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influence of fibre orientation on cutting force in up and down milling of ud-cfrp composites | springerlink

influence of fibre orientation on cutting force in up and down milling of ud-cfrp composites | springerlink

Machining of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites is extremely difficult, mainly due to their inhomogeneous and anisotropic properties. Predicting of cutting force during machining of CFRP is also difficult because the machinability properties of the composite are significantly orientation-dependent (fibre and machining directions). The main objective of the present study is to analyse the influence of fibre orientation on cutting force in milling of unidirectional CFRP. Up and down milling experiences were conducted based on a full factorial design. Experimental data were processed by fast Fourier transformation, regression analysis, and graphical adequate analysis. Multiple-order polynomial models were developed in order to minimise cutting force. Experimental results show that fibre orientation angle significantly influences the cutting force; furthermore, it does not have a significant effect on the passive force component, while the radial force component is more sensitive to the fibre orientation at up milling, than at down milling. An optimal condition is recommended for zig-zag milling of unidirectional CFRPs.

Carbon fibrereinforced polymer (CFRP) composite materials are favoured due to their excellent specific mechanical properties in industries where low weight and high strength are required [1, 2]. For example, almost 50% of the structural elements of the Boeing 787 airliner consist of composite materials [3]. By using the novel composites, engineers were able to achieve 20% weight loss and 35% maintenance time reduction over previous models (Boeing 767 and 777). In the aerospace industry, as well as in the automotive, wind turbine, military, sports, and aerospace industries, manufacturers strive to laminate CFRP components in a single operation (moulding and hardening); however, they often require further processing before they can be used or assembled [4,5,6]. These may include (i) removing material build-up in the dividing plane of the laminating tool, (ii) removing excess material from the flange of the laminating tools, (iii) smoothing the mating surfaces of the laminated composites, and (iv) making holes for assembly of components [7,8,9]. Typically, these post-manufacturing needs are met by various machining techniques, like conventional drilling, helical milling, tilted helical milling, wobble milling, side milling, or edge trimming [6, 10,11,12,13].

Nevertheless, the cutting of CFRP composite materials is complicated and expensive: (i) due to the inhomogeneity and anisotropy of the material, the characteristic geometrical errors caused by the machining and the chip formation mechanisms are significantly dependent on the machining directions; (ii) carbon fibres have a strong abrasive wear effect, which should be considered for the cutting tool and for the machine tool also; and (iii) heat dissipation is also problematic due to the low thermal conductivity of polymers and the dangers of using coolant lubricants (polymer wicking) [2, 4,5,6, 14, 15]. Because of these cutting features and conditions, CFRP materials are referred to as difficult-to-cut materials, which can result in a variety of micro- and macro-geometric material defects like delamination, uncut fibres, matrix burning, fibre pull-outs, or micro-cracking [13, 16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26]. Although centuries of experience in the field of metalworking have been accumulated, this theoretical and practical knowledge cannot be directly applied to the cutting science of fibre-reinforced technical polymer composite materials that have been researched for only a few decades.

Investigation of cutting forces are often unavoidable for modelling (i) tool wear, (ii) chip forming mechanisms, (iii) micro-, and (iv) macro-geometric errors caused by machining [27,28,29]. The mechanical and thermodynamic properties of quasi-homogeneous materials are quasi-isotropic so that the machinability properties are less directional [30,31,32,33,34]. However, this is not true for a fibre reinforced composite material [35], the machinability of fibre-reinforced materials is therefore strongly direction-dependent. In this paper, the effect of the fibre orientation angle (the angle between the direction of the fibres and the vector of the feed rate, as illustrated in Fig.1) is investigated on the cutting force (F), which describes the direction dependence of the composite. Cutting force dependence on the fibre orientation angle is discussed already in some key papers [36,37,38,39,40]; however, there are still many lacks of knowledge in cutting force optimisation in UD-CFRP in the case of up and down milling.

The schematics of the experimental setup (climb milling), where k denotes the direction of fibre reinforcements, vf is the feed rate, vc is the cutting speed, ap is the depth of cut, ae is the cutting width, n is the spindle speed, is the fibre orientation angle, and is the fibre cutting angle

Li et al. [36] carried out orthogonal machining experiments in unidirectional CFRP composite and found that the effect of the fibre cutting angle (angle between the direction of the fibres and the vector of the cutting speed, as illustrated in Fig. 1) and the depth of cut are significant on the cutting force and their interaction effect is also significant. Voss et al. [37] analysed the influence of fibre orientation on the cutting force and on the quality of machined features in milling CFRP. They observed that fibre cutting angle has a significant effect on cutting force and on surface quality. They showed that cutting force can be decreased by increasing the rake and the clearance angles; furthermore, optimal cutting process parameters were defined to maximise machining quality and minimise cutting force. Li et al. [41] analysed the machinability of UD-CFRP by up milling experiments and concluded that there is a strong correlation between surface roughness and vibration of cutting force signals. Furthermore, they showed that the fibre orientation angle has a significant effect on the cutting force. Xu et al. [42] conducted machining experiments in CFRP and proved that the feed rate has the most significant influence on the cutting force that closely correlates with delamination and burr formation. They confirmed and validated these findings in Xu et al. [43] too.

