mineral processing equipment for chrome ore in philippines

chromite beneficiation process

chromite beneficiation process

Experience indicates that chrome ores are concentrated to best advantage by gravity methods. Since recoveries are generally very poor in the fine sizes, the gravity flowsheet must be designed to remove the chrome as soon as liberated by crushing and grinding. For example, if the chrome is not entirely freed until the ore is minus 16 mesh, it is obvious that the plus 16 mesh particles should be removed after stage crushing and grinding to prevent further reduction of the chrome and consequent loss in the fine sizes.

The crushing section for this 250 ton per day chrome mill consists of a coarse ore grizzly, a coarse ore bin with pan feeder to a 18 reduction crusher and a crusher discharge conveyor to a crushed ore bin. On this particular ore, we find that there is no chrome liberated in sizes larger than .

The 36x 8 Adjustable Stroke Ore Feeder is used to accurately control feed of crushed ore to the grinding section. Before it is fed to the 4x 8 Peripheral Discharge Rod Mill, the minus chrome ore is removed from the grinding circuit by means of a 4x 12 Dillon Vibrating Screen. This minus product is then ready for concentration in the Mineral Jigs.

The Vibrating Screen oversize is ground in the Steel Head Rod Mill. A rod mill with the peripheral discharge feature is preferred for this application because the rapid-pass design produces a minimum of the undesirable fines. The discharge from the rod mill returns to the Dillon Vibrating Screen by means of a Belt Bucket Elevator, so that a closed circuit grinding arrangement is obtained.

The minus undersize from the Vibrating Screen is divided to feed two identical, parallel jigging circuits, each consisting of l6x 24 Duplex Mineral Jig used for roughing and a I6x 24 Duplex Mineral Jig used as a scavenger. Automatic Density Discharge Control Valves on the hutches of the scavenger Mineral Jig provide a controlled, continuous, high-density feed to a l6x 24 Duplex Mineral Jig used for final cleaning.

A final, cleaned concentrate is produced by the two cleaner Mineral Jigs and also a middling product which is re-circulated back to the scavenger jigs. This procedure is preferable to the immediate regrinding of the middlings as it avoids the further reduction of relatively pure chrome particles which are bound to be present.

The tailing from the scavenger Mineral Jig is directed to a 30x 13 Simplex Cross-Flow Classifier which discards a waste product as a final tailing at minus 65 mesh and the sand product is returned to the rod mill for further grinding. A SRL Sand Pump is used to pump the Mineral Jig Tailings to the Cross-Flow Classifier.

This flowsheet is very effective due to the ability to remove the high grade chrome with very littlegrinding on each pass through the mill. In this way, grinding takes place with a large number of small reductions followed byimmediate removal of the liberated chrome into a high grade concentrate.

In the concentration of certain chrome ores, high grade chrome particles are sometimes liberated at sizes larger than , For the concentration of these large size chrome particles, the Improved Harz Type Jig is indicated.

In the flowsheet described here, there is a minimum amount of valuable chrome in the classifier overflow and accordingly this product is sent to waste. However, conditions may justify the installation of slime concentrating tables and Tilting Concentrators.

chromium ore - an overview | sciencedirect topics

chromium ore - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Chromium ores are often classified based on their elemental composition and industrial use into: high-chromium (4655% Cr2O3, Cr:Fe >2.1) used for metallurgical processes, high-iron (4046% Cr2O3, Cr:Fe 1.52.1) used for chemical and metallurgical purposes, and high-aluminum (3338% Cr2O3, 2234% Al2O3) used widely as refractory material [1].

Knowledge of the chromium ore minerals proper and their associated rocks-forming minerals is needed to explore new chromite fields and to predict the efficiency of individual methods for the beneficiation of chromite ores. It is important also to know the physicochemical properties of individual mineral fractions of chromite ores and preparation of ore (or concentrates) for electric smelting, the fabrication of refractory materials, and the production of chemical compounds of chromium. The leading minerals of common chrome ores are chromium spinelides, which belong to the spinel group (natural spinel mineral MgAl2O4). All of these minerals crystallize in space group Fd3m. The spinel group includes not only oxides, but also certain sulfides Cr3S4, FeCr2S4 (daubreelite), and others. A unit cell of a spinel lattice contains 8 AB2O4 units (i.e., A8B16O32). These 32 oxygen atoms constitute the closest cubic packing of 64 tetrahedral and 32 octahedral positions (Fig. 8.13). Out of 96 cation sites per unit cell, only 24 are included in this face-centered cubic cell.

