of the results presented in Figures 3 and 4 indicates that the difference in the total weight loss was about 1.57%. This difference could be explained by appearance of wet absorption on the surface molecules [15].

The results of the qualitative mineralogical analysis of the initial sample (series M0) and micronized sample (series M4) are shown in Figures 5 and 6, respectively. Typical mica (muscovite) nonactivated particles are thin and wide, having a more plate-like form [16]. It can be seen that after micronization, mica particles gained a pseudo hexagonal crystal form [17]. The particles maintained its layered structure, but the size of particles is reduced. Other more significant changes were not noticed.

The results obtained in this investigation of the kinetics of micronization grinding in the planetary ball mill are as follows.(i)The efficient micronization grinding of dry mica in planetary ball mill could be achieved in and over 360 minutes time period. (ii)The micronization grinding of dry mica is recommended to be performed in longer periods, but special attention should be paid the possibility of micronized mica passing into the amorphous state. (iii)The mode of mechanical energy transfer onto the mica particles plays the key role for the efficient micronization grinding of dry mica in planetary ball mill. Due to this fact, small changes in the structure and properties of mica were achieved. (iv)According to what was stated, the micronization grinding of dry mica requires a higher consumption of energy. Due to this fact, planetary ball mill is an uneconomic device for the efficient micronization grinding of dry mica. However, the contribution and interpretation that occurred during micronization grinding of dry mica in planetary ball mill could be used for obtaining powder materials of a priori defined properties and fillers.

This investigation was supported and funded by Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, and it was conducted under the projects: 33007, 34006, 172057, and 45008.

Copyright 2013 Ljubia Andri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

orally disintegrating tablets prepared by a co-processed mixture of micronized crospovidone and mannitol using a ball mill to improve compactibility and tablet stability - sciencedirect

orally disintegrating tablets prepared by a co-processed mixture of micronized crospovidone and mannitol using a ball mill to improve compactibility and tablet stability - sciencedirect

ODTs were prepared by a coground M-CPVP (micronized crospovidone)/mannitol.The coground technique could overcome the disadvantages of mannitol and M-CPVP.The tablets containing coground mixture showed high stability for six months.

The purpose of this study was to prepare orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) by directly compressing a mixture of sugar alcohol (mannitol) and micronized crospovidone (M-CPVP). When the mixture of mannitol and M-CPVP was co-processed by ball milling, the physicochemical properties of the resultant tablets were considerably improved, particularly their stability during storage. Several types of coground mixtures using a different ratio of M-CPVP/mannitol and processing time were tested to determine the appropriate aggregates for designing the ODTs. Without this co-processing, the powder mixture had poor compactibility, and the stability of the tablet was inferior, probably due to the high hygroscopicity of M-CPVP. The ODTs containing coground M-CPVP/mannitol showed good stability for six months under humid conditions with rapid disintegration (<30s) and increased hardness of the tablets (tensile strength>1.0MPa). Tablet stability could not be achieved using a physical mixture of M-CPVP/mannitol without including the coground process. We also demonstrated that ODTs containing an active ingredient, acetaminophen, could be prepared using this cogrinding method.

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