Wang et al. [44] analysed the influence of fibre cutting angle on the cutting force components in milling UD-CFRP with a small radial depth of cut of (ae=0.1mm). They observed that the radial cutting force is the most effected by the fibre cutting angle, followed by the tangential force, while the passive force component is less influenced by the . He et al. [38] investigated the cutting force in slot milling of CFRP using a two-straight-flute carbide mill. They resulted that fibre cutting angle of =135 causes the largest tangential forces and specific energies, while the tangential cutting force at =45 is the smallest. Wang et al. [45] conducted milling experiments in CFRP and analysed the influences of process parameters on the cutting force using response surface methodology. They proved that feed rate has the most significant effect on cutting force, followed by the cutting speed and the radial depth of cut. Sui and Wang [39] conducted slot milling experiments in UD-CFRP. They proved that the cutting speed has only just a little effect on the cutting force, while the effect of fibre orientation and chip thickness is significant on it. The total machining power should be kept in minimal in order to improve the flexural strength of CFRP and improve the quality of machined features; according to Ashworth et al. [8], the minimisation of cutting force is therefore relevant and necessary.

Modelling of cutting forces in orthogonal cutting of CFRP composites are often based on laws of physic (e.g., Kienzle model) [46, 47]. Nevertheless, in the case of more complex technologies like drilling or milling processes, cutting forces are often modelled by statistic, semi-mechanistic, or numerical techniques [48, 49]. Each modelling approaches have their advantages and limitations, which have to be addressed before selecting them. Mechanistic models have a physical aspect which enables to understand the analysed process; however, it is extremely difficult to use them to model complex systems or processes (advanced shaped tools, difficult tool path or non-homogeneous materials etc.). In contrast, the physical meaning of statistical models is strongly limited, but they are often preferred in recent cutting-edge-research areas like in smart manufacturing, self-organisation, intelligent machining, digital twin or real-time process monitoring, and diagnostics solutions [50]. Polynomial models are often preferred in these sectors because it is easy and fast to calculate with these formulas by computers, even in quasi-real-time.

Although experimental and simulation studies and modelling of cutting forces have been addressed in many of scientific studies, only a few papers have been published on the effect of up and down milling strategies on cutting forces. Moreover, it is not possible to clearly derive from these articles the knowledge required to create (i) a special (tilted) trochoidal toolpath for, e.g. efficient slotting, or (ii) an optimised zig-zag (up and down alternately) type toolpath for CFRP milling. Therefore, the main objective of the present experimental study was to analyse the influence of the fibre orientation on the cutting force in climb (down) and conventional (up) milling of unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced polymer (UD-CFRP) composites. The other main goal was to develop an adequate polynomial model that is capable of force optimisation.

The rest of the paper is organised as follows: First, the experimental setup is introduced; then, the experimental results are presented. Finally, the results are compared and discussed based on the analysis of chip removal mechanisms.

Edge milling experiments were performed in a hand lay-up laminated, epoxy resin-based unidirectional CFRP composite. The ratio of the applied FM20 resin to the MH3124 hardener was 100:35, respectively, while the reinforcement was a dry unidirectional carbon fibre fabric. The thickness of the laminate was t=25mm. The important mechanical properties (tensile strength, interlaminar shear, hardness, and impact strength) of the applied composite are measured by using a Zwick Z250 and a Zwick Z020 tensile testers, a Zwick H04.3150 hardness tester, and a Ceast Resil Impact Junior impact tester, respectively. The measurement setups were repeated five times, and the average and the deviations were calculated, as summarised in Table 1.

The machining experiments were conducted on a VF 22 vertical spindle milling machine. The chips were removed from the cutting zone with a NILFISK GB733 industrial vacuum cleaner. Coolant lubricant was not used for the experiments (dry machining). An uncoated HSS end mill with a diameter of D=50 mm, with z=5 cutting edges (clearance angle of =10, rake angle of =25, and helix angle of =40) was used for the milling experiments. The machining experiments were designed using the full factorial experiment design method. The factors and their levels are shown in Table 2. The 4th level (=90) was repeated five times in order to calculate reproducibility deviation for regression analysis and graphical adequate analysis.

The values of the technological parameters not listed in the table were fixed in order to fix their influences on the cutting force, as follows: cutting speed of vc=230m/min, feed rate of vf=397mm/min (feed per tooth of fz=0.054mm/tooth), axial depth of cut of ap=7mm, and radial depth of cut of ae=3mm. The schematic drawing of the experimental milling setup can be seen in Fig. 1.

Cutting force was measured with a KISTLER 9281B three-component dynamometer, and collected using a LabVIEW measurement program at a sampling frequency of fm=18,000Hz for t=10s per experimental setting. The spindle of the milling machine was equipped by an eccentric switch (a metal element), which position was detected by an OMRON E3F-DS10B4 proximity sensor, in each spindle rotations. The force data and the data provided by the proximity sensor was collected simultaneously, the exact position of the cutting edges could be therefore determined.

The analysis of tool wear is not in the scope of this study, however, it had to be monitored in order to minimise its influence on the analysed response variables. The tool wear criterion was defined in a maximum of VB=0.3mm wear in length, measured from the tip of the tool edges on the clearance face of the tool edges. The tool wear was measured by digital image processing of pictures provided by a Dino-Lite AD7013MZT digital microscope. Images were collected after each experimental setup. The tool wear on the clearance surface did not reach the defined tool wear criterion, the tool wear therefore not influences significantly the experimental results of this study. Representative images of clearance faces of the cutting tool is shown in Fig.2.