A distinction is drawn between normal, inverse, and mixed structures of spinel. In a normal spinel, bivalent A2+ cations occupy tetrahedral sites and trivalent B3+ cations are located in octahedral sites. In inverse spinels, the octahedral A2+ cations occupy tetrahedral positions, and half of the B3+ cations (in the ideal case) are in octahedral sites. The normal and inverse arrangements of cations in natural spinels represent the ultimate limits of spinel structures when the spinel structural formula is presented in the form (BxA1-x)tetr.(AxB2-x)octO4. Normal spinel has x=0 and inverse spinel has x=1. Natural spinels are usually classified into four mineral species as series with Al3+, Fe3+, Cr3+, and Ti4+. All spinels with normal and inverse structures form solid solutions that are stable at certain temperatures and pressures (Lyakishev and Gasik, 1998).

For example, chromites from certain ore deposits in Kazakhstan include chromium spinelides with a predominant content of (Mg, Fe)Cr2O4, which contains some Al3+ in octahedral sites. The structural formula of chromium spinelides might be expressed as (Mg5.44Fe2.568)(Cr12.64Al2.78Fe0.58)O32. The composition ratios of chromium spinelides from different countries are shown in Table 8.2.

The following minerals might accompany chromium spinelides: chrome dioxide, chrome actinolite, chrome garnet (uvarovite Ca3Cr2Si3O12), kammererite (Mg,Fe2+)5Al(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8, clinochlore (Mg,Fe2+)5Al(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8, rhodochrome, serpentine (chrysolite 3MgO2SiO22H2O), chrysolite asbestos, actinolite Ca2(Mg,Fe2+)5Si8O22(OH,F)2, magnetitecalcite MgCO3CaCO3, antigorite (Mg,Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4 olivine (A,B)2SiO4, magnetite Fe3O4, quartz, opal, pyrite FeS2, chalcopyrite CuFeS2, goethite FeOOH, limonite (FeO(OH) nH2O), and hydrous ferruginous aluminosilicates. Chromite ores of certain deposits contain minerals of the platinum group (Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, and Rh), especially in South Africa and Zimbabwe, often found as inclusions in chromite silicate matrix.

The mineral and gangue components have different magnetic susceptibilities, which makes it possible to use various magnetic separation methods. Typical values of magnetic susceptibility of chromium spinelides in Kazakhstan deposits are 35 to 70. Gangue minerals might have much higher values (asbestos with fine magnetite inclusions has 2260) or much lower values (chlorides 10 to 11, magnesite 2.5, calcite 5).

Depending on the concentration of chromium spinelides and overall composition of chromium ore (i.e., the content of Cr2O3), the deposits are subdivided by way of convention into commercial and noncommercial types (Table 8.3). High grades might be essentially processed without or with a little dressing procedure; other types require proper dressing technologies.

Chromium ores are also subdivided according to their physical state (strong, friable, pulverized, and silicified) and the chromites grain size (coarse 7 to 15 mm, medium 1 to 7, and fine<1 mm). So-called strong ores occupy ~80% of all chromite ores, friable ores occupy ~10%, and pulverized and silicified ores occupy 5% each (Lyakishev and Gasik, 1998).

The ores of certain sites might be enriched with or depleted in Cr2O3, as well as complementary SiO2, A12O3, MgO, Fe2O3, and CaO, even though they retained their original textural and structural characteristics. That makes it difficult to carry out selective mining and beneficiation. Therefore, it is essential to carry out the classification of chromium ores from commercial deposits, so as to be able to choose the most effective methods and parameters for dressing processes, to utilize ores and concentrates for smelting specific types of chromium ferroalloys, and to obtain chromium compounds and refractory materials.