Tool wear on the clearance surface of the no. 1 cutting edge: a before the experiments are started, b after the 6th experimental setup, c after the 10th experimental setup, d after the 16th experimental setup, and e after the 20th experimental setup

The collected force signal is noisy mostly due to the tool vibration, the filtering of data is therefore often necessary. Frequency filtering was applied at the measured force values using the fast Fourier transformation (FFT) and a Butterworth low pass filter with a cut-off frequency of fc=400Hz (cutting edges enter the workpiece at the frequency of f=1000vcz(D)1122Hz). The principle of applied frequency filtering is illustrated in Fig.3. The original force signal is first transformed by using the FFT, then the Butterworth filters the high-frequency signals, then the spectrum is inverse transformed by inverse FFT.

The main steps of optimisation parameter calculations are, as follows: (i) selecting an evaluation period tk=1s in the filtered force diagram (Fig. 3), during which the tool continuously machines, then (ii) dividing the evaluation phase into m=10 equal subsections, and then (iii) calculating the maximal parameter in each subsection (Ff1 in Fig. 3), finally (iv) averaging the features calculated in the subsections for the evaluation phase (based on Fig. 3: Ff=101(Ffi)). The resulting F() force (cutting force) was calculated by Eq. (1).

where F denotes the cutting force, is the fibre orientation angle, while f indicates the direction of the feed rate (y in Fig. 1), r indicates the radial direction (x in Fig. 1) and p indicates the passive (z in Fig. 1) direction.

During the evaluation, polynomial models were fitted to the force parameters, and they were adequately examined by (i) regression analysis and (ii) graphical adequate analysis. If the R squared (R2) of the deg=1 regression model was smaller than R2=0.9, then the degree (deg) of the polynomial model was increased by deg=deg+1, until R20.9. A general deg=5 polynomial model used here is expressed by Eq. (2).

where n=5 the number of repeated experimental settings, m=10 is the number of evaluation subsets, and F is the value of the optimisation parameter determined by the filtered force diagram. The reproducibility standard deviation was used for graphical adequate analysis, as follows: (i) the error interval of the measured cutting force parameters are defined in F=E(F)r, (ii) a deg=1 polynomic is fitted to the force data (Fig.4a), (iii) if the polynomic approximates worse than the E(F)r defined interval, then the degree of the polynomial model has to be increased: deg=deg+1, as illustrated in Fig.4. The graphical adequate analysis resulted in the same degree of polynomials as the regression analysis.

a The polynomial approximates worse than the E(F)r defined interval; the degree of the polynomial has to be therefore increased, where is the error of the approximation; b the polynomial approximates better than the E(F)r defined interval; the degree of the polynomial has to be therefore fixed.

This section of the present study is comprised of three parts. First, the results of the cutting force of climb milling, then the results of the cutting force of conventional milling experiments are presented. Finally, the climb milling and conventional milling results are compared and discussed in detail, from the point of view chip removal mechanisms associated with different fibre cutting angles.

Filtered cutting force diagrams in the case of climb (down) milling of unidirectional CFRP, can be seen in Fig.5. Diagrams show the main cutting force (F) in the function of machining time. It can be clearly seen in the diagrams that the fibre orientation has a significant effect on the characteristics of cutting force. The maximal cutting force often reaches the 600800N values in the case of fibre orientation of 0, 30, and 60; however, its values are lower at higher fibre orientation angles.

Filtered cutting force diagrams in the case of climb (down) milling of unidirectional CFRP at fixed process parameters of vc=230m/min, vf=397mm/min, ap=7mm, and ae=3mm, but at different fibre orientation angles: a =0, b =30, c =60, d =90, e =120, and f =150

The effect of the five cutting edges of the end mill can be clearly detected (local maximum points) in the case of lower fibre orientations, but at higher , the characteristics of the force diagrams are more homogeneous. Its possible reason is that there is more signal noise on the lower cutting force data than on the higher ones. From the comparison of the results dedicated to fibre orientation angle of =0 and =120, it can be stated that the maximum of cutting forces significantly differences and the detecting ability of the local maximum points are also different due to the relative higher signal noise on the lower force data.

The effect of the fibre orientation angle on the feed force is significant (main effect of Ff: ME(Ff)=473.55N), while the effect of the radial and passive forces is smaller (ME(Fr)=27.36N, ME(Fp)=51.68N). The main cutting force function for climb milling UD-CFRP is expressed in Eq. (4). The degree of the polynomials of the components of the cutting force is calculated by regression analysis (Table 3) and validated by graphical adequate analysis (Fig.4).

where index f denotes the feed direction, index r is the radial direction, and p index is the passive direction, while indexes a, b, c, d, e, and f denote the regression coefficients, the latter of which are shown in Table 5.

The function Fdown() has a minimum point, which should be used to design the cutting technology of laminated composite materials around this minimum point since these fibre orientation angles can reduce the cutting force and reduce (i) tool wear, (ii) workpiece heat shock, and (iii) delamination of the laminate layers. This force-minimum can be calculated by deriving the Fdown() function according to Eq. (5).

Filtered cutting force diagrams in the case of conventional (up) milling of unidirectional CFRP, can be seen in Fig.7. Diagrams show the main cutting force (F) in the function of machining time. Similarly, to the results of the climb milling experiments, it can be clearly seen in the diagrams that the fibre orientation has a significant effect on the characteristics of cutting force. However, the maximal cutting force reaches 600800N values in the case of fibre orientation of 30 and 60. The fibre orientation of 150 resulted in the lowest, while the fibre orientation of 60 resulted in the highest maximum main cutting forces.