This process has been operated at Chiba Steelworks, Kawasaki Steel Corporation (currently JFE Steel Corporation) since 1994. In this steelworks, stainless steel is produced by smelting reduction process of chromium ore with hot metal produced at a BF in a specialized converter-type furnace. Stainless steel dust containing Cr and Ni is generated from this smelting process. STAR process treats such dust and FeCrNi metal is recovered and recycled at stainless steel production. Figure 4.4.21 shows the schematic diagram of the process. The furnace is a coke-packed shaft furnace with upper and lower tuyeres. Collected wet dust is conveyed as slurry. After drying, dust in powder form is injected with oxygen-enriched hot blast air at 1123K through upper tuyeres. Dust is melted and metal oxides are reduced during dripping down in packed coke between upper and lower tuyeres. The yield of metallic Cr reaches 98% due to its highly reducing condition.

Chromium is the 21st most abundant element in the earths crust with an average concentration of 100g/g. Although approximately 40 chromium-containing minerals are known, the only one of economic importance is chromite (FeOCr2C3). Chromium ores are often classified based on their elemental composition and industrial use into: high-chromium (4655% Cr2O3, Cr:Fe >2.1) used for metallurgical processes, high-iron (4046% Cr2O3, Cr:Fe 1.52.1) used for chemical and metallurgical purposes, and high-aluminum (3338% Cr2O3, 2234% Al2O3) used widely as refractory material [1]. More than 1 billion tons (430 million tons of chromium metal) of the worlds chromite reserves are located in South Africa. The world mine production of chromium in 1983 totaled 8.1 million tons [15]. Because more than 90% of the chromium reserves are in developing countries, and East-Europe and the U.S.S.R. countries and the principal consumer nations produce very little, chromium is a classic example of a strategic mineral as evidenced by a review of the historical trend of chromite production. Chromium is stockpiled by industrialized countries with about 5 million tons being stored in the U.S.A. [16].

The demand for chromium is dictated by the economic conditions of the steel industry which dominates the use of this metal. The three principal industrial uses for chromium each year are 76% for metallurgical, 13% for refractory, and 11% for chemical applications [17]. The metallurgical industry uses 44% of the total chromium it utilizes for the production of stainless and heat resistant steels [18]. The use of chromium for the production of refractories is the result of the high melting point (2040C) and the chemical inertness of chromite. Chromite is, therefore, useful in the production of refractory bricks, and mortars used in high-temperature furnaces [2]. The chemical industry produces more than 70 different chromium compounds for commercial use. Those produced in the largest quantities include: sodium chromate, potassium chromate, potassium dichromate, ammonium dichromate, chromic acid, and basic chromic sulfate used primarily for tanning leather [1,19,20]. Chromium compounds are used to prevent corrosion, improve product durability, and to provide high quality paints. Pigments for paints are often made from chromate and are used to provide color (lead chromates) or for corrosion inhibition (zincchromates) [15,21]. Chromates are also used as rust and corrosion inhibitors in engines and chromium compounds are added to antifreeze to inhibit corrosion and stop the growth of algae [1]. Chromic acid is used primarily for plating and is also used for photoengraving and offset printing. Many chromium compounds play a significant role in research serving as catalysts for chemical reactions and are commonly found in research laboratories.

The Morensky-type deposits can be found in very large bodies of basaltic magma, which were intruded into stable continental rock. An example includes the Busheld Complex in South Africa and the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe. Mineralization similar to the above is also found in the Stillwater Complex in Montana, USA.

The Busheld Complex consists of varieties of ore types, including high-chromium ores, ore with floatable gangue minerals and small but significant quantities of ultrafine slimes that are important from a processing point of view.

The Stillwater Complex consists of a sequence of differential layers of mafic and ultramafic rocks, which extend for a strike length of up to 40km and has a maximum exposed thickness of about 7.4m [3]. There are several mineralization zones at the Stillwater Complex, including a PGM-rich zone and a low-grade zone. The Stillwater ore that is processed nowadays contains olivine, plagioclase, as well as plagioclase-brauzite, all of which are naturally hydrophobic gangue minerals.

Another similar origin deposit is Lac des Illes in Canada. This complex is apparently contrary to a somewhat general rule in that of intrusion and is regarded as Archean age and may be therefore intruded prior to the Kenora origin into a technically unstable environment.