Filtered cutting force diagrams in the case of conventional (up) milling of unidirectional CFRP at fixed process parameters of: vc=230m/min, vf=397mm/min, ap=7mm, ae=3mm, but at different fibre orientation angles: a =0, b =30, c =60, d =90, e =120, and f =150

The quantitative results of up milling experiments are listed in Table 6 and illustrated in the diagram in Fig.8. It can be seen in Fig. 8 that the effect of the fibre orientation angle on the feed directional cutting force component (ME(Ff)=570.74N) is the most significant, followed by the radial force component (ME(Fr)=364.26N), while the effect on the passive force component is smaller (ME(Fp)=74.53N).

The main cutting force function for up milling UD-CFRP is expressed in Eq. (6). The degree of the polynomials of the components of the cutting force is calculated by regression analysis (Table 3) and validated by graphical adequate analysis (Fig. 4).

Based on the experimental results, it can be stated that (i) the fibre orientation angle significantly influences the cutting force. (ii) The cutting force as a function of the fibre orientation angle has a minimum point when using both analysed milling strategies (up and down milling). (iii) The minimum cutting force location is not the same for up and down milling: down,opt=123 for down and up,opt=156 for up milling. The main cutting force of climb and conventional milling are expressed by Eqs. (8) and (9), respectively. The models were developed based on regression analysis and validated by graphical adequate analysis. The third-degree polynomial models are shown in Fig.9.

When designing the movement path (toolpath) for cutting force-optimised milling of quasi-homogeneous materials, the chip cross-section should be optimised primarily [51, 52]. In the case of UD-CFRP composite, due to the anisotropy, the direction of the reinforcing fibres also significantly influences the milling tool paths optimised for the force minimum, so it is advisable to take this into account when milling UD-CFRP. The cutting force is minimal at fibre orientation of up,opt=156 and at down,opt=123 in the case of up or down milling strategies are applied. One of the optimums can be set in current CAM systems to generate an optimised tool path for UD-CFRP milling, however, both parameters usually cannot be considered simultaneously in the CAM systems.

The built-in milling cycles of current CAM software are typically not suited for assigning different orientation angles to one-way and one-way parallel tool paths during the generation of time-optimised milling tool paths. Thus, for the industrially efficient UD-CFRP milling zig-zag tool path design, it is suggested to use a opt=128 fibre orientation angle for cutting force minimisation (based on Fig. 9). Furthermore, novel tool paths are suggested to develop in order to create non-edge-parallel edge trimming cycles to avoid difficult-to-cut fibre orientations like =090 [53]. Cutting at the force minimum is a cardinal task for polymeric matrix composites, since (i) not only reducing the rate of tool wear, (ii) reducing heat generation due to frictional forces at the cutting edges (matrix burn), and (iii) reducing laminated layers. It can be also seen in the diagram (Fig. 9) that up milling produces smaller cutting force when the fibre orientation is set up between =23 and =123, while down milling produces smaller cutting force when the fibre orientation is lower than =23 or bigger than =123.

The chip removal mechanisms are analysed and discussed in detail in many scientific works [54,55,56,57,58]. Four different chip removal mechanisms are associated with machining unidirectional fibre reinforced polymers, defined based on the actual fibre cutting angle. The mechanisms are mostly dominated by bending-induced fractures (Type I: =01), compression induced shear and interlaminar shear fractures (Type II: =452 and Type III: =903) and macro fractures (Type IV: =1354).

Different chip removal mechanisms require different cutting energy, the cutting force at different fibre cutting angles are therefore different. In the case of a milling process, the fibre cutting angle is not a constant value and it changes with the tool position, as illustrated in Fig. 10. It can be seen that at a certain set fibre orientation angle, the fibre cutting angle changes in a quite wide interval. The wideness of the interval depends on mainly the cutting width (ae) and the diameter of the tool (D). In the present study, the diameter of the cutting tool was D=50mm, while the cutting width was fixed to ae=3mm. In this case, the fibre cutting angle changes from (i) =28 to =0 in the case of down milling at =0 and (ii) =58 to =30 in the case of down milling at =30 etc., based on Fig. 10.

In the future, the influence of cutting width has to be analysed on a minimum of three levels in order to extend the applicability range of the present study. Furthermore, future experiments should be conducted using a special compression end mill, which is widely used by the industries.

In the present study, machining experiments were carried out in a hand-laminated, thick, unidirectional CFRP in order to analyse the dependence of cutting force on the fibre orientation. According to the present study, the following conclusions can be drawn:

Polynomial models were developed to analyse and describe the influence of the fibre orientation angle on cutting force for up and down milling unidirectional CFRP. The degree of the polynomials of the cutting force is calculated by regression analysis and validated by graphical adequate analysis.

It was observed that the fibre orientation does not have a significant effect on the passive force component during up and down milling; furthermore, the radial force component is more sensitive to the fibre orientation at up milling, than at down milling.

It was found that the cutting force as a function of the fibre orientation angle has a minimum; however, the minimum cutting force location is not the same for up and down milling: down,opt=123 for down and up,opt=156 for up milling when D=50mm and ae=3mm.

Results of the regression analysis showed that a opt=128 fibre orientation angle is suggested to be applied for cutting force minimisation for the industrially efficient UD-CFRP zig-zag tool path design.