Chromium was discovered in 1797 by the French chemist Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, in a mineral that became known as crocoite, PbCrO4. A year later, he isolated chromium metal by reducing the oxide with carbon. Soon after, the commercial process for manufacturing chromates by roasting chromite with soda ash was developed. A process was developed in 1893 by Henri Moissan to produce ferrochromium in an electric furnace by the reaction of chromium oxide and carbon. In 1898, the German chemist Hans Goldschmidt produced chromium by the aluminothermic reduction of Cr2O3. Other advances have included the production of chromium by aqueous electrolysis in 1954.

Chromite is the only commercial source of chromium. Large deposits are found in Turkey and Albania. The most important applications of chromium ores are in the manufacture of stainless steel, gray cast iron, iron-free high-temperature alloys, and chromium plating for surface protection. The chemical industry uses chromium ores in the production of chromium compounds for the tanning of leather.

Chromium is extracted from its ores by two processes. In the alkaline process, the finely ground ore is roasted with Na2CO3 under oxidizing conditions at 1100 C. The sodium chromate is leached from the calcine. The solution is reduced with SO2 and used for electrowinning, or Na2Cr2O7 is crystallized then converted to Cr2O3 for chromium production by aluminothermic reaction. In the acidic process, the ore is either leached with sulfuric acid or reduced to form ferrochromium, which is ground and dissolved in sulfuric acid. Iron is removed by crystallization as ferrous ammonium sulfate. The chromium in the solution is used to produce electrolytic chromium.

Aluminum is the most important reducing agent for producing chromium from Cr2O3. Aluminum powder and Cr2O3 are blended and charged into a vessel lined with Al2O3 refractory. The charge is ignited electrically. The exothermic reaction results in a temperature >2000 C, which leads to a clean separation of slag from metal. Chromium is also produced by carbon reduction in a furnace at 1400 C. The carbon and oxygen contents are 1.5%.

In the electrolytic process, a diaphragm is necessary to prevent migration of Cr(VI) into the cathode compartment. Flow is maintained into the anode compartment from the cathode compartment by a higher level of solution in the latter. The pH of the catholyte must be controlled. At too low a value, H2 evolution increases; at too high a value, precipitation of Cr(OH)3 occurs. Chromium is plated onto stainless steel cathodes until it attains a thickness of ca. 3 mm. The plate is stripped from the cathode and degassed by heating at 420 C.

For many applications the oxygen content of the electrolytic chromium is too high. Deoxidation is carried out on a commercial scale by two techniques. In the first, either flake or briquettes of powdered flake are contacted with H2 at elevated temperature. The second technique involves heating briquettes of ground electrolytic flake and carefully controlled trace amounts of C in a vacuum furnace at 1400 C to form CO. The product is cooled in helium to prevent contamination.

Chromium occurs in nature primarily as ferrous chromite (FeCr2O4), where chromium is in the chromic (Cr(III)) state. Rivers and lakes contain 110gl1 Cr. Outdoor rural air contains <10ngm3 on average, and urban areas can contain up to 30ngm3 Cr. Soil concentrations range from trace to 250mgkg1. On average, 200000 tons of chromium is released into the environment annually by the natural weathering processes.

The first uses of Cr were in plating of swords, both in ancient China and by the Hittites in Egypt (1300 BC). The metallurgy industry is the predominant user of Cr ores today. Ferrochromium is manufactured by the reduction of the ore. In 2007, the world production of chromite was 20 million tons (U.S. Geological Survey 2008). The world resources of chromite are greater than 12 billion tons, and this is, according to the U.S. Geological Survey governmental agency, sufficient to meet conceivable demand for centuries. Ferrochromium and Cr metal are the most significant classes of Cr used in the alloy industry, as the anticorrosive property of chromium is highly desirable in steel alloys, stainless steel, and electroplating. Other applications of chromium agents are in wood preservatives, agricultural antifungicides, antifreeze, porcelain and glassmaking, anticorrosive paints, and photoengraving (Langard and Costa 2007).