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Open access funding provided by Budapest University of Technology and Economics. This research was partly supported by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NKFIH) No. OTKA-PD20-134430 and by the project Centre of Excellence in Production Informatics and Control (EPIC) No. EU H2020-WIDESPREAD-01-2016-2017-TeamingPhase2-739592. The research work introduced herein was partly supported by the Portugal-Hungarian bilateral scientific cooperation Project No. 2018-2.1.15-TT-PT-2018-00012 and by the BME NC TKP2020 grant of NKFIH Hungary.

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Geier, N. Influence of fibre orientation on cutting force in up and down milling of UD-CFRP composites. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 111, 881893 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-06163-3

milling cereals/legumes and stamping bread in mauretanian tamuda (morocco): an interdisciplinary study | springerlink

milling cereals/legumes and stamping bread in mauretanian tamuda (morocco): an interdisciplinary study | springerlink

Recent archaeological excavations (20162019) in the city of Tamuda (northern Morocco) yielded evidence of commercial milling and bread-making facilities dated to the Mauretanian period (first century BC). This article presents the results of the excavation of two Mauretanian buildings (E0 7 and E0 8) in the Eastern Quarter, in which evidence for flour milling and, indirectly, the preparation of bread were found. These buildings included four rooms used for milling (with low quern-stones of the rotary, saddle, and Pompeian types), as well as warehouses (full of amphorae) and other rooms of undetermined functions. Palynological analysis has indicated the milling of cereal, peas, and faba beans, while soil micromorphology revealed the roasting of hazelnuts and raised the possibility of using fish bones for the production of fish flour. Especially relevant was the discovery of a circular clay mold decorated with a heroic fishing scene, used for the decoration of bread and pies. These elements demonstrate the chane opratoire of bread-makingmilling, dough production and decoration, and other food processing activities. This is the first time that archaeometric techniques are applied to study milling facilities in Morocco, and it is the only known association of bread stamps and pre-Roman milling facilities in North Africa.

Des fouilles archologiques rcentes (2016-2019) dans la ville de Tamuda (nord du Maroc) ont fourni d'importantes niveaux archologiques datant de la priode Maurtanienne (1er sicle avant J.-C.) abandonnes dans des circonstances traumatisantes. Plus prcisment, cet article prsente les rsultats de l'excavation de deux btiments Maurtaniens (E0 7 et E0 8) dans le quartier oriental, dans lesquels des preuves de meunerie et, indirectement, de prparation de pain, ont t trouves. Ces btiments comprenaient quatre salles utilises pour le fraisage (broyeurs manuels de type rotatif, barquiformes et pompiens), ainsi que des entrepts (pleins d'amphores) et d'autres salles dont l'utilisation est incertaine. L'analyse palynologique a attest la mouture des crales, des pois et des fves; La micromorphologie du sol a rvl la torrfaction des noisettes et des artes de poisson, probablement lie la prparation de la farine de poisson. La dcouverte d'un moule en argile circulaire dcor d'une scne de pche hroque, utilise pour la dcoration du pain et / ou des gteaux, a t particulirement pertinente. Ces lments faisaient partie de la chane opratoire de la panification - mouture, dcoration de la pte, transformation des aliments - bien qu'il soit probable que le pain soit encore cuit dans des fours domestiques. C'est la premire fois que ces techniques archomtriques sont appliques aux meuleries au Maroc, et la seule association connue de timbres de pain et meules en Afrique du Nord.

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M.G.-R. thanks David Mattingly, Jos C. Carvajal, Sarah Morriss, and Danielle de Carle for their useful comments and facilities provided in the XRF laboratory in the School of Archaeology and Ancient History (University of Leicester), and Carolina Mallol for her comments on the manuscript. We thank our colleague, Nicols Monteix, Universit de Rouen, for his comments and suggestions.

This article is the outcome of the agreement signed by the Direction du Patrimoine of the Moroccan Ministry of Culture and the University of Cdiz. It resulted from projects GARVM III (PID2019-108948RB-I00) funded by the Spanish Government/Feder; ARQUEOFISH (P18-FR-1483) Programa de Ayudas a la I+D+i del Plan Andaluz de Investigacin, Desarrollo e Innovacin (PAIDI 2020); and ARQ-ANALYTICS (Proyectos Jvenes Investigadores Ceimar, 2019 call). The project is also supported by the 20142020 ERDF Operational Programme and by the Department of Economy, Knowledge, Business, and University of the Regional Government of Andalusia (FEDER-UCA18-104415 ARQUEOSTRA). Additional financial help has been received from the Ministry of Culture and Sports of the Spanish Government/Feder (Ayudas para Proyectos Arqueolgicos en el Exterior Program, 20162019) and Palarq Foundation (20182019). The palynological analysis was funded by project MED-REFUGIA-RTI2018-101714-B-I00 (Plan Nacional I+D+I, Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness). M.G.-R. is a member of the PAIDI Research Group, HUM 296: Roman and Late Roman Archaeology of Eastern Andalusia. The University of Granada provided a postdoctoral grant to M.G.-R. in the School of Archaeology and Ancient History of the University of Leicester (Programa de Perfeccionamiento de Doctores, Plan Propio del Vicerrectorado de Investigacin).