The latest assessment of occupational exposure by the U.S. Department of Public Health and Human Services (PHHS) estimated the number of workers exposed to Cr to range from 300000 to 550000 (ATSDR 2000). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has determined that the toxicological effect on the human body is similar from Cr(VI) in any of the substances covered under the scope of this standard, regardless of the form or compound in which it occurs (OSHA 2004). Many states have set permissible exposure limits (PELs) considerably lower than those set by federal agencies. Steel mills can reach levels of 1220gm3 of ambient chromium indoors. Settling of fly ash and chromium-containing industrial sewage deposition contaminate water sources. Drinking water standards are 100gl1 as set by the US EPA.

Chromium is found in all human organs of adults as well as newborns. Uptake of Cr(VI) through inhalation or ingestion is much quicker than that of Cr(III). The reason for the difference in cellular uptake has to do with the geometry of the two species: Cr(VI) is a tetrahedral structure whereas Cr(III) is octahedral, for which cellular uptake mechanisms do not exist.

Animal experiments indicate that Cr(III) is poorly absorbed from the digestive tract. Human absorption of Cr(VI) is quite variable between individuals and within an individual at different times. Cr concentrations are generally highest in the lung tissue. Cr is excreted predominantly through the urine. Because Cr(VI) compounds are more soluble and more toxic than Cr(III) compounds, and because the stomach has a greater capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), absorption of chromium in the lung tissue (by inhalation) is more dangerous to health than through the diet or drinking water.

Most of the reduction reactions taking place in the submerged arc furnace are highly endothermic and are listed in Table 1.10.1 along with standard Gibbs free energies as a function of temperature. Table 1.10.1 also lists for various reactions the temperature at which the CO pressure is one atmosphere, under standard state conditions for the reactants and products. In actual smelting practice, the reduction temperature will be raised if the oxide is chemically combined in the gangue, and lowered if the reaction product can dissolve in the ferrochromium alloy.

The data in Table 1.10.1 indicate that at these smelting temperatures, iron, chromium, and silicon form stable carbides. In the case of Cr2O3, it first reacts with carbon to form higher carbide, Cr7C3, which reacts back at higher temperatures with Cr2O3 to form lower carbide Cr23C6. This reaction occurs at approximately the same temperature as that required for reducing silica to SiC.

In submerged arc smelting, the carbon content of the ferrochromium is generally high and varies significantly because of the formation of various chromium carbides such as Cr3C2, Cr7C3, and Cr23C6. Table 1.10.2 shows the stability ranges for the reduction products and also the carbon contents of the carbides. The data indicate that temperatures over 1600C are necessary to achieve carbon content under 9%.

As mentioned earlier, chromite ores contain iron oxides and gangue that have significant effects on the reduction reactions in submerged arc smelting. Studies on solid-state reduction of chromite have shown that the iron oxides get reduced more readily than the chrome oxides. Under such conditions, iron forms only one carbide Fe3C, which can dissolve chromium to form a complex carbide (Cr,Fe)7C3. Thus, an ore rich in iron oxide will have high reducibility at relatively low temperatures. Accordingly, the reduction of chromic oxide in such ores will also occur at relatively lower temperatures with the likely formation of a carbon-rich chrome carbide (Cr3C2 or Cr7C3) known to be stable at lower temperatures.

The gangue present in a chromium ore has a significant effect on the temperature of the smelting zone, thereby influencing the carbon content of the ferroalloy. An ore having a relatively high MgO content will require a higher smelting temperature. Further, if silica flux addition is reduced or lime is added, the liquidus temperature of the slag will increase thus promoting high-smelting temperatures.

It has been argued that, because of their high surface-to-volume ratio, fine ores react readily at low temperatures forming a product high in carbon. The use of chromitecarbon agglomerates is reported to have produced high-carbon ferrochromium since they start reacting at lower temperatures. On the other hand, coarse-sized ores will not be as reactive and thus can survive to a lower depth in the burden and react with high carbon alloy, thereby promoting an LC ferrochromium.

One method proposed for minimizing the carbon content of the ferrochromium is to create a region in the furnace that is oxidizing to the chromium carbide with the use of a high-density high-smelting ore. The high density (~4g/cm3) will allow it to pass through the low density slag (~3g/cm3) and form a chromic oxide-rich layer above the molten ferrochromium. Such an ore layer can oxidize the chromium carbides. Further, due to its viscosity it will remain in the furnace even after tapping. This explains how relatively LC levels can be obtained with the use of dense, lumpy, low reducibility ores.

The silicon content of the ferrochromium should be low as it is an undesirable element in stainless steels. Low silicon content is favored by a low operating temperature, high carbon content in the ferroalloy and a basic slag. Other impurities are not known to affect the silicon content significantly. In general, the specifications for ferrochromium call for a silicon level below 3%. This can be achieved by utilizing the idea, mentioned earlier, of forming a layer of chromic oxide ore in the lower portion of the slag, which oxidizes some silicon in addition to carbon.

Thus, with increase in coke rate, the relative amount of SiO(g), and consequently, silicon in the metal will also increase. It is believed that under the highly reducing conditions in the submerged arc furnace, the silicon content of the ferrochromium would also depend on the silica content of the ash in the carbonaceous reductant used.

Phosphorous is detrimental to both the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of stainless steels. In the submerged arc smelting of chromite ore, a portion of the phosphorus contained in the charge is vaporized and removed with the off-gas; however, up to 60% can be retained in the alloy, For low phosphorous levels (<0.02%) in ferrochromium, the phosphorus content of the raw materials should be as low as possible. Also a relatively low operating temperature will promote removal of phosphorus into the slag phase, especially under oxidizing conditions. However, due to the highly reducing and hot conditions in the submerged arc furnace, there are no easy ways to produce a low-phosphorus ferrochromium from high phosphorus ore/coke.

Even though several studies have been made on removal of phosphorus from liquid ferrochromium using fluxes such as CaF2CaC2 and CaCaF2, industrial practices mostly rely upon the use of imported low-phosphorus metallurgical coke as a preventive measure.

production line, mineral processing, concentration of ore - xinhai

production line, mineral processing, concentration of ore - xinhai

Gold CIL process (carbon in leach) is an efficient method of extracting and recovering gold from its ore. By cyaniding and carbon leaching crushed gold ore slurry simultaneously, CIL process lowers the gold mining operation cost and increases gold recovery rate to 99%, which is the first choice of modern gold mining and gold beneficiation plant.

The hematite processing line adopting stage grinding and stage separation for high separation efficiency. The combination of strong magnetic separation and reverse flotation process ensures the concentrate grade and environmental protection.

Quartz sand purification is removal of a small amount of impurities and the high difficulty separation technique to obtain refined quartz sand or high purity quartz sand. The purification technologies of quartz sand at home and abroad are washing, classifying and desliming, scrubbing, magnetic separation, flotation, acid leaching, microbial leaching, etc.

The precious metal minerals are mainly gold and silver mines. Xinhai Mining has more than 20 years of experience in beneficiation for gold and silver mines, especially gold ore beneficiation technology, gold gravity selection process and placer gold selection process.

With Class B design qualification, Xinhai can provide accurate tests for more than 70 kinds of minerals and design a reasonable beneficiation process. In addition, Xinhai can also provide customized complete set of mineral processing equipment and auxiliary parts.

Xinhai can provide the whole and one-stop mineral processing plant service for clients, solving all the mine construction, operation, management problems, devoting to provide modern, high-efficiency, and energy-saving mine roject construction and operation solution for clients away from worries.

Through mineral processing experiment, the mineral processing flow is customized. Multiple tests are carried out in every link, and make sure the final processing flow to guarantee the successful mineral processing plant construction. From every details, Xinhai builds green high-efficiency mineral processing plant for mineral processing plant.

According to tailing processing technology, Xinhai has tailings reprocessing technology and tailings dry stacking. Tailings dry stacking is the self-launched tailings dewatering technology, which is the effective technology in green mine construction.

mineral processing equipment

mineral processing equipment

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Majola has over 20 years of experience in mining and extractive metallurgy. He has held a wide range of positions in the mineral processing industry, including Production Metallurgist, Senior Plant Metallurgist and in sales. Bheka has been with Multotec since 2013.

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