Bernal-Casasola, D., Bustamante-lvarez, M., Daz, J.J. et al. Milling Cereals/Legumes and Stamping Bread in Mauretanian Tamuda (Morocco): An Interdisciplinary Study. Afr Archaeol Rev 38, 175209 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10437-020-09413-7

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Solid models contain both wireframe and surface geometry forthe richest amount of geometric data. And solid models ensure accurate edge geometry between surfaces. With GibbsCAM Solids Import, you can extract a solid models wireframe geometry, which corresponds to the edges of a part, and directly machine from it. Or, if necessary, you can modify the extracted geometry before you machine it. Take advantage of solid model accuracy.

Sometimes, where you want to machine is not necessarily defined by an existing edge. With GibbsCAM Solids Import, you cangenerate wireframe geometry by cutting the solid with a plane. You can then machine or further manipulate the resulting geometry. Get solid capability built on solids technology.

Solids introduce a whole new range of capabilities from data exchange, to visualization, to machining, to verification. With GibbsCAM Solids Import, you can choose to add additional capabilities seamlessly, which further expands your solids-based technology. Read in CAD data in other solid formats like ACIS files, CATIA V4 or V5, Pro/ENGINEER, and STEP AP203 or AP214. Grow at your own pace while you protect your investment.

GibbsCAM 2.5D Solids includes significant surface and solid modeling capabilities and the functionality to machine surfaces and solids directly. Create, import, and modify solid models and then generate programs to machine them. Use specialized tools to import, repair, and automatically solidify surface data. Increase your efficiency and productivity by creatingCNC programs faster and more easily.

Whether you import solid models from a CAD system, create your own from scratch, or modify an imported solid to create a manufacturable version, GibbsCAM 2.5D Solids provides a full range of solid modeling functionality with advanced functionality like history trees to support you. And its industry-leading ease-of-use makes working with solids straightforwardand easy-to-understand. With its powerful solid modeling tools, you can take full advantage of solid modeling technology.

Even with the transition to solids, CAD systems still generatesurface models that must be imported and machined. With GibbsCAM 2.5D Solids, you can read in surface models and then repair any problems that you encounter with a broad range of surface modeling tools. And you can create your own surfaces for machining. If you still work with surface models, GibbsCAM 2.5D Solids can still cut your jobs and provide a great migration path to solids-based machining.

With GibbsCAM 2.5D Solids, you do not have to start with solid models to take advantage of solids-based machining. Automatically stitch surface models, whether imported or created, together to create solid models that can then be further modified with the GibbsCAMsolid modeling tools or machined directly. Access the tools you need to transition from surface-based to solids-based CAM.

Not only do solid models provide considerable advantages during design, but they also offer many advantages during machining. GibbsCAM developed machining functionalities so that users can machine solids directly and take advantage of the additional information available in solids, which results in improved performance, reliability, and efficiency.

Since solid models are the main building block within GibbsCAM 2.5D Solids, it supplies powerful positioning tools so you can position and orient solids quickly, easily, and precisely. Not only are these tools extremely useful when modeling a single part made up of multiple pieces, but they can streamline setting up part models in fixturing significantly. Focus on how things need to be placed, not how to calculate the rotations and transformations to get them there.

Identifying the manufacturable features in a part is a common starting point for a program.GibbsCAM 2.5D Solids includes the Profiler, an innovative interface that interactively defines features like bosses, slots, and pockets. Unlike automatic feature recognition, the Profiler gives you complete control over the geometric elements that are included in a feature. The Profiler can also derive geometry interactively for machining. Itsrobust, feature-based machining provides you with powerful programming tools.

Hole-making occupies close to 80 percentof machining time with most production machining jobs. Holes also represent a significant amount of programming time in production parts. Fortunately, holes are also fairly well-behaved features in solid models. GibbsCAM 2.5D Solids provides an automatic feature recognition (AFR) capability that identifies holes along with their position and orientation and also determines various hole aspects (chamfer, counter-sink/bore, bottom condition) based on the holes geometry. Leveragethe AFR capability toimprove your hole-making efficiency and quality.

Streamline hole-making productivity and improve overall quality. With hole-making occupying close to 80 percentof production parts machining time, how you identify, group, and program holes are extremely important. The Hole Manager is a front-end to processing hole features that displays the parameters of holes and enables you to group them for processing. The Hole AFR is integrated with the Hole Manager so that you can identify hole features to be directly loaded into it automatically. The Hole Wizard is similarly integrated so that hole information ispassed directly for automatic tooling and toolpath generation.

VoluMillfor GibbsCAM is an ultra-high performance toolpath (UHPT) option that uses a continuous, high-speed toolpath for an optimized CNC program. These powerful, high-speed, high-material-removal-rate capabilities can help you create the fastest, most efficient toolpath for a wide variety of milling part types in your shop. The process automatically takes into account the best option for milling pocketsincluding the tool speed plunging into the material and material removal rates. Variation in tool load is smoothed, which allows the machine to use much higher speeds and feeds.

An extension to the GibbsCAMintegrated Cut Part Rendering visualization/verification capability, Machine Simulation uses animated machine tool models to identify any program errors before they cause costly mistakes on the shop floor.

The SolidSurfacer option includes high-level surface and solids modeling capabilities and advanced functionality for machining surfaces and solids. Complex surface and solid functions are made easy with the intuitive GibbsCAM graphical user interface. Use the Advanced 3D with High-Speed Machining component of SolidSurfacer to create a toolpath that is ideal for hard-metal cutting and high-speed machining for smooth surface finishes. Use SolidSurfacer to address the demanding requirements of modeling and machining complex mold, tool, and die.

Though more and more parts files are provided in solid model format, surfaces still play a key part in their definition, and surface modeling for manufacturing is still a very important capability. SolidSurfacer provides extended surface modeling capabilities to handle surface creation or modification. And its powerful surface modeling functionality is easy to use.

You need to separate mold halves at the extents of the part to ensure that the part can be removed readily. Manually determining where the parting line should be can be a very tedious process. With SolidSurfacer, you can generate the correct parting line automatically and then use it to divide the mold halves easily.

Often parts include minor features that get in the way when generating toolpaths. You can suppress these features with the SolidSurfacerextract/heal feature capability, which removes the features geometry and heals the surrounding area. You can use the solid, which is generated from the suppressed feature,to create cores or electrodes.

You must consider different types of surfaces when machining:the surface that is actually being machined, the part surfaces not being machined, and any surfaces associated with fixtures. With SolidSurfacer, you canspecify the offset, or how closely the tool comes, for each of these surface types. So, youre in complete control when generating toolpaths.

Todays parts include a variety of forms and surfaces. Applying toolpaths across multiple surfaces or over an entire solid is a key machining capability, in addition to pocketing and profiling. With SolidSurfacer, you cancreate gouge-free, 3-axis toolpaths easily using a variety of machining styles like lace-cut and zig-zag. You have complete control over cut parameters like direction, orientation, step-over amount, and depth. With SolidSurfacer, you can machinemultiple surfaces quickly and easily.

Sometimes you want to have direct control of the toolpath over multiple surfaces. You generate the toolpath you want and then you project it onto the surfaces to be machined. The source for the toolpath geometry can be just about anything, including text. SolidSurfacer provides a powerful capability that allows you to project geometry onto surfaces to generate final toolpath geometry.

The GibbsCAM Rotary Milling option drives one rotary and three linear axes to achieve a 4-axis toolpath. It provides a roughing and a finishing mill process for off-centerline Y-axisrotary machining for control of wall angles and tool engagement. Input is 3D wire-frame geometry extracted from solids or created by other meansto drive and orient the tool. Optionally, you can use surfacesto orient the tool and limit toolpath.

Tool orientation control includes cutting with the side or bottom of the tool, using a surface or two curves to control tilt, following one curve at a specified lean angle, or using progressive tool lean. Typically, it segments the toolpath, but it can optimize the toolpathhelical motion.

The Polar and Cylindrical Milling option drives one rotary and two linear axes to achieve a 3-axis toolpath. It extends the standard 3-axis milling functions for use on machines with a rotary axis to enable wrapped geometry, cylindrical and polar rotary milling, and rotary repeats. On mills, rotation is typically around the A or B axis, while on mill-turn machines the C-axis motion replaces Y-axis motion. You can apply this C-axis motion to the face of a mill-turn part. The input may be flat or wrappedwireframe geometry.

Wrapped geometry is flat 2D geometrydisplayed and machined as if wrapped around a cylinder. You can create geometry in flat or wrapped mode and toggle between flat and wrapped representations. With this option, you can apply all 2D mill processes including contour, pocket, and drill to a cylinder. Because the tool is kept on the centerline of rotation, you cannot control wall angles or tool engagement.

This option also adds the rotary repeat function to milling processes. Output for long, multiple rotations is on a single line of G-code. Post-processed output can support a controls cylindrical and polar interpolation functions. This option is ideal for parts defined by flat geometry, for rotary part features created by the tools shape likesimple grooves or pockets that do not need wall control),and for machines without a Y axis.

The GibbsCAM 5-axis option supports simultaneous 4- and 5-axis machining with various tool types. In combination with GibbsCAM MTM, it also supports sophisticated multi-task machines with live tooling on articulated heads. It includes various machining styles and machining strategies for roughing and finishing, with full tool-axis control, plus application-specific functions such as projection, swarf, electrode, impeller, turbine, and cylinder-head machining.

For additional accuracy, the 5-axis option provides collision detection and gouge checking for various tool shapes, with appropriate avoidance options. Toolpath is verifiedon the flywith the integrated GibbsCAM Cut Part Rendering, while GibbsCAM Machine Simulation provides further verification with a dynamic display of work piece, cutting tools, and all machine-tool components in motion.

An addition to GibbsCAM 5-Axis Milling, 5-Axis Porting is optimized to simplify machining ports, manifolds, throttle bodies, and any tubular openings that change shape and curvature from end to end. Its specialized interface uses only the settings needed for porting operations, which makes programming easier and faster. Machining strategies include roughing, rest roughing, and spiral and plunge-along finishing. To control excessive machine motion, 5-Axis Porting uses 3-axis machining as far into the port as possibleand then automatically transitions to full 5-axis to allow for maximum tool reach.

It can automatically detect the spine curve through the port and properly align the toolpath. Determin the upper and lower sections of the port automatically, using maximum tool reach, at the midpointor by a user-specified percent of reach, always ensuring proper toolpath blending between upper and lower sections.

An addition to GibbsCAM 5-Axis Milling, GibbsCAM 5-Axis MultiBlade is optimized for programming machining centers and multi-tasking machines (MTMs) to make turbomachinery parts. It simplifies machining parts with blades including blisks, belongs, and impellers. Easily select geometry without having to prepare the model with its specialized,condensed interface. Choose from two functionality levels for yourtype of work or level of specialization.

Level 1includes parts with single splittersand toolpath strategies that include roughing between blades with single splitter support, hub finishing, blade and splitter finishing, and automatic gouge checking on all toolpaths. Itincludes options for leading- and trailing-edge extension and edge-roll trimming, tilt controls, various intelligent controls for rotating toolpath segments around the part, automatic axis detection, and automatic and user-definable links and clearances.

Level 2adds support for multiple splitters and sub-splitters; blade fillet machining; tool-axis smoothing; splitter smoothing; additional control for tilt, leading, and trailing edges; toolpath segment sorting; and the ability to define stock for rest milling. Whether toolpath is generated for multi-task machines or machining centers, both levels of 5-Axis MultiBlade use the same post processors as GibbsCAM 5-Axis and the same simulation models in GibbsCAM Machine Simulation.

Specifically designed to address the CNC programming requirements of complex, multi-task machining (MTM)tools, GibbsCAM MTM gives you powerful programming tools that are easy to learn and use with the ultimate in flexibility.

Considering buying a multi-task machine or wondering if you are making the most of the one you already own? Download the What You Need to Know About Programming MTM Machines white paper to get answers.

Multi-task machine tools represent some of the most diverse machine tool configurations available today. With GibbsCAM MTM, your machine tools specific configuration is captured by factory-supplied settings so that you are programming all its capabilities accurately. This way you can ensurethat you are taking full advantage of your machine tool for maximum productivity.

Todays multi-task machine tools incorporate a wide variety of spindle and turret combinations with no end in sight. A two-spindle, two-turret configuration is fairly common for machines, with more than two spindles or turrets becoming more and more common. GibbsCAM MTM supports an unlimited number of turrets and spindles so you can keep pace with advances in multi-task machines.

Previously, multi-task machine tools were mainly high-end turning centers with two spindles and tool holders that sometimes includeda light-use live tooling capability. Though these are still common, multi-task machine tools now incorporate more substantial live-tooling support so that you can perform more extensive milling operations. You can combine GibbsCAM MTM with any of the GibbsCAM milling options to support your multi-task machine tools complete range of milling operations.

Swiss-style machine tools are becoming extremely popular, especially for ultra-high-precision parts. Like other types of multi-task tools, Swiss-style machine tools have evolved radically and represent some of the most complex MTM configurations available. GibbsCAM MTM supports Swiss-style multi-task machine tools and provides an easy-to-use tool for programming these complex devices. With GibbsCAM MTM, supporting your Swiss-style machine tools is straight forward.

Bar feeders, parts catchers, and sub spindles are just a few of the ancillary devices on a multi-task machine tool that require non-cutting utility operations to control. GibbsCAM MTM supports the entire range of utility operations used by your machine tool so that you havefull control all the way to posted output.

Unlike single cutting tool machine tools, multi-task machine tools apply multiple tools across one or more spindles at the same time, often in a synchronized fashion. Manually coordinating multiple process flows requires understanding many details and interdependencies. The GibbsCAM MTMSync Manager provides an easy-to-understand, intuitive graphical interface that allows you to focus on optimizing your process. The Sync Manager handles all the underlying complexities for you. Programming multiple processes has never been easier or more efficient.

With the complexity of multi-flow, multi-task processes, it is extremely important to verify programs before they become expensive mistakes on your machine tools. The GibbsCAM MTM integrated Cut Part Rendering allows you to verify your programs visually, fully simulating multiple tools cutting at the same time. You can detect gouges andobserve your program efficiency so that you can make adjustments to further optimizeyour program. See it before you machine it.

GibbsCAM Post Processors are developed to maximize the efficiency of your CNC Machine and ensure high quality NC code. GibbsCAM and its worldwide Reseller network has the knowledge and experience to provide fast, personalized technical support to ensure your production is continuous and your productivity is uncompromised.

The Tombstone Management System (TMS) was developed specifically to simplify and streamline the multi-part setup, programming, toolpath verification, and post processing for tombstone machining. Within a single, interactivegraphic interface, the TMS dialog provides all the options and flexibility required for CNC programmers to specify and modify machining strategiesand generate efficient, error-free G-code ready for your machines.

TMS provides tools for choosing among these optionsand automatically sorts the toolpath so that it can be verified and tested. Easily correct any problems by returning to the TMS dialog and making the necessary modification.

By enhancing TMS with GibbsCAM Machine Simulation, the programmer can render and dynamically simulate the entire setup including tombstone, parts, fixtures, tools, tool holders, and all moving machine tool components to test for interference, collision, and cycle time. Simulation also tracks X-Y-Z positions to prevent tools from exceeding a machines travel limits.

production line separator - all industrial manufacturers - videos

production line separator - all industrial manufacturers - videos

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... bottom of separator housing as condensate. The turbulent free zone in the lower part of the filter housing prevents condensate from being picked up and carried over into the airstream. To discharge condensate from the ...

The jigging machine from Binder+Co works according to the principle where the sorting effect is based on the different initial settling movement of the grains. It is the plant of choice when it comes to separating wood and lights from ...

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External body of separator is made of GG20 and all the surfaces olive oil contacts are made of AISI 304 inox material appropriate to the food instructions. Especially for the bowl unit forged dublex material is choosen. Owing ...

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For Coolant and Other Water-based Fluids Removing tramp oil is key to coolant longevity. It's a food for bacteria and emulsifies into the coolant. These conditions lead to coolant breakdown, creating even more problems (see our Coolant ...

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